Four alternative views of moral behaviour

Ethical behaviour is very important available world as it takes into account very important characteristics such as dignity, responsibility and integrity which a company may need to become successful. Honest behavior is also about respecting the diversity and rights of people.

There are four choice views of ethical behaviour which can be:

Utilitarian

Individualism

Moral - Rights

Justice

Ethical behaviour focuses on specific businesses and Corporate Social responsibility takes into account all the businesses together.

In this essay I plan to answer fully the question by using catalogs, lecture handouts and websites to comment and analyse the four alternative views of moral behaviour also to explain how this may link to definitions of Corporate Friendly Responsibility.

Corporate Public Responsibility (CSR) is how a company control buttons its business processes to generate a positive impact on modern culture. CSR begin from the grade of what sort of business is monitored e. g. how staff is treated, minimum wage, the effect on the environment and neighborhoods around the business. Each one of these factors will create a graphic of the business. If the company regulates its business steps the proper way for example pay the right salary, less pollution, supporting local neighborhoods and overall have an optimistic impact on the society, the business tend to catch the attention of stakeholders and customers.

Businesses main goals are making income and growth, however now businesses have also got to take into account CSR. This is important for an enterprise because the business enterprise has to indicate a positive image to be able to entice stakeholders. CSR has many benefits such as a better image in the market, advantages over other rivals and the business enterprise could be a role model to other organisations.

People have different views on this is of Corporate Public Responsibility, and below are a few different meanings which explain this is of CSR:

There is only one sociable responsibility of business - to make use of its resources and take part in activities made to increase its earnings as long as it stays on within the rules of the overall game, which is to state, engage in open and free competition, without deception or fraudulence.

(Friedman, M 1970, September 13, 'The Community Responsibility of Business is to improve its Revenue. ' The New York Times Publication, The New York Times Company. )

Friedman believed that a business must focus on is to use its resources and make income. In the price above Friedman doesn't point out anything about the surroundings, stakeholders or local neighborhoods, so basically Friedman is saying a small business main focus on is to make earnings and not think about the negative impact they could have on modern culture. This might reflect a poor image of the business and the business could lose out on stakeholders and customers which might, in the long-term, switch the profit the business enterprise is making into a loss.

However, Milton Friedman also suggests that the business has to 'stay within the guidelines of the overall game, without deception or fraudulence. Now this article was written in 1970, since that time the 'rules of the game' have broadened and factors such as decrease in the quantity of pollution and specific product labelling have been unveiled. Businesses nowadays make sure CSR tactics are managed and reported very well to reflect a good image of the business enterprise which would then draw in stakeholders and this may lead to the business making a larger profit.

Another description of CSR is:

CSR means setting aims to meet focuses on that benefit the society all together that are beyond your sphere of earnings maximisation and shareholder value. Instances would include taking steps to protect the surroundings, protect staff' rights and protect consumers' privileges. 'Giving a damn about CSR', 2006, Accountancy Ireland, Vol38, No. 3, pp. 48-49.

This definition states that CSR is about using a positive effect on society without thinking about increasing profit. In addition, it gives a few examples of how to be a good Corporate communal responsibility such as taking options to protect the planet this may indicate business may have the change just how they produce their products which might have an impact on their revenue in the brief however, as the business becomes knows for taking care of the environment and doing the right things, the business will get new customer, new market segments and more traders which might boost the business profit in the long run. The definition also contains some ethical issues, 'to protect staff 'rights and protect consumers' privileges. As you can see ethical behaviour and Corporate Friendly Responsibility some times over lap both are very similar to one another.

There are four components of Corporate Friendly Responsibility which are,

Voluntary and philanthropic - encourage real human welfare and goodwill.

Being a good corporate and business citizen contributing to the community and the quality of life.

Economic - duty to earn profit for owners

Legal - responsibility to obey regulations (society's codification of right and incorrect)

Ethical - not performing just for earnings but doing what is right, just and fair

tutor2u (2009) commercial sociable responsibility - release [online] www. tutor2u. net/business/strategy/corporate-social-responsibility-introduction. html, [seen 25/12/2010]

Ethical behaviour is as important as CSR available world. If the business has poor ethical behaviour it'll probably lose out on stakeholders. Ethical behavior is thought as the behaviour that is accepted as "good" and "right" instead of "bad" or "wrong" in the framework of the regulating moral code.

