Keywords: counselling in education, institution guidance
Guidance simply means instructions or direction. As the dictionary meaning, "Guidance" means; help and advice about how exactly to take action or about how to deal with problems linked with your projects, education, or personal connections. This term is tightly related to with the vocation of education as it is noticeable from these definitions. For that reason a loose classification of "Guidance" specifically about education can be explained as "Information that is provided by the mentor or educator for your client to assist the training of skills better".
A term comparable to assistance but different in some ways is called "Counseling". The ACA (1997), implemented "Counseling" as the application of mental health, emotional, or real human development principles, which are completed through cognitive, affective, behavioral or organized involvement strategies that addresses wellness, personal growth, or job development, as well as pathology.
Gustad, John W. Berdie, Ralph F. (1953), described Guidance as a learning-centered process, carried on face to face in a relax environment. With this atmosphere a professionally competent counselor, looks for to aid the client by the appropriate solutions to the client's needs. The aim of this process is to find out about himself and recognize himself and have an idea about how exactly to place such understanding into result in relation to more clearly recognized, realistically defined goals. Thus, at the end of this process, the client could become a happier plus more productive member of his world.
According to Sears, Susan Jones - Coy, Doris Rhea. (1991), in the educational aspect, Counseling could be defined as helping students to make them gain skills or competencies in a few important domains such as personal-social, educational, and career domains. The guidance in schools should include allocating quite a lot of time to market or team-teach developmental learning activities in the classrooms.
In the school context, in order to manage reliable counselling to the students some issues should be emphasized highly in the counseling programs. For instance; Personal-Social Skills, Job Development Skills and Educational Skills of the students should be reviewed in complete and carefully. Furthermore, while counselors trying to aid the students, in addition they must check with with parents, teachers, other educators, and various community businesses with the aim of to help these students to cope with much more serious personal and educational problems, both individually and in small categories. ( Sears, Susan Jones - Coy, Doris Rhea, 1991)
Although today "Counseling & Advice" can be an essence in any grade of the school, actually it is a comparatively new facet of education when the great experience in the field of teaching is likened. Jesse B. Davis, first men who provided a systematical university information program as a curriculum into an English course achieve it only at the start of the 20th century. This late appearance of counselling can be discussed by the pioneer's and fans' claims. Davis reasons his accomplishment after his being backed by a non-partisan school board in which Sears and Coy (1991) decided by emphasizing the influence of the nature of university systems and principals and other administrators' perception about counselling, in their article "The Opportunity of Practice of the Extra School Counselor".
When School Guidance term first used in the first 1900s, it was actually discussing "Vocational Guidance". Lambie (2004) expresses that this advice was similar to today's "Job Counseling" with a focus on the change from college to work, offering importance to a proper client - profession match. It was just an development for the post-school vocational adjustments of young people as Super (1955) suggested. What he did is described in "School Counselor Job Explanation" (Garland, 2008); "In 1907, Jesse B. Davis became the main of a higher school and prompted the school English teachers to work with compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and prevent behavioral problems. From that grew organized advice programs, which later changed into comprehensive college counseling programs that talk about three basic domains: academics development, profession development, and personal/social development".
According to Schmidt (2003) Frank Parsons, who is generally referenced as the "Father of Assistance" was also concentrating on encouraging the young's move into the right vocation based on a mutual advantage between the young's wishes and capabilities and an occupation's requirements and environment when he first opened his guidance clinic in Boston in January, 1908. Parsons in his publication "Choosing a Vocation" expressed his target in advice in three concepts;
- A clear understanding of yourself, your interests, skills, aptitudes, ambitions, resources, limitations, and their triggers.
- Knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, reimbursement, opportunities, and potential clients of different lines of work.
- True reasoning on the relation of these two sets of facts.
Lambie (2004) states that E. G. Williamson widened Parsons' vocation assistance rules and created the "Characteristic and Factor theory" which was the first instruction and counseling theory in the 1930s. This theory simply means matching of personal capabilities and aptitudes and job factors like salary and atmosphere and this type of counseling is known as "Directive" or "Counselor-Centered". Later in his publication "How exactly to Counsel Students" (1939), Williamson expressed that he and his colleagues were associated with the directive or counselor-centered approach to school counseling. According to this procedure, school advisors need to provide students with information and gather facts to impact and motivate at the same time. Matching to Lambie (2004) this directive administrative design of working with students continues to be an expectation of school advisors in the settings where school advisors expected to permit desired student habit with minimal source or contextual effect.
