Posted at 10.14.2018
Intertextuality is definitely used by creators as a literary device to be able to bring forth referrals to other works which might help to build the impact the writer wants his text message to have on the reader. Through intertextuality the authorial speech integrates 'recently existing codes in to the new wording' which 'explore the relationship between poet and any textual manifestations of another wording' (Diaz-Diocaretz, 67). In her book on poetic discourse, Diaz-Diocaretz brands the text which is not the poet's own an 'alien words' (67). Adrienne Rich's Snapshots of any Daughter-in-Law is an exemplory case of such a wording as it contains many recommendations to 'strong women who have have been censured for impartial thought or action' (Martin, 181). Adrienne Affluent adopts this approach in order to point out her protest against a male dominating modern culture which stifles women's capacity to be 3rd party in thought and action. Through her personal references to women including the Uk Queen Boadicea, who regarding to Tacitus is thought to have led an harm on the Romans, or Mary Wollstonecraft, 'who assailed the obstacles to identical education and social protection under the law for women' (Martin, 181), Adrienne Affluent implies that the presenter in her poem, a reliant daughter-in-law, has repressed the desire to speak out in a society that ignores a woman's capacity to reason and sanctions female initiative. Through these intertextual recommendations, Adrienne Rich points out that throughout history women have been appeared down on because they dared to surpass the limits that a male dominated contemporary society imposed in it. As a result, many women nowadays do not
dare to revolt contrary to the stereotypical roles which may have been allocated to them and are thus caught in the isolation of marriage predicated on the tradition of total dependency on men.
To begin with, 'Snapshots of the daughter-in-Law' brings forth a new strategy in its use of intertextuality. Besides introducing alien text messages, the poet also reverses meanings and shows that however the world is considered to be universal, specific jobs and positions are assigned to women which are difficult to overcome. The way in which alien texts are built-into 'Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law' reveals the strategy of earning use of texts in order to show either an approving or a disapproving attitude of the poet towards other voices. Thus, the new involved aspect of the foreign wording 'resounds as a two times voiced expression: her own which of the alien content material' (Diaz-Diocaretz, 73). For instance, Rich introduces phrases from either literary or philosophical texts which receive a change in the gender which is obvious in the initial text. One such occasion is the verse from Charles Baudelaire "mon semblable, mon frЁre!" which is subverted to "ma semblable, ma soeur!"(SDL, 35). This plan has a strong ironic goal and through it the poet 'not only creates a diachronic relationship between a speech before and her own, but also proposes a reversal of values in order to generate an internal polemic with the alien text message' (Diaz-Diocaretz, 74 ). The play with texts from days gone by uncovers an accusatory build as Rich will not give any reference at random, thus making the audience realize that the world of patriarchy is a hostile and an opposing force. Thus, the decision of the alien texts will need part in the reaffirmation of female identity.
Furthermore, it is important to highlight that the choice of referrals that Adrienne Rich introduces in 'Snapshots' is not arbitrary as it has a particular function in shaping the poet's protest against influential patriarchal text messages. Thus, all the allusions and references to other texts have a dual function, one being to underline the poetic discussion, by talking about Emily Dickinson and Mary Wollstonecraft, and the other to protest up against the alien text messages of Horace, Baudelaire, Diderot for example. For this purpose, fractures of canonical text messages are put next to modern day contexts in order to produce an impact of irony and contrast. For example, part 5 of 'Snapshots' commences with the brand 'Dulce ridens, dulce loquens' taken from Horace, Ode XXII, "Integer Vitae", indicating "sweetly laughing, sweetly speaking",
and remains with "she shaves her lower limbs until they gleam/ like petrified mammoth-tusk. ". This combo between Horace's speech and that of the poet is meant to point out how women 'are present circumscribed by patriarchal suppositions' (Diaz-Diocaretz, 75). The image of a woman trying to look the way she is likely to, although contemporary, it appears anti-poetic due to Horace's voice. Another aftereffect of this combination of the voice from the past start of the poet is the ironic criticism that girls need to be "sweet" to be able to please men. An identical effect is made by the next area of the poem:
When to her lute Corinna sings
neither words nor music are her own;
only the long wild hair dipping
over her cheek, only the song
of silk against her knees
adjusted in reflections of any eye.
The first brand belongs to Thomas Campion and it can be used by Adrienne Rich in order to contrast with her idea that women haven't any words of their own. In another of her essays, 'When We useless Awaken', Adrienne High points out her own personal search for a tone. She confesses that at the beginning of her career she'd read other women poets looking for in them the same things she found in the poetry of men because "I needed women poets to be the equals of men, and to be identical was still perplexed with sounding the same"(WWDA, 21). In Rich's poem Corinna is able to play the lute 'just as a female writer has the knowledge of language'(Dixon), but just as a woman copy writer who employs the steps of men denies her own literary tone of voice, Corinna cannot declare her music to be her own. Everything that Corinna is allowed to call her own is her femininity but even this is 'changed in reflections of your eyes', 'recognized to be the critical scrutiny of the male gaze' (Dixon).
In addition, Adrienne Rich uses intertextuality as a means to 'create a fresh conception of the included text message and to de-familiarize the audience with the already-read' (Diaz-Diocaretz, 77). The audience is the main one who has to identify the device that may adjust the content. Full elects the linguistic codes that
she finds appropriate for helping and illustrating the constraints that women feel in a male-dominated contemporary society. For instance, there are times when the text messages that are being referred to change their function from non-aesthetic to visual. One such case is Corlot's commentary to a piece by Chopin which is positioned at the start of the poem in order to create a certain atmosphere. All the allusions inserted throughout the poem require a re-interpretation of the past literary works, having as a target not 'to spread a custom but to break its keep over us' (WWDA, 19).
Taking everything under consideration, 'Snapshots of your Daughter-in-Law' situates Adrienne Rich's thoughts against themes or templates of language, boundaries and resistance through intertextual episodes which have a double result: that of recommending a new view on texts which seem to be to possess been aimed to a male audience instead of a universal one, which of phoning forth strong and impartial women whose voices have been stifled for having dared to 'smash the mildew direct off". The poet uses various strategies to be able to generate these effects, one of the strategies being the initiative to recognize herself with the historical experience of women who tried to surpass the roles imposed about them by modern culture. By resorting to changing genders in phrases taken from major authors she intends to emphasize the antagonistic male dominance and initiates a polemic dialogue with the initial content material. For Adrienne High the use of intertextuality acquires a fresh function within the poem: the initial text is intended to contrast with the poem in order to permit the audience to interpret it in a totally new framework. The poet's objective is mainly to revise literary traditions and norms to be able to point out how women have been deprived with their chance to affirm themselves.