Introduction To Indian Folk Arts Cultural Studies Essay

The somewhat lesser-known customs of Indian painting will be the so-called "folk" paintings seeing back to a time that may be known as "timeless". They are living traditions, intrinsically associated with the local historic-cultural settings that they come up. It comes with an age-old heritage that may be traced back again to the start of civilization on this subcontinent [1]. It started out with cave paintings, with the natural dyes so strong they can still be seen today on the surfaces of the caves after centuries. The folk and tribal painting come from the remote control rural and tribal areas. Sometimes the musicians and artists of these rustic works are not even informed. They lack the essential means to sign up for schools, and because they are gifted with such beautiful mean of manifestation by nature. The many painting forms via these regions commenced not just as a painting but also as a spiritual and interpersonal ritual performed daily. It commenced with painting the walls and floor of dirt houses. They hide the fact that this purified the ambience and pleased the deities. Various religious and symbols were therefore seen within the painting.

The term 'folk paintings' here includes pictures manufactured in Indian villages by both men and women, for ornamentation of these abodes, portrayals of their gods and for his or her various rituals; and, by local professional painters or artisans for use of the neighborhood people. Each one of these paintings were stated in a variety of styles and designs. Background, sociology and geography infused the painting of each region with local flavor. Their style and quality depended on the materials available in the area in which these were carried out, these very factors that helps to identify the region.

Folk art work may be thought as the art created among groupings that exist within the platform of existing culture, but, for geographical and ethnical reasons, are mainly separated from the complex and ethnic reasons, and the trends of their own time. As a result, they produce distinctive styles and things for local needs and tastes.

In folk custom, art work is nourishment to the daily life of the people. Whether he is a TAMILNADU (an Indian talk about) [2] potter who creates a massive terracotta "AIYANAR" (example in Appendix. Pic. 1) or a MADHYA PRADESH (an Indian state) [2] tribal who creates "PITHORA" painting (example in Appendix. Pic. 2), at the moment of creation, the poverty-stricken, illiterate folk, becomes a master-crafts-man who can create marvelous clear plastic and visual forms with an innovative genius paid to him by generations. Topography and geography too have control over the medium of skill. Regarding UTTAR PRADESH (an Indian status) [2], we will get folk paintings on the wall surfaces of the homes. Whereas in ASSAM (an Indian status) [2], one cannot find wall membrane paintings because the majority of the walls of the home are designed with cane or bamboo. The folk and tribal traditions, consider all materials available in day-to-day life are worth offering as a medium of expression. In this regard, artist-writer, HAKU SHAH creates, "Whenever a tribal details a blade of grass, gourd or bead, fiber content, twig, grain, pin, plastic material button, conch shell, feather, leaf of blossom, he recognizes through it, smells it, hears it, and therein starts the ritual to be with it [3]. " Every part of the country with it's own trees and shrubs and vegetation, birds and animals, hills and dales has encouraged Indian folk designers to get multiple metaphors, series of symbols and many images to build a abundant treasure-house of skill.

The following will be the common stylistic character types in folk-art:

- Choice for simple format and choice of typically representational lines;

- A simplification of colors and quantities so that shading is eliminated;

- Stylization of motifs to create ornamental elements; and

- Repetition of lines, of whole results, of dots for extensive or rhythmical purposes.

Following is the list of some of the main folk arts from different parts of India

Madhubani Painting

Folk art work of Madhubani from the Mithila region [2] of north India. There will vary styles produced by different castes of the spot. (Instances in Appendix Pic. 16a - 16h)

Thanka Painting

Combining the impressive beauty with spiritual perspective, Tankha is painting solely focused on Buddha and his teachings. These symbolize how the Buddhists start to see the universe. It really is generally in eight layers with the top most layers or part depicting a deity. The others seven are the various components of the universe like, fire, globe, space, normal water and air. Colourful and geometrical, these are many a time seen as the basis of temple architecture. These paintings are done with dedication, attentiveness, and enthusiasm and also with the deep religious feeling to do something directly related with the supreme ability. (Example in Appendix Pic. 3a, 3b)

