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Impact of Agricultural Changes in Goa

INTRODUCTION

Etymologically the term Agriculture is derived the following - 'Agri' means field or soil and 'culture' means the attention of or tilling. It includes all such real human initiatives as are conducive to the quick and better expansion of vegetables and animal products for the benefit for man. Within the last fifty many years of liberation, the state of hawaii has undergone and witnessed in the agriculture sector. During liberation, practically two third of the population was involved in agriculture as their main occupation. Paddy was the predominant crop of the state accompanied by cashew and coconut. The situation now changing now we've cashew nut which is cultivated in nearly 55, 000 Ha with paddy 31, 000 Ha. The cultivation of horticulture plants nowadays are gaining importance because of the good returns, lower risk and tolerance of the crop for part time farming are greatly affect.

The condition of Goa offers assistance to agriculture whatsoever levels to provide substantive earnings to rural people. The Agriculture Division offers assistance for farmer from land prep of the extent of marketing of the produce. The Division of Agriculture with is brain 1 / 4 at Tonca, Panaji implements developmental program through zonal agriculture office buildings positioned in each talukas level and training middle at area level. Laboratories are setup at area level to check the ground where garden soil health credit cards are issued for major and micro

Goa being a progressive state, the farmers face marvelous shortage of labor who can work on the domains. The dependence of machine for activities in agriculture is trend. Goan farmers having small land holding and practically 80% of farmers own less than 1 ha of land. The federal government preferred smaller machine to farmers and provides financial assistance for such machines.

In the status of Goa agriculture is one of the most crucial economic activity. . Lies between your Arabian Sea and the European Ghats, to give food to its own people Goa encounters problems. The coastal areas are exposed to salinity rather than suitable for agriculture, as the inland areas aren't productive enough. So for its day-to-day needs of agricultural produce like vegetables, Goa would depend on Karnataka and Maharashtra because of its day to day needs of agricultural produce like fruit and vegetables. However, roughly one-third of the full total land in Goa falls under forest areas and yields substantial profits.

  • The federal, however, has done much to improve and develop agriculture in Goa to make it more successful, thus permitting the farmers to get a much better return for his or her labor. Rice and fish being the staple diet of the individuals, paddy becomes the visible crop in the circumstance of agriculture in Goa. The key vegetation, besides paddy, are maize, ragi, bajra, jowar and pulses. Cash vegetation like mango aerecanut jackfruit, banana pineapple, cashew nut coconut, are also produced in abundance. Cashew is one of the most important crop in Goa. One kind of intoxicating drink called Feni is created from cashew. Sugarcane cultivation has been recent phenomena and a glucose factory has also been set up in Goa. There are different variety of mangoes are expanded in Goa. A number of the famous Mango types are mancurade, mussarade, fernandine, xavier, alfonsa, colaco. Kapo (hard) and Rasal (delicate) are two types of jackfruit are produced here. The fruit and vegetables that are generally part of the agriculture in Goa are lady's fingers, radish, brinjol, pumpkins, cucumber, drumsticks, breadfruit and different varieties of gourds. Sweet potatoes, chillies, onions are also available in Goa.
  • Paddy being the principal crop of Goa, it is harvested in two conditions, particularly Kharif or sorod and the rabi or vaingan. The vegetation which are cultivated in monsoon are called the kharif vegetation and the winter vegetation are called rabi crops. The main resources of irrigation for winter plants will be the nallahs, streams and channels, tanks, wells and canals. Vegetation which are expanded in the Kharif season consist of paddy, ragi (locally called nachani) and some pulses. Crops produced in the rabi season are comprised of paddy, pulses like horse-gram (kulith), black gram (udid), a number of beans plus some vegetables.

However even though 1 / 4 of the populace is sustained by agriculture in Goa, it plays a part in only 15 to 16 percent to the income of the state of hawaii. Due to fast urbanization the option of agricultural land is lowering.