(Siddiqui, Kalim 2010, Lecture Handout, Week 8)

Businesses have a couple of rules set by the federal government they need to follow, guidelines such as minimal wage act, real human rights, and health and basic safety. Businesses with ethical behaviour bring a great deal of good advantages to the business such as more stakeholders and shareholders, new customers and new market which is good for an enterprise as it helps the business earn more income and commit into new technology that could prevent bad honest behaviour.

However, businesses with bad ethical behaviour always tend to be in poor countries such as china and India but nowadays bad honest behavior is also found in developed in developed countries.

There are four views substitute views of ethical behaviour which all look at the ditto but from different sides.

First of all you have the utilitarian view which looks at how a decision might have an impact on everyone. Will the decision do the furthermost best for the majority of the people?

Individualism view of ethics appears how a decision or behavior encourages a person's long term self applied interest.

Moral protection under the law view of ethics focuses on when a decision or behaviour is still within the individual rights function, it's about a business treating its employee's right, and the business should respect employee's privacy rather than pass anything private on to the alternative party.

Justice view of ethics concentrates in case a decision or behaviour shows any fairness. This is where legal rules come into play. People should not be cured any different because of their race, religious beliefs or gender. Many people are treated similarly.

The utilitarian view of ethics is usually used whenever a business's concentrate on is to increase their profit. This view of ethics stimulates managers to produce more and personnel to work harder as the outcome is good for the majority of people. E. g. if a business works towards maximizing their profit and gets to that goal, some people may get promoted and a lot of people may get a pay climb there can be an overall satisfaction.

However, in the e book 'advantages to Mill's Utilitarian Ethics' Western world (2003) claim that to get to the utilitarian view of ethics, where many people are satisfied and advantages from the final outcome, the utilitarian view of ethics sometimes conflicts with the justice view of ethics.

When this happens the utilitarian view of ethics no more becomes moral becomes people will do anything to get to happiness which can affect someone else and when this occurs not everyone is treated fairly and this is where in fact the justice view of ethics is necessary.

Now the justice view of ethics is all about how exactly fairly people mixed up in business are cared for. The business has got to obey all the legal laws. This might include treating everyone exactly like everyone is equivalent. The justice view of ethics is usually associated with discrimination, racism and sexism. A lot of the time people get treated unfairly because of their contest, gender and coloring which is very unethical. Usually unethical behaviour is found in Parts of asia such as China. China might be the world's biggest production country; however, most of the time employees are cared for in an unethical way. People get paid less than they have to plus they work more time than they ought to. A couple of hardly any rules to stop this. Unethical behavior use to be a large issue as individuals were dying from the way they get treated at work. A lot of the factories are very dangerous to work in.

Another unethical concern is child labour. Child labour is occurs all over the world, especially in big development countries such as china and Russia.

According to The Weekend Telegraph Malcolm MOORE (2010) Apple accepted to have used child labour at its china set up plant life. At least 11 fifteen season olds where found working at the manufacturing plant. The paper also suggests that 62 workers at a factory that makes products for Apple and Nokia have been poisoned by n-hexane, a harmful chemical that can cause muscular degeneration and blur eyesight. This shows that unethical behaviour could take place through any business even well known businesses such as Apple

Moral-rights view of ethics is the view of ethics that is associated with human rights and liberty of speech. Nowadays moral - rights are extremely important. However, some time back businesses didn't consider moral rights and people acquired fired using their company jobs because they spoke out and complained. This took place not long ago in Disney world in Hong Kong individuals were threatened by their bosses to reduce their jobs if indeed they complained. They put their workers under a lot of pressure and even more than 700 employees acquired injured. Moral-rights are incredibly important people can speak out and say what think, people should also know their privileges and businesses should adhere to these rights. Moral rights brings about increased health insurance and safety action to guarantee the employees are protected well and this is only achieved if they work in a protected climate.

Individualism view of ethics targets one's self involvement in the long - term. This view encourages chasing after what you want to accomplish without thinking about others. This view differs than the other views which encourage credibility. However, the actions taken to reach goals have got to be legal.

CSR and business ethics are extremely similar both go through the decision and guidelines predicated on something apart from making a income. Also, both check out how businesses react ethically. However, the difference between the two is that business ethics check out individual activities which is often regarded as right or incorrect. CSR is approximately their responsibility to care for its stakeholders and the impact it has on the society.

Business ethics give attention to issues of right and wrong behaviour in the business world. Again this looks at the impact business activities have on the world, environment and local areas. Business ethics is vital in the business world because without it the business enterprise world will be a chaos. People would rest, damage, steal and even get rid of to access where they would like to get. Business ethics identifies what's right and wrong.