Patachitra Painting

Indian artwork Patachitra is a pre-Islamic form of religious art. It comes from the eastern Indian state Orissa [2]. Hindu gods and goddesses and other mythological displays are painted on a leather-like surface made of several layers of old cotton glued alongside one another. (Example in Appendix Pic. 4a, 4b)

Kalamkari Painting

Kalamkari Literally meaning 'pen-work', it is the religious painting on cloth with blocks and wax withstand, from the temple town of KALAHASTHI in southeast ANDHRA PRADESH [2]. (Example in Appendix Pic. 5a, 5b)

Warli Painting

Warli is a tribal community from MAHARASHTRA, India [2]. They have got made a substantial contribution to the history of Indian tribal fine art. Done by men and women, these artworks show their determination to the nature and the superpower. (Example in Appendix Pic. 6a, 6b)

Gond Painting

Tribal painting, Gond is a freehand manifestation of the Gond tribes of MADHYA PRADESH, India [2]. Painted freehand, these two dimensional paintings reflect their notion of life. The third dimensions, the depth is definitely without these paintings reflecting the simpleness of the artist. Sometimes these paintings also notify how colourful their thoughts can be. They put colors to the blandest creations of the type sometimes. (Example in Appendix Pic. 7a, 7b)

Batik Painting

Batik, wax resist painting from Western BENGAL, India [2]. Meaning 'wax-painting' in Javanese, it started in Indonesia and later revived in Western BENGAL, India. The creativeness of the proficient dyers has given it a fresh new description. The concept of batik is a straightforward one, wax or a in the same way resistant product such as rice paste is used to create patterns or motifs on material before it is dyed or shaded for some reason. Once the wax is finally ready to be removed, the untouched fabric beneath it certainly is the original color of the towel. (Example in Appendix Pic. 8a, 8b)

Miniature Painting

Folk art small paintings inspired by the elegant romantic life-style of the Mughals [4]. These paintings show one moment at the same time and in minute details. The love scenes, the court views, various solitary women, family pets, blossoms all were directly detected and reproduced all together. (Example in Appendix Pic. 9a, 9b)

Santhal Art

The Santhal tribe, one of the famous tribes belonging to the Bihar point out of India [2], has a typical design of painting, known as Santhal paintings. The body of the various varieties that they color are seldom or perhaps never in one shade, they are always striped, dotted or filled up with any geometrical pattern. They can be done on a handmade paper with poster colors. The topics are chosen from the natural environment or perhaps from the happenings of their day-to-day lives. (Example in Appendix Pic. 10a, 10b)

Phad Art

RAJASHTAN, an Indian express [2], the land of colors is well known for Phad painting, which is performed on cloth. This type of painting is principally within the BHILWARA district. The primary theme of the paintings is the depiction of local deities and their reviews, and legends of erstwhile local rulers. Phad is a kind of scroll painting. These paintings are manufactured while using dazzling and delicate colors. (Example in Appendix Pic. 11a, 11b)

Yantra

Tantra skill or yantra is used as a musical instrument or medium of focus on a deity while meditating. It is employed while performing spiritual ceremonies. It is a graphical representation of geometrical or abstract images such as triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons or circles. (Example in Appendix Pic. 12a, 12b)

Chittara

Chittara, so this means 'picture' can be an manifestation of the village performers of KARNATAKA India [2]. Chittara is performed on handmade newspaper. This paper is covered with mud first and then your desired color of the backdrop is given to it by various colors extracted from the natural things. The color red is procured by grinding a special red stone, the color black color is procured by milling burnt rice and soaking it in normal water for couple of days, dirt and rice paste provides white. (Example in Appendix Pic. 13a, 13b)

Introduction to MADHUBANI Paintings

Painting is normally done by folk painters or classical painters in 3 ways: wall-painting (BHITTI-CITRA), canvas-painting (PATA-CHITRA) and floor-painting (ARIPANA). Of these the wall-painting and the floor-painting are extremely popular in MITHILA region [2]. The Wall-painting or mural paintings, popularly known as MITHILA painting or MADHUBANI painting.