In Goa, moving cultivation is locally known as 'Kumeri' and it is this form of agriculture that is largely in charge of producing Goa's result of nachne, other millets and pulses. However, agriculturally trained farmers, researchers or foresters condemn kumeri cultivation as ecologically destroying and sustained work have been made by the forest and Agriculture office to discontinue such cultivation. You will discover basically 5 phases in Kumeri cultivation. Felling a location of forests, repairing the inactive vegetation, planting or sowing seeds minus the plough, weeding; and finally harvesting. Though virgin forests give higher produces, kumeri cultivation prefers a secondary forest for cultivation. This is because clearing most important forest is quite an dangerous task, requiring more manpower and demanding a larger drying period for the felled vegetation. In Goa, Kumeri cultivation became issues for 2 reasons. First, during Portuguese regime, large chunk of hilly areas have been announced as forests and later by the Goa authorities thus reducing significantly the Kumeri cycles of the tribals. Secondly forest Office cleared felled forest with in the non-protected areas and changed these to monoculture kinds of eucalyptus and teak, in so doing affecting forest availability to Kumeri cultivation. The removal of Kumeri cultivation has led to a drastic decline in the availability of millets like nachne which have remained the traditional diet of the economically unprivileged society in Goa. Goa being a little state in area, agricultural land may also be used for nonagricultural purposes. Large areas are used to create bus-stands, highways, properties etc. Being located in the coastal belt, the real house industry in Goa is continuing to grow much higher during the last few years and the land prices are soaring high, thereby luring the farmers to keep their land fallow and then sell it off for an enormous market price. Additionally it is discovered that the upsurge in residential area has led to increased dumping activities which may include mud and rubble. These activities lead to rain water clogging rather than it rushing in to the sea. This factor too will keep the farmers from cultivating their lands and they want to keep it fallow as enhancing the drainage can be a very costly affair. Farming in Goa is principally reliant on the appearance of monsoons. The quality and quantity of cropd by timely required rains. At times the farmers are helpless with the later appearance of monsoons which leads to postponed sowing and thus low yield. At times there is a dry spell which also influences the expansion of crops. All this demands better irrigation facilities. The actual fact that tourism industry in Goa has flourished, has had its implications on agriculture too. The tourism industry gives more profitable offers for this day children, thus providing them with regular work. And this aspect contributes to another problem faced by farmers i. e. availability of labour and high labour cost. With younger generation not wanting to earth their hands in the land and looking out for white collar jobs and renewable pastures overseas, scarcity of labour has led farmers to hire labour from other state governments. Therefore has increased the cost of farming. The neighbouring state governments of Goa like Maharashtra and Karnataka have abundant of 4 agricultural activity and therefore the agricultural products are low priced. Thus importing these products works out much cheaper than cultivating them.

LITERATURE REVIEW

According Olekar Ramesh (2008) agriculture has been one of the top part of your economy. You will find more than 60% of the people depend after agriculture because of their livelihood. It really is a way of life, a tradition; agriculture will continue to be central to all or any the strategies for socio-economic development of the united states. Rapid expansion of agriculture can not only ensure extended food security but also aid in expansion in industry and the GDP. To keep growth in agriculture credit takes on an important role. The amount of agriculture credit given by the lender to the farmers has increased from over the year. This has been an extraordinary development in bank credit sector, considering the fact that there are several problems like accessing credit for agriculturist and problem providing loan by the bank.

Chand Ramesh et. al (2010) talks about agriculturalproduction and plantation income in India involve several risks. Only mechanism available to safeguard against creation dangers is crop insurance. For eg. the system called as NationalAgriculturalInsuranceScheme(NAIS) functioning in the country and has suggested several changes to make crop insurance more effective. But the coverage of this scheme in terms of crop area, volume of farmers and value ofagriculturaloutput is very small. To create agriculture risk management far better the present degree of coverage need to be improved. Such an improvement has financial implication and can have an impact on current insurance practices. Therefore it requires renewed work on the part of the government in conditions of making appropriate device and providing support in terms of money. , to agricultural insurance.

