Differences Between Polish And British Pronunciation English Vocabulary Essay

During the span of learning English, it is crucial for the teacher to ensure that the students are aware of the fact that the may seem in Polish terminology change in pronunciation from British ones. I'd like to give attention to Received Pronunciation that is usually educated in Poland. The goal is to show the major problems on particular looks by the comparisons of specific issues in both languages. I would like to spell it out the sound system of British, but it should be remembered that such a description forms only an integral part of the total description of a vocabulary. My attempt is to give attention to articulatory phonetics, which is the most accessible branch of phonetics. Within the current approach to language teaching, it is vital to make students alert to what is relevant in spoken English. The learners aren't only supposed to know the phonetic transcription and the organs of conversation but also to involve some knowledge of the way in which of articulation and the area of articulation, voicing. Furthermore, they ought to be offered words data and likely to reach some generalizations by providing them the necessary practise in understanding the data of British descriptive phonetics.

Received Pronunciation (RP) is a wide world disperse form of pronunciation of the English language, which has been long regarded as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents. It really is associated with the south -east, where most RP-speakers live or work, but it could be found anywhere in the united states. Accents usually reveal where a person is from; RP instructs us no more than a person's sociable or educational record. It is essentially the most widely studied and most widely explained variety of spoken British on earth. Although recent estimates suggest only 2% of the united kingdom people speak it, RP is employed as a style of pronunciation in coaching English as a foreign language.

What we usually have in mind whenever we talk about coaching pronunciation is the actual fact, that casual talk phenomena display a great deal of dialectical and individual variance. The students, therefore, ought to be offered major features of general British pronunciation :first general intro, then problems on particular noises or operations, and, finally, some exercises on matching phonetics phenomena in Polish, accompanied by the comparison of the precise issues in both languages. For the purposes of the discussion, the data of the pronunciation distinctions will be studied to mean learning the spoken British.

Chapter 1. Phonetics-general picture

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics, which handles speech tones. It identifies a way the word is spoken, or the way in which where someone utters a world. All languages have their own sounds systems. The phonetics of an dialect concerns the concrete characteristics (articulatory, acoustics, auditory) of the looks used in languages. Articulatory phonetics deals with the articulation of the talk sounds that will be the activity of talk organs in the course of speaking. Acoustics phonetics handles the disturbances of any molecule through the transmission of conversation. Auditory phonetics is concerned with the understanding of speech. The concentrate is on articulatory phonetics. It contains segmental phonetics (how exactly we pronounce individual tones and their variety in several items), suprasegmental (prosodic) which handles stress, intonation and rhythm. All normal sounds of British are produced with the outgoing stream of air. The stream of air made by the lungs goes into the trachea, near the top of that your larynx is situated. Inside the larynx, whose protruding front is known as the Adam's apple, the vocal cords are located. If they vibrate, sounds, that are produced, are voiced when they are wide opened, the sounds are voiceless. The starting between your vocal cords is named the glottis. If the stream of air has handed down through the larynx, it gets into the cavity created between the foot of the tongue and the back wall of the throat. The cavity is known as pharyngeal cavity. At the bottom of the tongue is the epiglottis. Because of it, the meals goes by to the oesophagus rather than to the trachea. At the top of the throat, there's a forking of air passage: air can distribute through the nasal cavities or through the mouth. This will depend on the positioning of the velum. When it is raised, the best way to the nasal cavities is blocked and the environment escapes through the mouth. When it is lowered, air may venture out through the nasal cavities. Inside the former case, oral does sound are produced, in the latter, nasal tones. At the low end of velum, a small movable appendage is known as the uvula. Both velum and the uvula are elements of the palate, also called the roof of the mouth area. At the front end of the month, the bony composition sorts the hard palate. Inside the foremost part from it just behind the upper teeth, there's a visible ridge called as the alveolar ridge. The major talk organ in the month is the tongue. Phonetically speaking its surface is split into the tip, the front, the blade, and the trunk. Finally, speech may seem may be changed by the form of the mouth.

The term organs of speech refer to the many parts of human body, which are connected in a variety of ways with the production of speech. Many of them are just secondarily worried about speech production-their key functions are to do eating, chewing and swallowing food, and respiration. The physique 1 below shows a section through the body indicating the major organs, which donate to the conversation process.

Despite the actual fact that talk is relatively constant flow, we are accustomed to thinking about it as sounds, or as sequences of sounds

1. 3 Classification of sounds

The section into consonants and vowels is one of the most intuitively obvious to the nonprofessional. It is also among the most misliding. To some informal question of "just how many vowels is there in English", phonetically native speakers (also local speakers) would tend to answer-five: a, e, I, o, u. This answer, which is of course phonetically inappropriate, can be recognized (also to some extend excused) in the light of the powerful effect of writing in literature societies like those of Great Britain or Poland. While there may indeed be five vowel- characters in the Roman alphabet, on which most Western languages starting their writing system, there are a lot more vowel- may seem in British, as it will be talked about below (Sobkowiak 2001) The English and Polish looks are labeled in terms of:

1. manner of articulation

2. host to articulation

3. Voicing

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation describes the way the tongue, lips, and other conversation organs are involved in making a sound make contact. The concept is only used for the creation of consonants. The place of articulation of the consonant is the idea of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract.

On the foundation of voicing, consonants are split into `voiced consonants' and `voiceless consonants'. Voiced consonants are those, which are articulated with the vibration of the vocal cords. . Voiceless consonants are articulated without vibration of vocal cords or it may be said that through the creation of voiceless consonants vocal cords are kept apart. The manner of articulation describes different types of obstructions made by the articulators. These obstructions may be total, intermittent, and partial or may basically constitute a narrowing sufficient to cause friction.

