Definition Of Reality Finding Techniques Information Technology Essay


Requirement research can be thought to identify inspection, documenting and analysing requirements of the system. The first inspection step of the necessity of something is a major activity of problem evaluation. This is the role of a system analyst to determine the actual dependence on a system. Sometimes, system analyst could make mistake in finding the requirements and in aiming to analyse a problem. Because of this, they may produce the wrong solution in planning and execution of a solution. And the answer will never be able to solve the true problem and even cause a new problem in later system evaluation process. Therefore, this paper talks about one of the effective methods (fact-finding) for system analyst to help them in gathering information.

Definition of Fact-finding Techniques

Fact finding is process of assortment of data and information based on techniques that have sampling of existing documents, research, observation, questionnaires, interviews, prototyping and joint requirements planning. System analyst uses ideal fact-finding techniques to develop and apply the current existing system. Collecting required facts are extremely important to apply tools in System Development Life Cycle because tools cannot be used successfully and effectively without proper extracting from facts. Fact-finding techniques are being used in the early level of System Development Life Circuit including system research period, design and post execution review. Facts included in any information system can be tested based on three steps: data- facts used to set-up useful information, process- functions to execute the objectives and user interface- designs to interact with users.

Fact-finding techniques

There are seven common fact-finding techniques

Sampling of existing documentation, varieties and databases

Research and Site visits

Observation of the work environment




Joint requirements planning

Sampling of existing documents, forms and databases

The easiest way to analyse the existing system is to acquire facts from existing records alternatively than from real human sources.

There are various sorts of documents to gather facts from existing documents. These include:

e-mails, customer problems, suggestion box notes and accounts that document the situation area

problem performance reviews, examples of completed manual varieties and information and examples of completed computerized varieties and reports

various types of flowcharts and diagrams, program documentation and user training manuals

System analyst uses sampling techniques to be able to organize these documentation. Sampling strategy is the process of combing a representative test of documents, form and information (Bentley, Whitten, 2007). Regarding to these authors there are two frequently used sampling techniques specifically randomization and stratification. Randomization is the process of selecting sample data randomly. Stratification is the organized process to deduct the variance of sampling data. We are able to have better knowledge of the system due to the examination of existing documents, varieties, files related to the current system.

Research and Site visits

Research and site trips, second strategy, is the procedure of examining the problems which had previously fixed by other resources that may be either individuals or documents. To solve certain requirements of problem, the analyst sessions to other firm that had previously experienced for similar problems. In addition, the analyst can also find the info from database, guide books, case studies and Internet.

Advantages of Research and Site visits

It can save enough time if the challenge is already fixed. Researcher can know how different person recently fixed the same problems. Research workers always know the facts information about the current development system.

Disadvantages of Research and Site visits

Need authority to gain access to the appropriate way to obtain information. As paperwork of problem is not noted, there is difficult to solve the condition.

Observation of the work environment

Another truth finding technique is observation. In this system, system analyst participates in the business, studies the flow of documents, is applicable the existing system, and interacts with the users. Observation can be a useful strategy when the machine analyst have customer viewpoint. Sampling approach called work sampling pays to for observation. By using this strategy, system analyst can know how employees spend their days and nights.


Questionnaires are also one of useful fact-finding technique to accumulate information from large numbers of users. Users fill the questions which receive by the machine analyst and then give the answers back again to the system analyst. Questionnaires can save time because system analyst does not need to interview each of users in case enough time of interview is short, questionnaires are definitely more useful. To fulfil the requirements of the machine objective, system analyst should have the capability to clearly define the design and shape of questionnaires.

There are two types of questionnaires:

Free-format questionnaires

In free-format questionnaires, users are allowed to answer questions easily without immediate response. The email address details are also useful in studying feelings, thoughts, and activities of the respondents.

Fixed-format questionnaires

The purpose of fixed-format questionnaires is to assemble information from predefined format of questions. Users are allowed to choose the result from the given answers. You will find three types of fixed-format questions: multiple-choice questions (Yes or No type), score questions (Firmly recognize, Agree, No opinion, Disagree, Strongly disagree), positioning questions (numbering according to the tastes).

Advantages of Questionnaires

People can fill up the forms and give answers freely to the analyst. This technique is inexpensive. Users will be more inclined to response real answer as they don't need to give their personal information. Reactions can be determined and analysed quickly.

Disadvantages of Questionnaires

Incomplete answers will be received from users. Analyst cannot take notice of the body gestures of user reactions. Analyst does not have any chance to specify vague or incomplete replies. Good questionnaires are difficult to get ready.


Interview is the mostly used strategy to gather information from the face-to-face interviews. The purpose of interview is to find, verify, clarify facts, motivate end-users included, identify requirements and gather ideas and opinions. The role of interview includes interviewer who's system analyst and interviewee who are system owner or consumer. Interviewing approach needs good communication skills for relationship between system analyst and customer.

