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Effects that vegetation growing in overcrowded conditions

This survey is examining the consequences that crops growing in overcrowded conditions go through and what impacts overcrowding is wearing seedlings making evaluations to plants which have been cultivated in normal/ideal special conditions. In addition, it includes literature research into the various methods which are being used for the development of plants in both commercial settings and private setting up and which method suits this investigation s purposes best. It gives leads to both observational and quantitative ways and explains/gives definitions for words that may not have been realized.

Introduction:

This can be an investigation to discover what happens to a flower populace of germinating seed products that are cultivated in overcrowded conditions compared to the germination of seeds that are harvested in an area where they are simply sufficient nutrients, space and light.

Literature research:

Terms:

Germination the start of development for a seed, the origins of a new plant 1

Loam soil garden soil made up of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even awareness. Loam soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. Loams are gritty, moist, and retain water easily. 2

Horticulture the industry and research of vegetable cultivation including the process of organizing dirt for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. 3

Overcrowding when the number of organisms go beyond the taking capacity of a location (in this exploration it will be the soil) 4

Vermiculite some of a group micaceous hydrated silicate vitamins related to the chlorites and used in heat-expanded form as insulation so that as a planting medium. 5

Hydroponics the cultivation of plants in a nutrient-rich solution, rather than in soil, and under manipulated conditions of light, heat range, and humidity. Also known as aquaculture. 6

Ideal germination conditions for 3 flower species:

1. Radish (Raphanus sativus) sandy loam soil that is tilled is perfect for germination and expansion, seeds need to be planted at the write depth for the seed to germinate properly, 1cm for small radishes and 4cm for large radishes. Will germinate between 3 and 7 days and is ready for harvesting in about 4 weeks.

2. Pea (Pisum sativum) soak the seed in normal water for about 4 hours before planting it, seed the seeds in rows. The seed products should be planted about 2cm profound between 6 -8 cm apart. Drinking water them daily as they might need a lot and use organic and natural mulch.

3. California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) sow in dirt that is in full sun, these poppies like earth that is of an unhealthy land condition. Sow directly onto the soil and then dig the seed products in and add water and germination will commence within a few days.

Germination methods employed by horticulturalists

Method Expert s Con s

Growth in cotton wool Can take notice of the germination process easily The origins become entangled in the cotton wool and it may become difficult to remove the seed from the cotton wool

Growth in vermiculite Adds nutrition to the plants environment

Holds water perfectly so that plant life don t experience a lack Research shows no disadvantages

Hydroponics No soil is needed

Nutrient levels in this particular are control for each type of plant

Stable and large yields of plants

No major pest problems Crops may become infected with Verticillium wilt due to the high wetness levels

Water and nutritional costs may be expensive

Evidence and measurement of growth in crops:

Measuring the space between your internodes of over the stem of the plant

Measuring the size of the leaves, by calculating the distance of the leaves along its middle vein to the node where it connects to the stem

Counting the number of leaves on the plant

Checking the weight of the plant (will never be found in this analysis as it needs a large amount of plants and can result in vegetation being removed from the soil so that they can be weighted, this will most likely cause the death of the place. ).

Possible effects of overcrowding:

Radish size of the root (part which is harvested) will be greatly reduced, size of the leaves will be small and few leaves will be there, very extra tall stems.

Pea reduced size and volume of leaves, flowering rate will be reduced, pods will be greatly reduced in size

California poppy lives very well in malnourished earth and in overcrowded conditions

How may overcrowding be triumph over by the vegetable?

Will grow large skinny stems and try to grow higher than other plants, root base system will be really small. Stems consequently of being extra tall and thin cannot support the weight of the leaves and the herb collapses. Horticulturalists solve the condition of overcrowding by giving the crops with sufficient resources that they might need for grow. They also remove the plant life from the greenhouses before them become too big. If overcrowding occurs they isolate the plants and present them sufficient space, they'll also get rid of any weak vegetation that won't expand properly.

Investigation:

Hypothesis: The overcrowded plants will develop weakened stems and their progress rates will be hampered scheduled to lack of nutrients.

Aim:

To investigate the effects of overcrowding on germinating seeds and the effects of overcrowding on the growth of seedlings.

Variables:

Independent variable the amount of radish seed products planted in each seedling holder.

Dependent changing the development of the crops in terms of the stem length and size of their leaves.

Fixed variables how big is the seedlings trays should be the same size, the quantity of soil positioned in the seedling trays is packed to the same point, the quantity of water directed at each seedling holder must be equivalent in cases like this 500ml every 2nd day.

Apparatus:

Two seedling trays

Potting soil

Radish seeds

Ruler/calculating tape

Water

Camera

Method:

Fill two similarly measured seedling trays with sand to the same point.

Moisten the ground and prepare it for planting the seeds.

Using Radish seed products, plant 9 seeds in the very first tray using the conditions suggested on the trunk of the seed products product packaging then in the 2nd tray vegetable at least 45 seed products near each other.

Once seed products have been planted place the trays in a hot house

Once germination has taken place and the plants have started growing out of the soil measure the length of the stem and the distance of the mid-vein in the leaves every 4 days.

Measure the development of the plant life over an interval of 40 days

Results:

Observations:

Seeds were seed the 26th January 2011

After 2 days the soil began to lift up in the overcrowded tray

On another day the seedling were beginning to emerge from the ground in the overcrowded tray

On the 5th day the seedling in the perfect conditions tray started to emerge from the soil

The overcrowded seedlings grew at an extremely fast rate compared to the ideal conditions seedling

The expansion rate of the overcrowded society plants slowed up where as the perfect conditions population plant life grew at a reliable rate

On the night of the 15th of February 2011 the majority of the ideal conditions place population s and some the overcrowded plants populace s where eaten, possibly by slugs

Seedling trays were removed from the hot house so that they remain crops would survive so the destroyed ones could recover

Damaged vegetable s stems started to shrink as the extra leaves were getting ready to grow, once the secondary leaves had begun to grow greater and the plant life were getting food from being able to photosynthesis again, the stems started out growing taller again

In the overcrowded holder the smaller plant life ended growing and the larger plants began to visit limp as their stems became too long and too slim to support the weight of the leaves

Some of the overcrowded vegetation began to see their leaves going yellowish and the plant life starting to pass away off anticipated to insufficient resources

See appendix figure 4 for picture of leaves yellowing

Quantitative results:

For dining tables of results see appendix

Figure 1

Figure 2

Discussion:

The amount of the leaves in the perfect conditions plant populace on the 16th day was so low compared to the leaves size on the 12th day due to the leaves having been consumed two days previously by suspected to be slugs.

The greater progress rate experienced in the overcrowded herb people in the first few days was most likely caused by substance released by the seed products to encourage progress and because they are in such close proximity and there are so many it may cause them to come with an overload of the chemical resulting the very quickly initial growth rate.

Conclusion:

The overcrowded crops grew at faster rate than that of the perfect conditions plants yet the overcrowded vegetation became weak very quickly and therefore weaker plants remained small or died and taller plants grew flimsy. The perfect plants turned out to be stronger and better plants even though they were partly eaten.

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