Posted at 04.10.2018
The four types of public relations and communication are used by J. Grunig and Hunt in year 1984. At that time, many scholars of pr are doing the study of how these four models are applied by pr practitioners and just why they employed. The four models are press agentry model, public information model, two-way asymmetrical model and two-way symmetrical model. They identified how public relations professionals to be effectively and ethically utilized by offers a normative theory in two-way symmetrical model. Mixed-motive pr were practice with incorporate the two-way symmetrical model and two-way asymmetrical model.
In 1975, the first analysis on the behavior of pr was done by J. Grunig, he categorised it and publicized the bring about 1976. The analysis is telling about how precisely the communication functions is perform in the several way by the general public relations practitioners and just why their behaviour is not as well. To be able to categorise different behaviour of pr, an excellent pr model was created in which the way they are practice. Although there is no any representation can be properly described the reality of the world, but it continues to be a need to come out a model for folks to understand and work on it. "Model" is thought as a set of ideals and a schema of behaviour practiced by public relations practitioners and public relations team in organising their programmes and campaigns.
The different kind of pr have been explaining by the historians plus some other books' writers with some coarse conditions. For instance, according to historian Eric Goldman (1948), press agentry model in the early era was known as as "the public be fooled" and open public information theory was known as as "public be informed". The one-way and two-way communication also known as like the same manner in the books by Cutlip and Center's in the first model in 1952. J. Grunig mentioned one-way and two-way models of communication in his first research of the behavior of public relations with included the way and reason for communication. Synchronic and diachronic communication are the concepts had taken by J. Grunig from Thayer's (1968) which is the behavior used by particular organisation to used it at all times in order to isolated from any interference. As the diachronic communication is utilized to maintain shared affairs of company never to only profit the company itself but also their public.
A analysis of Grunig (1976) stated that synchronic and diachronic communication were too simplified and as ordinary as daylight to defined the behavior of pr after he measured the practice of sixteen pr activities in around 2 hundred of organisations in the area of Baltimore-Washington such as pr announcements writing, counselling the market leaders, planning a program, analysis on a program etc. After that, he comes out the asymmetrical model and symmetrical model to replace synchronic and diachronic models with understand the purpose of pr to balance up the communication and impact between the company and its consumer.
The four models of pr and communication are leading and having the researchers to understand their behaviour in doing like advertising or plan. The models are using until today is basically because they work to convey this message from the sender to the receiver which is the organisation to their public. They are using these models in order to achieve their aims of putting their communication in press. Press agentry model is intended to get favourable attention in press. Public information model is use to inform the public just like a fact, it is frequently employed by the non-profit organisations, education institutions, government agencies plus some other organizations. Two-way asymmetrical model is a persuasion and manipulation which aimed to influence the general public to act in the manner organisation's desire. Two-way symmetrical model is attemptedto achieve a win-win situation which build common understanding between your organisation and its open public (Kellimatthews, 2009).
Press agentry model was the earliest PR model. It comes out in the late 19th century (Grunig & Hunt, 1984). The heyday of this model from 1850 to 1900 and P. T. Barnum was the rep of the historical shape (Chao, 2012). Press agentry model is one-way communication as the flow of information that is from the sender to the recipient which known as source-to-receiver communication. Individuals who send out the message are not much take no consideration of second party's response, comment, viewpoint and so forth. Press agentry efforts to alter the function of publics whereas do not have the intention to improve the action of the organization. Public relations whose are under press agentry have difficulties for promotion in the mass media in almost any way possible.
Practitioners of press agentry have included so-called fathers of modern PR, Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays. In the early 20th Century, both were Broadway press providers, when Broadway was the capital of the entertainment world, before shifting. Bernays' move into constructed reports that makes up about audience perceptions and biases is a complex form of press agentry. His 1915 80-webpage press packet for the Diaghilev Ballet Russe American tour was an early on example, and his work in 1932 publicizing autos for General Motors with stories from business and educational market leaders was more complex.
Press agents acquired done a research by monitoring the multimedia in which they sought to post beneficial articles related to their clients. Besides that, the American impresario P. T. Barnum is the prototype specialist of this model at the same time he also promoted circuses and other entertainment venues including the vocalist Jenny Lind. In Press Agentry promotion model, public relations expects escalates the reputation of the business to their market, stakeholders, employees, associates, all other associated with it through managements. In enhancements, this model selecting pr expects who founded a positive trustworthiness of their brand and areas in the brains of the audiences through quarrels and reasons. Their potential clients had influence simply by imposing creative stories with their brand, idea, thoughts and USPs of the merchandise.