According to what Burnham (2003) mentioned; as a historical truth until World Warfare I which offered more reasons to test individuals, the term seriously used was "Guidance". However after the Great Major depression "Counseling" became a widely known term by all teachers. As the time of World Battle II arrived, The U. S. federal government requested the help of counselors for selecting military services and professional specialist which created a larger emphasis on mental testing from then on. And that straight influenced school guidance in the long run.
Until 1940s, when Carl Rogers had written the e book "Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice", there is not such a great effect on the introduction of the counseling profession and modern guidance strategies as Schmidt (2003) explained. Until World Battle II, Freud's psychoanalytic therapy and Williamson's directive approach were really the only foundational theoretical models. According to DeCarvolho(1990) Rogers' psychological humanism movement appeared as a reply to the mechanised reductionistic view of folks which is extended by psychoanalytic and behavioral theories. As Dewey (2007) mentioned; Rogers employed non-directive or person-centered remedy contrary to his forerunner and in this therapy the client determined his or her own way of change. Dewey (2007) also explained that in his works Rogers first used the term "client" and later simply "person" instead of using "patient" as he was implying the voluntary search of his clients for a helping relationship apart from an involuntary relationship. Cobia & Henderson (2003, as cited in Lambie, 2004)expressed that following a inception of Rogers' work, the term guidance started to be replaced in the books by counselling, within which advice is encapsulated.
What is for certain from Bardhoshi (2009) is the fact that throughout the century-long background of the vocation of school counseling, school counselor's assignments have broadened and changed based on the focuses of every decade. However, to make counseling process effective almost always both of these methods have been offered: individual or group guidance.
There are some functional differences between both of these types in the branch of school counseling. Basically, individual counselling is a romantic relationship in which a counselor seeks to help children understand and admit themselves. It provides an opportunity for children to explore their feelings, abilities, and interests so that they make maximum use of their potential. On the other hand, group counseling is employed for a variety of university student concerns and hobbies most of which are related with development like; making friends, being more comfortable with physical changes, psychological decisions, and learning problem-solving skills. (Burnham, 2003) In this specific article, we try to compare these two methods at length to get the better/superior style. As a matter of fact, both these counseling types have some advantages & disadvantages compared to the other one; nevertheless the frequency of use of these shows only a subject of desire.
In this article "Understanding Specific and Group Counseling"(2009) it is described that "Individual Counselling" is a type of counseling which aids people to make clear their concerns, research the results they have got tried out before, and at the end, assist those to find new strategies to deal using their problems. Learning new problem-solving or coping skills, increasing self-understanding, checking out life patterns, and gaining a better sense of how their environment affect them could be contained in the individual counseling process.
In a more educational aspect, specific counselling also could be defined as a collaborative process when a unique, confidential being able to help romantic relationship is developed between a counselor and a willing client (scholar). In such a marriage, the role of the professional counselor is a facilitator to assist the student to have more accurate knowledge about him/herself and the planet around him/her. Within a cooperative way, both the counselor and university student tries to explore the scholar 's feelings and behaviors, romantic relationships with others, choices and decisions, as well as the students 's current situation.
In individual guidance processes, initially, it's important that the counselor should collect some personal, intellectual and psychological information about the students. It'll be quite beneficial to the counselor, in order to choose which guidance strategies will be most appropriate and beneficial for the students. Additionally, in this technique, new ambitions could be formed. ( Understanding Specific and Group Counseling, 2009). Murthy(2003) also suggests a list of includes a counselor for folks should have, like knowing;
- The details about the client like the folks who are the most influential people on his/her life and problems itself,
- The sociable and cultural qualifications of the client
- About the treatment
- Special ways to facilitate a good communication, to improve determination and problem handling skills also to provide support
- A warm, genuine, understanding and nurturing attitude
- Good communication skills
- Respect for the client
On the other submit the reserve of "Individual and group guidance in schools"(Dustin, Ehly, 1989) the the different parts of an effective specific counseling listed as the followings;
- Establishing a baseline
- Specificity in behavioral explanation, goal setting, and evaluation
- Contracting for behavioral change
- Using reinforcement steps to strengthen behaviors
- Using extinction/disregarding to weaken behaviors
- Training students to screen their own change programs
As Cuizon(2009) mentioned there are several features of individual counselling. In individual guidance, counselors provide an opportunity to employ with separated problems and they care for just one client at a time. Also, it is much easier for counselor to work through the information that was collected in advance, apply the most likely and effective treatment to your client and decide on the target attitude which needs to be enhanced. In individual counseling there might not exactly be misrepresentations about the thoughts and behaviours of the client in comparison to group counseling. With regards to the decisions he makes, your client has a great capacity to change his own life for the far better. He is the guts and most important component in this process which means that he can control his tendencies and that the amount of dedication and his being ambitious to work will determine how successful he'll be in expanding new behaviors that clearly talk his needs.