MADHUBANI, literally indicating 'from the forest of honey' is the name of the community from where comes the MADHUBANI paintings. Located in the inside of northern India, this skill is the expression of imagination in the day-to-day life of the local people. Done mainly by the females of the family, this fine art is regarded as a part of daily ritual. Initially all vegetable dyes were used for the paintings but today they have access to the variety of poster colors to focus on their needs and to enable them for much more experiments with colors. The projected date can not be traced back again to the actual age that brought MADHUBANI art in to existence. It is however centuries old art work that is associated with the normal lives of the villagers. For the reason that region it is thought that every morning the worshipped deity comes invisibly to family members to bless the members of the family and also to bring more wealth. So this skill started out as a pleasant painting for deities. It began from the entry floor and the exterior of the house. Passed from moms to their daughters, the fine art of MADHUBANI has constantly been bettering in its quality. As this traditions was initialized with an objective of decorating the exterior of the house, the walls and the ground always offered as the canvas.

Floor-painting (ARIPANA)

The art of ARIPANA or floor-painting has been handed down from generation to generation. There is not a single house in MITHILA in which ceremonies are presented without ARIPANA. The women of MITHILA focus on drawing circular patterns of designs with a white water paste manufactured from ground rice blended with drinking water. Sometimes vermilion is also applied, besides white, red, inexperienced, yellow and dark-colored colors. In a variety of ARIPANA designs, they have got the images of gods and goddess painted on different figures and forms with multiple colors, reflecting the artist's originality and creativity. ARIPANA can be an indigenous word, which means "the art of sketching embankment or wall membrane. " The term is derived from ALIMPANA or ALEPANA (of Sanskrit source) and even though grammatically right, it falsifies the true origin of the term [5].

(Exemplory case of ARIPANA fine art in Appendix. Pic. 14a, 14b)

The land and people

North of the river Ganges, in the talk about of BIHAR [2] is placed a land called MITHILA, shaded by old mango groves and watered by melt normal water waterways of NEPAL [2] (Indian neighbor country) and the Himalayas. MITHILA has enjoyed a noteworthy part in the politics and cultural life of historical India. It is a land filled with the wonder of landscaping in sharp compare to the ugliness of poverty where its people, most of whom are talented painters, live, who acknowledge their fate, good or bad, and coloring for painting sake.

It is said that completely MITHILA was the house where in fact the enlightened and the learned might always find a large patron, calmness and safety, where courts were specialized in learning and culture and where poets and philosophers resided in honor and affluence. Even though women in the villages around MADHUBANI have been rehearsing their folk fine art for centuries, the entire world most importantly has come to know about these women and also to consider these to be "artists" only within the last forty years. Even now, the majority of their work remains anonymous. The women, most of them illiterate, are unwilling to consider themselves specific suppliers of "artwork" and just a few of them mark the paintings with the own name.

Among the first modern outsiders to report the custom of MADHUBANI painting were William and Mildred Archer. Mr. Archer was a British civil servant allocated to the area during the colonial age (till 1947). The Archers obtained some drawings on paper that the ladies painters were utilizing as products to storage area. Works that the Archers accumulated visited the India Details Office in London (now part of the British Catalogue) where a tiny amount of specialists could review them as creative instances of India's folk art [6].

The women painters in MADHUBANI lived in a finished population and were unwilling to color openly. Eventually due to a drought (1966-68) in the encompassing regions of MITHILA that led to severe economic turmoil women started out to commercialize their skill. The All India Handicrafts Plank [7] encouraged the women artists to produce their paintings on handmade paper for commercial sales. The federal government of India, the state government of Bihar and the regional build guilds has all come in mutually to initiate the productions and marketing for these women painters. This unexpected change in the form of art and its presentation has empowered the world to discover a new form of artwork with an enviable linkage to the lives of women [8].

The Style of painting

This design of painting belongs to North Bihar. Commensurate with the traditions under which it begun, the style is replete with symbols of fertility like the lotus vegetable, the bamboo grove, birds, fish, etc. in union. The artwork shifted to drawing paper in the 1960s, and this helped bring with it a fresh freedom and imagination. Paper is movable and economically feasible too. Characters from character & mythology are designed to suit this style. The themes or templates & designs widely painted will be the worship of Hindu deities such as KRISHNA, RAMA, SIVA, DURGA, LAKSHMI, SARASWATI, Sun and Moon, TULSI (basil) vegetable, court moments, wedding scenes, communal happenings around them, etc. Floral, pet and bird motifs, geometrical designs are used to fill up all the gaps. There is almost no unfilled space in this style. The skill is handed down the generations, and hence the original designs and habits are widely managed. One of the primary features of MITHILA paintings is convenience. All that is required for the artist is a suitable surface, ordinary paints, and local brushes. Initial sketching is hardly required in MITHILA paintings because the outlines are developed in a single sweep of the brush.