Although J. Grunig and Hunt says that the "public-relations-like" activities completely background, they argues that the press real estate agents used the first name in the middle-19th century and it specialists to the practice of public relations. Andrew Jackson, Daniel Boone, Buffalo Expenses Cody, and Calamity Jane who's utilized the press agentry style of public relations as such heroes. Furthermore, P. T. Barnum, the most visible practitioner and skillfully provided his circus performers by using the axiom which is "There is a sucker created every minute. "
Moreover, Curiosity and skepticism performed as important role along the way of successful for the press agentry model. Butterick (2009) recommended that whenever we read the tabloid publication, we can just take a look to the inner editorial internet pages, the new movie or Compact disk is launched to see the press agentry model. Therefore, Press providers like Utmost Clifford who sensible as masters of the industry and carefully taking care of the multimedia coverage of the customers. He also claims that 'even the so-called exclusive pictures of semi-naked celebrities on a beach in a Sunday newspaper can often be the consequence of a collusion between the star's publicist and shooter'.
Nowadays, press agentry model is still using in our society. It can easily clarify that the ethics which engaged to this model are highly doubtful at exactly the same time the admission from Grunig & Hunt released that the model there are an characteristics of propaganda mounted on distil the negative connotations (Butterick, 2009). However, it is eventually implies that the attention and skepticism than it which will make sure the press agentry model is still working and prominent in modern day. Although it is today's day, PR specialist should become more familiar with the truth, the foundations of the model still exist whether to publicize a sporting event, a theater production, or 'the scariest film of the decade', as in the recent movie release 'Paranormal Activity' (2009). We, the public, will either want to believe what we should see, or find out for ourselves if our scepticism can be improved right that why this model continues to be working for professionals wanting to gain the illusive marketing spotlight in 21st Century.
Press agentry is carefully associated with publicity in the entertainment world. Press agentry is the practice of appealing to the attention of the press through technique that makes news. Methods associated with press agentry include staged occasions, publicity stunts, faux rallies or gatherings, spinning, and hype. A practice is the past due 1800s and early 1900s, press agentry is not part of mainstream pr. Rather, this can be a practice generally associated with major entertainment-related happenings, such as Hollywood premieres and boxing suits. The goal of press agentry is to draw in attention alternatively than gain understanding. Even today, however, the word press agent may also be used interchangeably with publicist in traditional Broadway Theatre and film sectors. Today's entertainment industries are filled with publicists somewhat than press providers. Publicists are individuals skilled in press relations who attempt to get the name with their clients or occasions in the press by carefully creating information that inform, educate, and persuade. Some are astute in branding and setting strategies to help the careers and success of these clients.
In compare, press agencies want attention either good or bad in most any form. Press agentry have been called persuasion for short-term gain by using truth twisting and even distortion, but it may also be basically the staging of provocative serves to get publicity and draw focus on a person, event, or cause. Therefore, it is understandable the particular one of the initial proponents of press agentry was Phineas Taylor (P. T) Barnum, the famous American showman and promoter who put gun Gen. Tom Thumb on exhibit and launched a mobile circus offering Jumbo the elephant and freak shows. Barnum was a master of press agentry. For example, he wrote letters both praising and criticizing his circus show to newspapers under an assumed name.
In the first part of his career, Edward L. Bernays was also a get good at of press agentry. He persuaded 10 debutantes to carry up Lucky Hit cigarettes made by his client, the American Cigarette Company, as "torches of liberty" while taking part in New York's Easter parade. In 1929, Bernays staged a worldwide information event by organizing the "Light's Golden Jubilee, " an internationally party commemorating the 50th wedding anniversary of the electric light bulb for his customer, Basic Electric. Bernays were able to secure several dominant individuals to the event, including carmaker Henry Ford, electricity scientist Thomas Edison, and President Herbert Hoover.
Henry Rogers, one of the founders of Rogers and Cowan, the major & most successful West Coastline entertainment publicity company, became famous when he marketed an unknown contract player for Columbia Pictures named Rita Hayworth. A fictitious band of Look mag from the Fashion Couturiers Connection of America asserts that Hayworth was the best-dressed off-screen celebrity after Henry contact with them. Look newspaper required the bait and put Hayworth on the cover and shared 10 pages of her images.