According to Burnham(2003) specific guidance has some reasons of being so popular. The essential reason is the almost all of the schools being organized on classes and classroom teachers and teachers' tendency release a one student at the same time to be less disruptive. Another reason of recognition of individual counselling is the impression to be more sensible and easy to program. For the last, the trend of counselor training programs towards preferring specific guidance by illustrating theories, techniques, and etc. through individual processes.
There are also some studies that are indicating the superiority of individual counselling over group counselling from some aspects. Aughinbaugh(1968) in his book cases that relying greatly on group instead of individual guidance resulted from the increases in the junior college or university enrollment which created a shortage of qualified information personnel. As a result of a "two-year research study", the band of students counseled individually was graded significantly higher by their advisors in growth in self-understanding in comparison to other two control group. However this research also signifies that compared to group counseled students, separately counseled students didn't show any significant difference in persistence, academics achievement, or goal motivation. The real significant difference was between both of these counseled categories and the 3rd group consisting of the students who aren't designated to either group or individual counseling sessions. Aughinbaugh(1968) concludes that so long as special attention is paid to guidance, students benefit regardless of the method.
Aside having some advantages, specific counselling has some cons. Regarding to Simmerman(2007) in general, individual counseling consultations are financially less efficient than group therapy. Because of having less non-partial observers, role learning is bound to the individual and the therapist. Moreover compared to a group setting, likelihood of therapy consultations to belong to a rut where progress is stalled is higher.
On the other side, addititionally there is a different type of counseling called as Group guidance. Gwendolyn Cuizon (2009) state governments that, Group Guidance which is forwarded by William Glasser is more correspondents with the Control Theory later named as Choice Theory. Regarding to the theory, the reason why of all the living animals' controlling their behaviours is to perform their dependence on satisfaction in some of these five areas such as survival, to belong and be treasured by others, to own ability and importance, liberty and independence, and also to have fun. Love and belongingness are the most significant ones among them. This kind of feeling is marketed with the aid of the group counseling. Group counseling has great effect on the sensation of being linked to others.
Tricia Ellis-Christensen (2003), boasts that Group counselling is a form of therapy, which establishes a point of view that people reap the benefits of shared encounters. . While a therapist usually provides out group counseling, actually the efforts of other associates in the group are believed quite valuable, for almost all of folks in the group, pretty much show similar issues or experiences.
In the Group counseling, the individuals take place that are experiencing some problems related with the personal, educational, interpersonal, vocational issues which they hope to solve. ( Corey & Corey, 1992). In group counseling process, the concentration may be the seeks such as relating better to their families, becoming sorted out, or comforting in the occurrence of supervisors at the job the individual achieved.
Gladding, Samuel T. (1994) says that, in starting group counselling, making decisions in advance is a vital issue. Quite simply; the first step in this technique is pregroup planning. To be able to relinquish productive and pragmatic results for individuals, at first leaders should design communities. Objectives, membership, rules, time, place, and dynamics are the most important considerations in this technique.
Gladding, Samuel T. (1994) says that rules to regulate the folks in the groupings should be few quick and clear, so that counseling communities run in the best way. If there are always a large number of of rules, there will be a tendency in a few members to forget many of these guidelines. Also, if the rules are not so clear, some of them will be definitely broken by a few of the users In group guidance, "enough time and place" are very significant issues.