Kumar and Sameer(2009) focuses on the implementation Kishan VISA OR MASTERCARD (KCC)Schemein India. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of India consulted with the Reserve Loan provider of India, and National Loan provider forAgriculturaland Rural Development to establish KCC. Providing credit support to the farmers through banking system timely and sufficiently manner is the aim of thescheme. Advantages of thescheme include a full yr credit necessity, simplified records, and option of credit for three years.

Sharma and E. Kumar (2008) reports regarding agriculture related concerns of different Bt cotton farmers those who are not eligible for any gain under India's Financing Minister P. Chidambaram's Rs. 60, 000-crore plantation loan waiverscheme. The farmer name Gurram Adi Reddy, maintain a view that the true issues behind there non elegibility for any advantage under waver structure is lack of adequate water ability, the timely option of inputs and fair, remunerative and steady prices for the produce.

Rajkumar P K et. al (2009) discusses of onion and maize growers who have been under Market Involvement Scheme(MIS) in the talk about of Karnataka by selecting two districts of the state. Dharwad and Gadag. Due to several problems such as procedural complexities the system has been delayed payments and the necessity of meeting Rational Average Quality (FAQ) stipulations for the vegetation. It has additionally been discovered that if the procourement centres as farther it is more likely that farmer to move on view market sale. The analysis suggest that simplification of technique making timely payment and increasing the amount of procurement centres for larger number of farmer under Market Intervenion Structure This study speak about an important innovation in providing medical care for the rural poor: the Yeshasvini Health InsuranceSchemefor rural farmers and peasants in Karnataka. This is one of the world's most significant health insuranceschemefor the rural poor, theschemestarted in 2003. So that it is designed in a such a manner that overcome several obstructions to providing health security for rural populations. In the the second yr, the scheme covered about 2. 2 million extensively dispersed peasant farmers for medical and out patient look after a low twelve-monthly premium of approximately US$ 2.

According Jana and Sebak Kumar(2011) in India more than 50% are dependent on agriculture for his or her livelihood. Still Indian economy are agrarian current economic climate. 60% of the rainfed areas with no way to obtain irrigation. And majority of these areas are included in marginal farmers and rural poor. Due to insufficient irrigation facilities small and marginal farmers are are at risk. There is certainly need for lasting and innovative kinds of irrigation. For eg innovative experiment is happa test which is viewed as Integrated Natural Learning resource Management( INRM) emphasizing both normal water and soil management.

According K. N. Rao(2002) inIndia nearly 2/3rd of the populace will depend on onagriculturefor their livelihood andagricultureis highly hinge upon nature, crop insurance has to play the role of a vital institution. Crop insurance alone cannot increase production or by providing financing both should increase same time. During the VIIth Five-year plan period, the In depth Crop Insurance Structure was introduce. Although program has shortcomings, farmers received almost 6 times the premium as promises, but only 5% of the total farming community were protected under this structure. The Country wide Agricultural InsuranceScheme(NAIS), which substituted CCIS w. e. f. 1999 can be an improved version. Exactly like in other areas of the world the crop insurance programs in India is reinforced and financed by governments.

According Jennifer(2009) In1985 crop insurance system is began offering by the government of India with the Broad Crop InsuranceScheme. Within the modern times NationalAgricultureInsuranceScheme changed by comprehensive Crop Insurance Design. Though it is known as NAIS as a noticable difference over CCIS it is also flawed scheme equally the CCIS. It really is found that Authorities crop insurance design have failed worldwide but India seems to have this certainty.

S. K. Mishra(2007) promises that rice, whole wheat, maize, millets and pulses are the major food crops of India where as major cash crops include Oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, jute & mesta, and potatoes. Slight cash plants include Tobacco, chillies, ginger, onion, turmeric, tapioca, sweating potatoes, etc. Plantationcrops includetea, espresso and silicone. 3/4th of the gross area under cultivation is cereals and pulses. This plainly shows that there is increaseinthe ratio area under thecashcropsis discernible. Less than 1% area is under Plantation crops. One of the foodcrops, wheat has highest growth rate accompanied by maize, grain and pulses. Millets having negative expansion rate area.