Here are a few samples which illustrate moral and unethical behaviour.

Example 1. Around the entire year 1869, a white stone was discovered close to the Orange River in South Africa. This natural stone ended up being very valuable and folks paid a lot to own it. As these diamonds became more and more valuable, ways to mine them became more violent. They soon were called Blood vessels Diamonds. Blood gemstones were extracted and traded by rebel armies. They used the amount of money to buy weaponry because they were in conflict with the government. During the process a lot of terrible things took place such as child soldiers where used, murders and killing innocent people.

A lot of individuals suffered with the assault that happened over blood gem, individuals were getting their hand take off so they couldn't vote and remove the rebel armies from vitality. Until the year 2000 people were buying these diamond jewelry being unsure of it cost someone's live. Land, J. (2002), Blood vessels Diamond jewelry (Ben Kamal And Danielle Barnea Books), Saint Martin Press inc.

This example is very unethical as people lost their lives and lost their hands so they couldn't vote. They used people as slaves and slavery was restricted a long time ago so it is unethical in every way you look at it. This behavior would usually take place in poor countries where people would do anything to just how they're living and these diamond jewelry were opportunity to gain money and power. Blood diamond jewelry are bad corporate cultural responsibility. Big jewellery companies in European countries still bought these diamonds even though they realized people lost their lives which is very unethical. This problem could be pay making certain there's less smuggling or they ought to put a authorities in charge which would control the extraction of these diamond jewelry, law and rules have to be introduced. To resolve this problem, in-may 2000 countries that produced the jewellery achieved together and made a decision to set up a program which is currently known as the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS).

Example 2. Unilever is one of the well known ethical companies across the world. This past year Unilever was known as world most honest companies. Unilever work to meet individuals demand, no matter where you are in the world, you would always see Unilever products in retailers. In '09 2009 Unilever spent 89 million Euros in community programs worldwide.

Recently Unilever partnered World Food Program (WFP) to provide food and diet for poor children in poor countries. Unilever also lifted fund and awareness about this concern. Unilever (2010)

This is a good ethical behaviour example. Unilever spend fast amount of money to take on big issues on the globe such child being hungry. They know tackling this issue on their own won't make a huge difference so they partnered businesses and authorities and non - federal government organisation across the world to deal with this problem. Child food cravings is an extremely big issue in Africa and Asia.

Unilever is a very good example of corporate and business interpersonal responsibility. They actually value their workers and the surroundings they also help local neighborhoods and have an optimistic impact on depends upon which CSR is all about.

Example 3. Toyota is a favorite cars company who fabricates good performing fuel efficient automobiles. Toyotas manufacturing crops are based in Japan so when everybody knows countries such as Japan is where unethical behavior is likely to occur. Toyota felt very successful during the last few. However, a great deal of unethical practices occurred that people didn't find out about. People were alleging that they are overworked till they couldn't any longer. Toyotas acts are also portrayed as slavery.

This example illustrates unethical behaviour as Toyota took advantage of their employees; they treated their workers as slaves by overworking them and paying them less and less. The greater earnings Toyota makes the less they pay their employees.

This is a very bad example of CSR as Toyota aren't taking care of their employees, they're also dealing with the personnel bad which is unethical. Toyota based mostly their crops in poor countries just had taken take advantage of the low pay.

This issue could be tackled by placing a minimum income action and an work which models the limit of working hours.

The four alternative views of honest behaviour are all there to protect the privileges of the employees, environment and the culture. Without these views ethical behaviour the business enterprise world would be a chaos and there will be a great deal of unfair treatment, laying, stealing, lack of health and security, poor wages and this would have an impact on the economy as a whole because people would get significantly less than minimum wage and people would reduce spending levels that may lead to a show up in career and the market would just go downhill.

However, these laws, regulations are there to prevent this thing from going on. A business with good honest behaviour tends to be the business that is more lucrative. It is because it draws in stakeholders, new customers and it could enter new marketplaces.

Some ethical views support the other person but this is not the truth for the Utilitarian and justice because people would do anything to get to pleasure even if it means they have to break the guidelines.

Ethical behavior and CSR are incredibly similar however, CSR and business ethics are extremely similar both go through the decision and principles based on something apart from making a earnings. Also, both take a look at how businesses work ethically. However, the difference between your two is the fact business ethics take a look at individual activities which can be regarded as right or wrong. CSR is approximately their responsibility to manage its stakeholders and the impact it is wearing the culture.

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