Tools Used

No superior tools are needed in MADHUBANI paintings. Painters are still unacquainted with the modern brush. The traditional brush is manufactured out of a bamboo-twig by wrapping the twig up with a bit of cloth or by having its end frayed in such a way that the dietary fiber looks like a lot of money of scalp.

Color Scheme

The artists prepare the colors. Dark is obtained by combining soot with cow dung; yellowish from turmeric or pollen or lime and the milk of banyan leaves; blue from indigo; red from the KUSUM bloom juice or red sandalwood; renewable from the leaves of the solid wood apple tree; white from rice powder; orange from PALASHA bouquets. The raw materials were blended with goat's dairy and drink from bean crops. Today green, blue, red and orange have been added to these colors. The colors are applied smooth with no shading. There is normally a double collection attracted for the outlines, with the distance between your lines packed by combination or straight small lines. In the linear painting, no colors are applied. Only the outlines are drawn. Some villages only produce black ink drawings. Other villages use green, yellow, blue, red and parrot green, each paint blended with the traditional goat's dairy.

Impact of Hindu faith and mythology in Indian folk arts

Hinduism Religion is a definitive effect on Indian Artwork. Hindu Paintings boasting Hindu gods, Hindu goddesses, and the many Hindu pantheons are one of the very most dominant symbols of Indian and Hindu Skill.

Hindu god/goddess in branding

In India, manufacturers make an effort to impact the psyche of consumer, by branding an item with the brands and images of Hindu deities. They bring the premium image of a God and His virtues and associate them with their product, thus exploiting the mass popularity of well-established imagery of the God to improve product branding. The beauty of this strategy is based on the actual fact that the companies using God's images do not have to be concerned about any type of intellectual property issues like copyright, thus enjoying an immense credibility simply by virtue of having connected their name to a venerated name. This kind of branding shows the level of popularity of god/goddess images in India and the corporate/legal freedom of their use. Manufacturers use images and brands of Hindu Gods on product labels and campaign materials to entice buyer's attention. Even in the us some of the telephone card companies like MCI, which aim for Indian consumers, print God's images on its international calling cards and sometimes even the phone credit card itself is known as after a God. In India the most significant group of advertisers are the food marketers, accompanied by marketers of drugs and cosmetics, soaps, automobiles, tobacco, appliances, and olive oil products. Many of these companies somehow associate their products' virtues with the virtues of the God and sell it to the buyer, who can perfectly relate with the image shown. For instance, Indian jewelers use image and name of Goddess LAXMI, who's considered the ruler of all material wealth extensively. One of the most famous labels among jewelry shops in India is: "Maha Laxmi Jewelers". (Examples of some Ads and products in Appendix. Pic. 17a - 17j)

Forms and symbols in MADHUBANI Paintings

The motifs of the designs include conventionalized nature, circles in series, spiral or curvilinear devices, series of short lines, foot-points of fragmentary (imaginative) pictures illustrating legends and reports, giving glimpses of environmental and natural life. While the religious paintings include various gods and goddess, the secular and decorative paintings contain various symbols of wealth and fertility such as elephant, equine, seafood, lion, parrot, turtle, bamboo, lotus, flower, PURAINA leaves, PANA, creepers, SWASTIKA etc. Besides, we also run into in these paintings areas of agricultural creature life, which takes on an important role in the rural current economic climate of MITHILA. The animal, in truth, is a duplicate representation of energy and character of God. Thus, the topic matter generally falls into two teams:

(1) A series of heavenly forms.

(2) Some strictly selected fruit and vegetables and animal varieties.

For different occasions, they may have different varieties and symbols mounted on these paintings.