Gladding, (1994) says that "Although counseling groups vary, users desire a specific, regular time and destination to meet. Most groups meet for one and one half to two time each week for 12 to 16 lessons. The meeting room should be noiseless and appealing and away from other activities. Teams work best when seats are organized in circles where everyone seems a sense of equality with each other and the circulation of communication is improved" (Gladding, 1994).
Childers & Couch, 1989 says that the group leaders have also quite significant role in this technique. Effective group leaders should investigate potential participants before they acknowledge them. Within the group counseling, the perfect group size is 8 to 12. By this way; people have a chance to express themselves without creating into subgroups. Opinions and explanation can be utilized by leaders; consequently they can immediately clarify and appropriate misunderstandings.
According to Corey & Corey, (1992), Some important adjustable techniques should be used by market leaders of effective counselling groups. Inside the below there are the most important ones among the countless techniques:
- Active Listening: In this system market leaders should be sensitive to the language, firmness, and nonverbal gestures surrounding members' emails;
- Linking: by making use of this one, leaders help members acknowledge their similarities;
- Blocking: Market leaders keep unfocused customers from disrupting the group by either redirecting them or stopping them from monopolizing conversations
- Summarizing: In this system leaders assist people identify what has occurred and how the group and its members have modified.
Apart from these techniques above, there are also other essential skills such as Empathy, personal comfort, courage, overall flexibility, inquiry, encouragement, and the capability to confront.
Vivian V. Ripley, Gary E. Goodnough areas there's also some strategies which are quite successful in planning and employing group guidance. They strongly believe that when these strategies were applied properly and effectively, the alternatives will be rather helpful for the students. Quickly, they name the strategies as Logistical Strategies (Institution Structure and Learner Need) Developing Recognition, Policy Considerations, Access to Students, Counselor Planning and Prep Group Procedures, Counselor Preparation Co-leaders.
Group counselling has a great number of of benefits to assist the visitors to deal with their problems. Among the main principals of group guidance is the theory that interacting with specific issues may cause isolation, and also the person could feel himself together while facing or dealing with his problems. Group counseling's aim is to block out this isolation sense by creating an atmosphere where in fact the people who have almost same problems could get together and discuss their thoughts feelings or difficulties. Thus, people could realize that these problems aren't singular to one person. which will be quite helpful to person to take care of his problems easier. ( Tricia Ellis-Christensen (2003))
Gladding, Samuel T. (1994) remarks that individuals have natural trend to assemble in organizations for mutually beneficial purposes. , individuals carry out their goals and also a lot more innovative and fruitful ways having an discussion other group associates by using the teams. He also asserts that, without concerning in groups surviving would be impossible for individuals. .
Gwendolyn Cuizon(2009), says that "Group counselling is better than individual counseling when it comes to producing new behaviors that clearly converse their needs and help in attaining fulfillment in the reality. Group remedy considers the main element elements of what the group want for and exactly what will make their life better, the particular group will do to bring about what they need and how they are able to make choice options and come up with common plan. "
He also promises that with the help of the Group counseling users have a great opportunity to learn with and from other folks in the group. as well as could have the ability to realize their own means of thoughts and conducts, as well as those of others. Behaviour and behavior habits that are limiting and difficult to see in personal could be observed by other folks. To be able to get genuine support, genuine opinions, and useful alternatives from peers an organization is a quite a good chance. Aside from the advantages of group counseling, based on the some researcher, there are also disadvantages of this counseling type. For instance, Gwendolyn Cuizon (2009), mentions that the movements and involvement of the group participants could be insufficient in group guidance. Reflecting too many feelings and listening to way too many long stories could be a problem for both leaders and the other customers in the group.
There is also an option that the group head couldn't use enough creative techniques to get and hold the attention of the group customers. When techniques aren't reinforced with theory and centering the group consultations aren't focused sufficiently, the efficiency and the efficiency of the group counseling dramatically reduces.
As all the research workers stated the use of these counselling types is a matter of choice. Etc. etc. .
In schools, counseling to the students should be completed both individually and in small teams. Counselors, in colleges, should always allot a while for counselling students about their personal-social problems. Additionally, in some cases, counselors may need to utilize newer theoretical techniques, such as short therapy, in order to be as effectual as possible in a restricted number of classes. ( Sears, Susan Jones - Coy, Doris Rhea, 1991)