Press agentry is printer ink. A sales-driven approach does whatever it takes to get publicity for clients in the marketing without resorting to paid advertising. Press agentry is not above truth-bending or lying down to reach its pragmatic goal. It will make up facts if it needs to take action. It really is persuasion for short-term benefit. Press agentry will not dissolve because it is a permanent job of PR. Press agentry has convert its procedure with the value of ethnics for more than a decade in the past. It made a balance within getting vulnerability and maintaining the reality for simple fact. However, getting subjection will be providing as first if there are any failures.
Press agentry depends on spin. It is interpreting facts to match one's view and get marketing coverage. Christopher Buckley's hilarious novel, "MANY THANKS for Smoking" lampoons this kind of specialist brilliantly, and post-presidential question commentary from Democrats and Republicans is a quadrennial exemplory case of rotating. Press agentry includes any technique that manufactures reports which are publicity stunts, faux surveys, fake committees, constructed occasions and other techniques practitioners continue steadily to use.
Propaganda classified among the feature of press agentry model (Grunig & Hunt, 1984). The term of propaganda in press agentry model, make reference to PR practitioner exaggerate and much more media hype than facts in order to get publicity for their customer. They'll not care the general public feedback and just want the public behave as they need. Based on the academics such as Butterick (2009), Theaker (2004), and Johnston & Zawawi (2004), when create information to influence the audience, the accuracy and consistency are be affected through just how of stunts or specific publicity seeking. PR experts use numerous kinds of PR tool to be sure that audience have a specific course of action and act what they wish. This sort of practitioners will get into 'press brokers' (Butterick, 2009).
Public information model is one of the four models of public relation. It's the second earliest model. It is a one-way communication model. This model is revolved from half-truths to more ethical tactics. This model is designed to inform the general public. It requires the sender who transmits communication or information and receiver who will get the concept of the information. The model will involve little of research, on in contrast, the readability and readership is quite high. The model mainly practices by the federal government, non-profit association and business.
According to Grunig & Hunt (1984, pp. 22), "the reason is the dissemination of information actually with persuasive objective. The public relationships person objectively records information about the organisation to the general public. " Unlike the press agentry model, general public information model target more on the syndication of information than creating information. It designed to give clear and factual information to the audience.
One of the types of the general public information in Malaysia is the declarations of Deputy Key Minister Lim Guan Eng and the state of hawaii professional councillors on the belongings they owned. The news was published in the first year of 2012. That they had researched about their ventures, fixed deposit, loans, shares, houses, vehicles, property like shop lots among others (The Celebrity Online, 2012). This step had revealed that Lim Guan Eng and their state executive councillors acquired practised the general public information model. They inform the truthful information to the public through marketing. They allow people to get prepared about their personal belongings. They make an effort to be transparent which shows their good and honesty in ruling the state of hawaii.
Ivy Lee's, one of the earliest public relations professionals, was the first ever to use the general public information model. He was advising a railway company in all honesty to the public and media regarding the damages on the railways. The reputation of the company had increased. Further, it possessed increased the public information model's value specifically for the turmoil management (Americanessays, 2011). Some statements argue that the transmitting of honest and truthful in controlling the crisis is essential though it isn't only just how in the method in problems management. Telling the truth to the public may bring deficit to the company. However, the appropriate management of crisis and satisfactory apologise would give a better reputation than concluding the reality (Americalessays, 2011).
As for the problems in the Malaysia context was the problems experienced by the MAS Sdn. Bhd. This is the news reported in The Sydney Morning hours Herald, an Australia online paper titled, "Malaysia Airlines in 'crisis' after loss". That is issue started in 2005. MAS was facing the financial crisis and this concern reviewed to the public about the reason. This online press reported the quantity of the loss like the loss of 2. 52 billion ringgit and the problems confronted for the plane tickets like the competition with other airlines like AirAsia. The business told the truth report of the crisis to the general public which this step may bring harm to the business and the reputation of the company may fall season. This implies that the company acts the general public by telling the truth. It put the general public before its company. This runs same for the press that released the news. The press practises the public information model in this particular case. The press assists not limited to the business company, it also reserve the right of the public to know the facts and real truth (The Sydney Morning hours Herald, 2012).