Wedding Paintings

At weddings, the following objects - the sun and moon, a bamboo-tree, a circle of lotuses, parrots, turtle and seafood enter into prominence. These paintings pull their themes mainly from the PURANAS and epics. One of the most dominant image looming most significant on the walls will be the bamboo-tree and the wedding ring of lotus, the KAMALAVANA or PURAINA. The concentration is on fertility, and the marvelously complex diagrams of the KAMALAVANA, the PURAINA and the forest of bamboos are, as described by Archer, MANDALAS and diagrams of the generative organs. The lotus circle isn't just a lotus but also the mark of the bride's sex, while the bamboo-tree is a bamboo, it also symbolizes the phallus. (Although sometimes it is said that the women musicians and artists iconize the husband's patrilineage as a stand of bamboo. ) In other words, lotus is a female and bamboo is a guy. Relating to Archer, "the latent symbolism gets to its level in the many paintings where the bamboo-tree is depicted not as aloof and apart but as driven through the center of the clinging group" [9].

There are also modest symbols of parrots, turtles, fish, sun and the moon. In Indian framework, the parrots symbolize the lovebirds plus they feature constantly as images of the bride-to-be and bridegroom in folk sounds and poetry. Turtles likewise have a substantial place because they connect normal water with all its beneficent electric power with marriage, their strange shape being diagrammatic of the enthusiasts union and their mind and tail appearing from the shell appears like the precise counterparts of the bamboo plunging in the lotus. Then, there are fishes that happen to be emblems of fertility and, finally we've sun and moon who are put because of their life-giving features.

(Example of marriage art work known as KOHBAR in Appendix. Pic. 16a - 16h)

About the MADHUBANI painting Performers: Baua Devi

Baua Devi is one of the most respected musicians and artists in the MITHILA community, and certainly the most successful. She lives in JITWARPUR, the village where she was born. Her work has been exhibited extensively throughout India as well as the Center Georges Pompidou in Paris and at the MITHILA Museum in Tokamachi, Japan [10]. Also, at the MATRIX show at UC Berkeley Art work Museum, 1997 [11] included two mural-scale paintings by Baua Devi, one depicting the life span of KRISHNA, the other, a celebration around a pond in a Mithila community.

The opportunity of MADHUBANI paintings, its reputation in India and in other parts of the world

MADHUBANI Painting has currently received much attention and recognition. There are very a few websites devoted to MADHUBANI painting. I simply would like to add that the credit for providing recent and significant popularity to this art form moves, in large measure, to the Lalit Narayan Mishra. In his capacity as the Minister for Railways in Mrs. Indira Gandhi's cabinet, reproductions of these paintings adorned the coaches of many fast and super-fast trains. [12] Copies of the paintings became a hot-selling item for both local and international travelers. The reproductions could be within plenty, for illustration, among the hawkers in the bustling streets side market along the JANPATH in New Delhi, India - essential for the foreign tourist! Credit arrives also to Mr. Bhaskar Kulkarni, erstwhile member of the Indian Handicrafts Federation. He was the first ever to coordinate an exhibition of this university of paintings at New Delhi in 1967 [13]. This helped bring instant international reputation. Folk artwork is having a treasure house of symbolic terminology to add as a surprise to Modern art. "Folk in a sense holds the connotation of anonymity, collective wisdom, spontaneity and ease. With the development of Anthropology a new awareness has come into understanding the primitive and folk customs. Anthropology has proved that regionalism in artwork is not against internationalism. [14]"

Conclusion

MADHUBANI paintings are popular because of their tribal motifs and use of dazzling earthy colors. I would like to explore how these unique top features of folk artwork could be efficiently translated in to the form of Animation.

Based on my research I have these findings about MADHUBANI PAINTINGS characteristics:

-The information are recognizable by a face in account while the rest of the body faces the front.

-The face has one very large eyeball and a bumpy sort of nose coming out of the forehead.

-The number outlines are attracted as a dual series with diagonal hatching between them.

-The borders are highly furnished - either geometrically or with ornate floral habits.

-Clothing is highly decorated with geometrical, floral or even canine patterns.

-The drawings of pets or animals are easily recognized for what they can be, but again tend to be very stylized.

-The forms and symbols in these paintings have their own relevance and different varieties and symbols are used on different situations.

-There could be different interpretations of symbols and its own uses.

-These paintings have a restricted variety of colors and each color has its own meaning. Artists prepare the colors applied.

-The designer uses traditional brushes (made from a bamboo-twig) for pulling.