There are two types of interviews.

Unstructured interviews

An interview that is conducted with only an over-all goal or subject in mind and with few, if any, specific questions (Bentley, Whitten, 2007). Open-ended questions type is employed in unstructured interview which allows customer to answer readily within an appropriate way.

Structured interviews

Structured interview is an interview which includes predefined group of questions. In set up interview, close-ended questions type is employed to limit answers to identify choices, short and direct replies from the interviewees.

Advantages of Interviews

By motivating interviewees, they have confident to answer the questions more effectively. System analyst can look at the more feedbacks from the interviewees. System analyst can put together questions for interviewees to become more ideal or change the questions for each person. System analyst can know the nonverbal communications of interviewees by perceiving the body movements and facial expression.

Disadvantages of Interviews

Interviewing is time consuming and costly device in fact-finding approach. Furthermore, the communication skills of the system analyst affect the success of interview.


Another fact-finding technique is recognized as prototyping which collects the necessity facts of the system. Prototyping is sampling a tiny working model which is more related to pre-design of the info system. The implementation of prototyping can be developed in earlier level of system development life pattern when analyzing the reality. The procedure of prototyping facts to be able to specify the end users requirements is also called breakthrough prototyping.

Advantages of Prototyping

Users and developers are able to ensure that you understand the machine beforehand before final implementation. In addition, it can make and determine development of the system before making use of high development costs in the information system. In addition, it is some sort of training system. Prototyping require less time on fact-finding which is useful in determining the continuous and constant requirements.

Disadvantages of Prototyping

Training of creators is a necessity in prototyping. Sometimes users can misunderstand the performance, consistency and features of prototype as real results. Therefore, users need to teach to learn that prototype only includes system functionality which is not a complete system. Development cost and plan may change in prototyping.

Joint requirements planning

JRP is the structured group work getting together with to identify, review problems and determine certain requirements of system. JRP is now progressively more common in systems planning and systems analysis to obtain group consensus on problems, goals and requirements (Bentley and Whitten; 2007). JRP can tabulate the facts efficiently very quickly and it can also replace in the place of numerous and independent interviews. JRP is made up of different members with each specialised roles to perform structured conference. JRP individuals include sponsor, facilitator, users and professionals, scribes and IT staff. Sponsor can be an specific in top management, who may have full authority to choose who'll be members, time and location of JRP treatment. The role of facilitator is to lead JRP period, motivate participants, solve conflicts and meet the requirements of conference through the JRP procedure. Users in JRP session are in charge of rules and requirement of business, prototype, and acceptable decisions. And Managers are in charge of assignments, schedules and costs and training requirements. Scribes job is to track record everything talked about in the appointment. IT staff accountable for models and documents pertaining to with facts during the discussion.

Advantages of JRP

JRP is produced different people with various assignments and includes both in users and in general management levels. JRP helps you to save time to build up systems as it is not required one-on-one interviewing of each participant within the business. When JRP contains prototyping as a means for confirming requirements and obtaining design approvals, the great things about prototyping are realized (Bentley and Whitten; 2007).

Disadvantages of JRP

Extensive training is necessary for JRP as it is an organization form. Active participation of most individuals will results the solution of JRP sessions.

Using Questionnaires in Usage of Automated Teller Machine

In our paper we applied Questionnaires technique for problems that are located in Usage of Automated Teller Machine. The next questionnaire is made for usage of Standard bank Auto Teller Machine. We designed two parts for our questionnaire: first part is collecting the demographic characteristics of users and second part is collecting the user feed backs relating to our questions.

Section A

1. Gender: Man Female

2. Age: 15-20 21-40 41-50 Above

3. Profession: University student Civil Servant Business Others

4. Types of bill: Personal savings Current Others

Section B


Questions for Using Automatic Teller Machine




Do you use Automatic Teller Machine for your bank Transaction?


Can you operate ATM easily?


Did Auto Teller Machine allow you perform exchange for 24 hours?


Can you gain access to Automatic Teller Machine at any location?


Are you alert to settlement of utility bills through ATM?


Are you aware of making fund copy through ATM?


Are you more comfortable with ATM Usage for Banking Transfer?


Is Automatic Teller Machine purchase charges Affordable?


Is Auto Teller Machine Network reliable?


Did your Automatic Teller Machine cards ever get capture during Transfer?


Did ATM ever before debit your bank account without issuing out physical cash?


Is your issue attended to immediately?


In this paper we discussed about the seven fact-finding techniques based on studying our text message book plus some articles. During our assignment, we become to understand that if the system analyst knows details of fact-finding techniques, they can get understanding of gathering the required information to develop the existing system.

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