As the example above, nowadays, the others like the press company also practice the general public information model, even although model is applied the federal government, non-profit association and business in the past.
There is a statistic showed that this model gets the highest percentage of 50% of the organisation rehearsing this model nowadays (Theaker, 2004, 2nd ed. ). The various tools such as the press release, brochure, flyers, the web content, as well as others are being used to distribute the info to the general public (Thoughsleeding, 2008). The information which will be included in the distribution materials will be the details of the business, products, testimonial, success tales and others. Promotion and promotion of the companies are aimed to be pass on among the target audience. Though the main objective of the public information model is to disseminate the info to the public, this model does not follow to persuade the public nor change their attitudes. It should be benefiting the public the most. However, some of the companies have the other motives. They wish to publicise their company, products and services, build brand recognition and brand image, position the brand, among others (Management review guide, 2012).
This model is still practicing and it is highly practised by the general public in nowadays. This acquired indirectly exhibited that the model has certain success in communication. The next will be talking about the model with the federal government agencies about how they utilise this model in producing the particular news to the public.
The present Best Minister, YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak had declared the 1Malaysia concept. The government acquired put much effort in publicising the idea especially to educate and to notify the general public about the idea. The effort is seen in the Malaysia mainstream multimedia, such as radio, papers and television. Newspaper is the tool that used the frequently to transfer the vital and detail information about 1Malaysia concept.
In the one of the mainstream papers, The Superstar, 1Malaysia is strongly publicised. The Superstar is used to share with the general public about the announcement of the ideas and programs under 1Malaysia. Typically the most popular 1Malaysia plan is the 1Malaysia Grocery store Shops. The Celebrity published about the facts about the shop like the location, grocery items sold, the charges list, business time and other information. This is to educate somewhat to inform the general public about the groceries in 1Malaysia. (The Celebrity Online, 2012)
The mainstream media are indirectly associated with the Malaysia federal. The content may also be bias and being governed. The publishing of 1Malaysia principle seems among the managed content of media. This can be argued be as the agenda setting. The mass media emphasise and article a great deal of news about 1Malaysia. It seems like the media form and directs the public to think about the food shop (Mohd. Adnan Hashim, 2011).
In addition, the news published is quite very good news. This possessed made the general public to think that the 1Malaysia grocery retailers are well operating and this will gain confidence and support. You will find other government ideas are also like the brand new Economic Model, Eyesight 2020, Green Technology and other government plans. They are generally used as general public information model and plan setting.
Asymmetrical model include one-way asymmetrical and two-way asymmetrical. One-way symmetrical model doesn't use any research to learn what the general public perceive a specific company. However, the company doesn't change in any case but plan to persuade and change the general public to behave and to support in the way the organisation wish to. Two-way asymmetrical model also called medical persuasion as the model is use social science methods to produce increasingly more persuasive communication. This model usually targets the achievements of changing the audience's behaviour and attitude in a nutshell time frame. Communication under this model is two-way which is from the company to its publics, there is also gain the opinions from the public. The main purpose to get the public's opinions is only to help the organisation place their meaning in a far more acceptable way by the public (Grunig & Hunt, 1984). For instance, lots of the cosmetics companies are less or even never to use the pet to check their products as they found out that the consumers are have a tendency to pay more concern towards the animal and environment. They try to approach to the consumers with desire to to put them method of companies' perspective (Shirley Harrison, n. d. ).
According to the historical studies of Olasky (1987, 1989) implies that the success of propagandists at World Battle II, Bernays presumed that humans are can be manipulated. He brought up talk about that humans can be manipulated for the bad purpose as well nearly as good purpose. However, Grunig (1989) explained that publics often make the most form the strange things such as dangerous products, gender discrimination, pollution etc. For the past illustrations, Bernay comes out a thought to boost the sales of Blessed Strikes' cigarette smoking towards women, he persuade ten ladies who are first time to get involved an cultural event to smoking on the public place while walking in the parade of New York's Easter. Besides, in calendar year 1929, Bernays also appointed by General Electric to persuade lots of the world's electricity resource to switch off the energy and light to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of Thomas Edison for his invention of lamp to commemorate the greatness of Edison. In 1924, Bernays started the first education span of PR at NY School. He was the pioneer of public relations academic.