Vowels will be the sounds that are produced with an approximation with no blockage in the air passage among all articulators, only tongue is dominant in their creation. All vowel noises are voiced and all are `dental' as during the production of these, the very soft palate is raised and therefore the nasal cavity is totally blocked.

Polish learners of English frequently have problems learning consonants and vowels of English. Although there are some sounds that contain close equivalent in Polish, the majority of the English may seem are different and some do not can be found in Polish.

1. 4 Classification of English consonants

According to the manner of articulation, English consonants are split into unobstructed (nasals, retroflexes, laterals, glides), obstacle (fricatives), closure (plosives and affricates).

On the basis of the area of articulation, consonants are divided as

bilabial (or labial), labio-dental, dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, and glottal. Desk 1 shows this classification

This table demonstrates many of the cells are not filled. There are, for example, no dental nasals, post-alveolar glides, or palatal fricatives. The limited use that English (and similarly other languages) is making of the articulatory space has important outcomes for speaking and understanding. If all cells were packed, even minute variants in production may cause gross misunderstanding. ( Sobkowiak 2001)

A consonant is produced when the environment stream is restricted or stopped sooner or later between the vocal cords and the lips. A description of English consonants must also take into account the following areas of their articulation: The drive of articulation. A voiceless/voiced couple of consonants is recognized by not only the existence or absence of tone but also by the amount of breath and muscular energy involved in the articulation. Those consonants that are usually voiced have a tendency to be articulated with relatively weak energy, whereas those, that happen to be always voiceless, are relatively strong. Within the former circumstance, lenis sounds are produced, in the latter, fortis does sound.

The action of the vocal cords. At any place of articulation, a consonantal articulation may be voiced or voiceless. The position of the tender palate. When it's increased, the airstream goes by through the mouth area, and oral may seem are produced, when it is reduced, allowing the passing of air through the nostril the tones are categorised as nasals or nasalized.

The obstruction created by the organs may be total, intermittent, or incomplete, or may simply constitute a narrowing sufficient to cause friction. The chief types of articulation, in lessening degrees of closure, are the following:

1. Complete closure.

Plosive. A whole closure is manufactured at some point in the vocal tract, behind which the air pressure accumulates and can be released explosively, e. g. /p, b, t, k, g/

Affricate. A full closure is made sooner or later in the oral cavity, behind which the air pressure accumulates; the separation of the organs is however slow weighed against that of a plosive, so that friction is characteristic second component of the sound, e. g. /t , d·/

Nasal. A whole closure is manufactured at some point in the oral cavity but, the smooth palete being decreased, air escapes through the nasal area. These noises are continuants and, in the voiced form, haven't any noise component; they can be, to this level, vowel like, e, g. /m, n, /.

2. Intermiitent closure.

Retroflex (trill or spin) A series of immediate intermittent closures created by flexible organ on a firmer surface, or an individual tap as there are many variants of English /r/ audio.

3. Incomplete closure.

Lateral. A partial (but firm) closure is manufactured sooner or later in the mouth, the airstream being allowed to evade on both sides of the contact. These may seem may be continuat and frictionless and for that reason vowel-like, e. g. /l, /

4. Narrowing.

Fricative. Two organs approximate to this extend that the environment stream goes by between them with friction, e. g. /f, v,  , ,  , ·, s, z, h/

5. Narrowing without friction.

Approximant(or frictionless continuant ). A narrowing is manufactured in the month, but the narrowing is not sufficient to cause friction. In being frictionless and continuant glides are vowel-like; however, they function phonologically as consonants, i. g. they seem at the edges of syllables. (Gibson's pronunciation of English 1994)

Finally, there are glides. As the word suggests, these are gliding sounds, fast transition in one tongue position to some other, e. g. /j, w/

As it was described, earlier consonants are made by moving one articulator towards another. Actually, most commonly it is just two articulators that shape the quality of a given sound. The may seem are identified in the next way:

1. Bilabial. The two lips are participating as the articulators, e. g. /p, b, m/.

2. Labiodental. The low lip articulates contrary to the upper teeth, e. g. /f, v/

3. Dental. The tip of the tongue articulates with top of the pearly whites, e. g/ , /

4. Alveolar. The tip or the blade of the tongue articulated with the alveolar ridge, e. g. /t, d, l, n, s, z/.

5. Post-alveolar. The tip of the tongue articulates with the trunk part of the alveolar ridge, e. g. / t , d·,  , ·, r/

6. Palatal. The front of the tongue articulates from the hard palete, e. g. /j/.

7. Velar. The back of the tongue articulates with the gentle palete, e. g. /k, g, /

8. Glottal. An obstruction, or a narrowing triggering friction but no vibration, between the vocal folds, e. g. /h/.

In the situation of some consonantal looks, there may be a secondary host to articulation in addition to the most important. Thus, in the so called 'dark'//, as the end of pull, in addition to the partial alveolar contact, there is an essencial raising of the back of the tongue towards the velum (velarization); or, again, some post-alveolar articulations of /-/ are accompanied by little lip-rounding (labialization). The area of primary articulation is that of ideal stricture, whatever gives climb to the greatest obstruction to the airflow. The secondary articulation displays a stricture of reduced rank. Where there are two coextensive strictures of equal rank, a good example of dual articulation results. (Gimson's Pronunciation of English 1994).

1. 5 Classification of Polish consonants

As way as vowels are concerned, the description will include the next factors:

- The foundation of energy;

- The way of the air stream;

- The positioning of the gentle palate;

- The length;

- The tenseness;

- The positioning of the tongue;

- The shape of the lips.

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