J K Sachdeva(2005) talks about cash crop like tea, coffee, spices, oilseeds, cotton and cashew. They may be traditional export items, and India exports 50% cash vegetation of its total agricultural produce. These things are ready for utilization after some value addition. In companies these items are being used as raw materials in food. The goods can be ranked highinhierarchy of needs after food items like wheat and rice. The buyer economic status performs a substantial roleintheir demand. The paper analyses the exports of tea, caffeine, spices, cotton, oilseeds and cashew byIndia, the growth in the exports following the coming of economic reforms, calculates the changes in export and talks about the relationship between exports, imports and production.

According to Richa Kumar(2014) that farmers have limited information and many middlemen create problem in getting higher price for his or her produce. She gives the exemplory case of soybean farmersinMalwa, centralIndia, which is acashcropthat connects farmers to global consumers, this content argues that the expectation of disintermediationinthe soybean source chain is deceptive. India's positioninthese global sites puts farmers and intermediariesinMalwainthe position of price receivers: they cannot affect the global price of soybean or manipulate its local priceinany way. Inthis framework, providing price information has negligible impact on the final price obtained by farmers. To effect a result of potential changes there is a need to find out the waysinwhich electricity is exercised by various actorsinthe marketplace

According Gulati, et. al (2002)Riceis the major food crop of almost 70% of the world's poor who are stayinginAsia, where more than 90% of worldriceproduction and use takes place. Ricetrade liberalization therefore has great implications for poverty. The worldricemarket of the world has been imbalanced partially due to treatment. Poor countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, andIndia not safeguarding rice areas, the abundant countries of East Asia (Japan and Korea), European countries, and the United States greatly support theirriceproducers. This leads to great diversityindomesticriceprice levels, with high pricesinthe second option countries and very low pricesinthe former. Trade liberalization would thus resultsinflows from these poorer Parts of asia to East Asia and European countries. This will be positive effect on poverty, where price of manufacturer will increase. It will result in second-round results (wages, employment, and investment)inexporting countries.

Parshuram Samal & Rabinarayan Patra(2012) focuses on production lossesinricedue to natural calamities like drought, overflow and cycloneinOdisha during amount of(1965-66 to 2008-09) by using supplementary data. In addition, it tells the coping strategies implemented byfarmerson the foundation of most important data collected from 100 influenced samplefarmers. The effect show heavy loss in riceproduction in calamity years. To earn additional income and smoothen consumption spending in the calamity years coping strategies used by farmers were Migration and moving to wage workinthe building sector. Given the impossibility of preventing the occurrence of natural calamities, it is possible to argue a better allocation of cash forriceresearch for developingricevarieties is useful to deal with various calamity situations and generation

Sathishka k and P. A. Rego(2013) studied about Agriculture in Dakshina Kannada. This paper studies the major developments of agriculture sector in Dakshina Kannada Region and also examines the crop diversification in Dakshina Kannada District. Dakshina Kannada is key an agriculture area of karnataka talk about. More or less 60% of inhabitants of district is determined by agriculture for their livelihood. Dakshina Kannada has changed food grains with non food grains plants like plastic, areca nuts, cashew nut products. The writer concludes by declaring that metropolitan migration of agricultural labor and urbanization resulted in the diversification.

According D. N. Patil (2010) It is now grasped that the changes in the institutional credit is important factor to bring about development in the plantation sector. That is specifically true in areas that could not take part in the process of development. There is an immediate need to improve the institutional credit in the agriculral credit. Therefore to lessen the regional imbalance, new loan company branches should most probably in rural areas.

Narwade S. S. et. al (2009) examined about agricultural performance in the state of Orrisa during the pre and post reform period. in the pre reform period there was decrease in both area and yield growth rates. The evaluation uncovers that in Orissa an produce per hectare of food grain plants have obtained severe setback during post reform period within the pre reform period. Outcome of the food grain vegetation and instability has also significantly increased during post reform.

S. A. Sujatha (2010) researched the problems confronted by farmers in the prevailing farming system. That all the types of farmers facing scarcity of family labor scheduled to involvements in non farm activities and fragmentation of land. Large number of farmers are dependent on rainfall, they are also faced with problems like insufficient transportation and marketing facilities.

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