Some people aren't believed in public relations specialist as persuasion has been question by them and undesirable for nowadays propaganda. You can find positive and negative persuasive communication in the marketplace and society. Such as public healthy promotions like 'TAK NAK' that persuade the public to reducing smoking or even not to smoke to keep your body healthy. THE GENERAL PUBLIC Service Announcement (PSA) of encouraging safer driving likes never to break through the traffic light rather than driving after drinking alcohol. Furthermore, the politics plan for the elections is using the two-way asymmetrical model which the applicant is seek to affects the voters to the stand by position their point of view. The candidate will attempt to persuade the voters to vote for them with slogan like "vote Barisan Country wide to preserve the country peaceful". That is to create fear among the people deep-seated problems, they play with special appeals to place the propaganda onto the public. A lot of the advertising wish to use this model because at the end of the time, the benefits are not enjoyed by the consumer but the marketer which is the company.
The propaganda may use to describe this model. Propaganda intends to alter the public conception on certain thing. It is use as a communication to achieve the organisation's desire and expectation. The main concern of place the propaganda is to improve the way open public behaves currently to do something in the manner an organisation aimed to. Relating to Lasswell's propaganda theory, the prevailing environment can effect the people to be vulnerable to simple form of propaganda. One of the examples of propaganda is glittering generalities, which is using the positive words to represent a specific product or person. Like the publication of Guang Ming Daily, they use the slogan of "your everyday best ally" to make people admit and support their papers just like a closest friend that you needed every day. Another example is "McDonald is America's favourite", this is some sort of bandwagon that transporting a meaning of each American are like to eat McDonald, thus you ought to be one of them. More and more advertising use propaganda to put their product or service in order to manipulate their consumer to agree with the organisation's point of view and have a tendency to support their product or service. For example, the advertising campaign of Calvin Klein's perfume, the world shows a identity that use the perfume can look cool and able to attract the contrary sex to approach them. In other words, whoever desires to look attractive must use the Calvin Klein's perfume.
Nowadays, increasingly more of the marketers like to ask the celebrities to be the endorser of a particular service or product. It is because the celebrities have the ability to influence their lovers approach to particular product and raise the sales indirectly. For instance, Pepsi, a soft drink company who make investments a big amount on the famous celebrities at home and abroad such as Taiwan, Hong Kong and american countries to endorse their product. This is to create a celebrity charm in order to improve their sales. This system is known as testimonial that in a position to influence and manipulate the audience to act according to the advertising which is the indeed objective behind the advertisement. The advertisers are targeted at the idolater mentality of the viewers, and then provide the information of how to overcome their idol with Pepsi soda. In addition, the Disneyland's slogan, "the happiest put on globe" makes the people feel that there is the destination to go to feel good and having an improved life with no worries. Apparently, the organisation is supposed to create a direct effect among the viewers to step toward to Disneyland to become listed on the happiness.
According to Wayne E Grunig, he said that Public relations are the spread of management of a business and publics and the purpose is to establish a target public relationship of common trust. Mr. Wayne E Grunig is a known of public relations theories and adding a fresh ideas which is four models of public relations in 1984. One of the models of public relations is two-way symmetrical model which is a good and ideal model than other three models, said by James E Grunig.
Two-way symmetrical model is emphasizes on dialogue, complete and appropriate two-way communication. The primary purpose is to market shared understanding between organizations and publics which means results of communication is benefits to both factors. Furthermore, it emphasis on pr works to be built on the basic of the investigation and communication to resolve issues with strategies public through the dissemination of pr function. Besides that, two-way symmetrical models point out this is of emphasized moral, pressured the need to balance between your interests of social organizations and publics. For example, some pr department is utilizing a two-way symmetrical model alternatively than two-way asymmetrical model to handle the public relationships activities.
James E Grung, whose always get attention to others person dialogue, attitudes and behaviour and thinks that two-way symmetrical model is unique than two-way asymmetrical model. It is because two-way asymmetrical model just to change others without changing ourselves. For example, public relations largely used two-way asymmetrical model to reach their market. Moreover, he claims that good public relations not only successes to persuaded one aspect which is consumer or publics, he or she must persuaded both sides to change. Even though some used of two-way asymmetrical model can equally achieve in two-way symmetrical model. Successful two-way symmetrical model is to let others notice that there had personal interest contained in the information and to persuade them as well as uses the other person common interest to persuade them.
Two-way symmetrical model is refers to the discussion of two factors that impact each other to be able to achieve the balanced state in society. There are several characteristics positioning relationship between the government, media and publics. Thus, this is also some sort of communication between your says on behalf both. First of all, it is two-way in performance of the federal government and media to keep up mutual cooperation and common restraint. This means that federal should actively using the mass media public resources, truthful, reasonable, proactive in media to provide federal government information to understand the perfect of the spread of media and value orientation therefore maintain marriage between authorities and publics. Besides that, mass media as communal and general public resources and helps publics to convey their perceptions and reviews for administration. Two-way symmetrical model used for advertising to enhance the relationship between authorities and publics at the same time achieve the tranquility of social relationships. Second, two-way symmetrical is the best way to lead the federal government and media to share a typical goal which is to safeguard public's interest. For instance, government marketed 1Malaysia ideas through advertising such as tv set and radio. This implies that federal used two-way symmetrical model to keep good relationship with media and publics.
James E Grunig argued that two-way symmetrical model can included the central path to persuasion. The central path to persuasion is persuaded by the quarrels or content of the communication. For example, after hearing a remedy of the issues, people should forgive and forgot the problems because they'll persuaded to it. Furthermore, Pr also used the two-way symmetrical model to solve conflict. For instance, pr provided the ways that will advantages to two sides which means turmoil will be fulfilment. In addition, public relations increases the efficiency of organizations by maintain the independence to business and publics. For example, organizations manage the independence by building long term effect and stable the partnership between business and publics.
Two-way symmetrical model also used by pr to shared objective of their firm. For example, there a wide range of pr programs such as fund raising or health promotions are motivated more for the need to support from open public than conflict. Additionally, two-way symmetrical model mainly used in keep up with the relationship between corporation and publics and make a deal with publics. It'll make the business more responsible to their clients and publics. For example, organizations need to fulfil public's needs and would like at the same promoted corporation reputation. Therefore, two-way symmetrical model can even identified the ethics of public relations is quite than an final result.
Two types of research have been implies that two-way symmetrical model makes organizations more effectives. It shows that two-way symmetrical model is the most honest approach to pr and the ethics of public relations and the potency of the models will really helps to achieving the general public relations objectives. For instance, public relations announced to publics the info and collectively to achieved the organizations aims and goals.
Public relations provided a normative theory to dispute that the two-way symmetrical model found in excellence communication management. Pr used two-way symmetrical model to effective two way communication between an organization and stakeholders to achieve the understanding and co-operation. It offers that pr should be ethical and effective. For example, pr using multimedia to provided the information about their firm to create recognition to publics.
Government used two-way symmetrical model in provided political, social issues yet others information. For example, government used marketing to advertised 1Malaysia principle to publics about the unity national in Malaysia. Furthermore, two-way symmetrical model employed by advertising to provided news to publics. For example, marketing provided information to publics at the same time create credibility and truthful to press. Besides that, normative theory identified that marketing system is controlled and handled by federal and publics. It sometime can sizeable freedom to publicize and did not direct threat with their power to media nevertheless the exits of Printing presses and publication Take action (PPPA) and the Official Secrets Act (OSA) has strangled the freedom of mainstream marketing. For example, government provided the info about political to publics through press. It implies that two-way symmetrical model is existing authorities, multimedia and publics.
From time to time, the means of communication became more move forward along with the improvement and advancement of technology. In the press agentry function change into public information model, two-way asymmetrical model and two-way symmetrical model.
Although the two-way models are invented, the one-way models are still routines in the world and especially the public information model is the most used model in nowadays. You need to have better and undertake the further steps, same as the procedures of the models. The two-way asymmetrical and symmetrical models had been invented for long time ago, the practices rate of style of the superior models should be routines more in the culture. However, people yet remain on their footsteps on the public information model.
The society must change and combat for the procedures of two-way symmetrical model incredibly routines on the reviewing administration and companies' transparency as well as for the federal government and organisations' procedures and programs. This provides the contemporary society to a better knowing towards the federal government, instead of attaining confidence towards the federal government and companies through the general public information model which will be the short period of trust.
As talked about in the discourse of open public information model, the plan setting does stand a role in the four models of pr. This probably because the ownership of mainstream mass media. On the other hand, the two-way model is argued as the normative theory which is the perfect thinking about the professionals but is not what the real world reflex. The population has to fight for the true information in order to bring the country to become a better country.