With time medium has modified. Originally these paintings were done on walls in villages. Later, the performers successfully transferred their techniques of wall structure painting to the medium of newspaper. Now the majority of the painters use watercolors and handmade papers. At exactly the same time they maintain the characteristics and design of paintings even though medium has evolved. To be able to create a new way to obtain non-agricultural income, different organizations promotes the artists to produce their traditional paintings on handmade newspaper for commercial sales. This way now it also generally pass on. Even in the newer work on paper, the themes are usually the Hindu Gods and Goddesses and tales from Hindu mythology. They exhibit their paintings throughout India as well as different parts of the entire world. Now with the arrival of digital tools like Macromedia Adobe flash, which can produce the similar kind of drawings using different combinations of pencil and clean strokes. Usage of digital tools also makes these drawings faster and better as these paintings has tons of repetitive habits.

So we can say, moving the techniques of wall painting to the medium of newspaper gained these paintings more popularity and recognition. Same way I strongly feel that when these styles and characteristics of MADHUBANI paintings will be transformed into digital medium, such as animation, it will require the paintings to the next level, where these folk fine art styles will be utilized by more and more digital musicians and artists from India and all over the world.

End Notes

[1] Based on the art record timeline the fine art produced on the Indian subcontinent from about the 3rd millennium BC <http://members. fortunecity. com/njones/timeline1. html>. However based on the recent findings, An archaeological site off India's western coast may be up to 9, 000 years of age. The revelation happens 18 months after acoustic images from the sea-bed suggested the occurrence of built-up structures resembling the ancient Harappan civilization, which dates back around 4, 000 years. < http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/south_asia/1763950. stm>.

[2] Expresses from India. Map of India - Appendix Pic. 15

[3] Thakur, Upendra, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1982.

[4] Roy, The Bratas of Bengal, " The RANGOLI or ARIPANA, KOLAM or MURGGY, as it is well known in Bombay (now Mumbai), TAMILNADU and ANDHRA, is a nice decoration of the ground. "

[5] The Mughals ruled in India from 1526 to 1857. The Mughal period can be called a classical age group in northern India. In such a ethnical development, the Indian practices were amalgamated with the Turko-Iranian culture, taken to the united states by the Mughals.

[6] Gene R. Thursby, School of Florida <http://www. clas. ufl. edu/users/gthursby/rc/index. htm>.

[7] Ministry of Textiles (Govt of India) <http://texmin. nic. in/tex_03. htm#L07>

[8] Madhubani Painting Workshop Brochure. < http://www. indianfolklore. org/publicevents. htm>.

[9] Archer, W. G. , MADHUBANI Paintings. Mumbai, 1998.

[10] The Mithila Museum in Tokamachi, Japan. <http://www. bekkoame. ne. jp/~mithila/Eindex. html>.

[The Mithila Museum is housed in a turned schoolhouse in Tokamachi, Niigata Prefecture, located in Japan's snow country. Here roughly 850 Mithila paintings, more than 300 paintings that the Mithila painters created in Japan, Warli paintings by an aboriginal group in India, and Indian teracotta statues and figurines, are exhibited on the long lasting basis. ]

[11] Baua Devi and the Art of Mithila. <http://www. bampfa. berkeley. edu/exhibits/devi/>.

MATRIX: August 15 through October 26, 1997 at the UC Berkeley Fine art Museum.

[This is the first United States exhibition of paintings in some recoverable format by the Indian musician Baua Devi. The exhibition also includes a selection of functions by other artists from the Mithila region of northeastern India. Baua Devi's paintings explore an array of personal and mythological styles. A graphic, which she has come to look at as her own is the nag kanya, or snake maiden, a creature with the torso and mind of a lovely woman and the lower body of a snake. The nag kanya resembles the snake goddess Manasa, whose characteristics echo those of the main element Hindu god Shiva. The nag kanya also derives from the real snakes that occupy the watery region where Baua Devi lives. ]

[12] Railways in North Bihar. <http://cctr. umkc. edu/user/endomv/RAILNB. HTM>.

[13] Mr. Bhaskar Kulkarni. <http://cctr. umkc. edu/~endomv/BIH_ARTS_CRAFTS. HTM>.

[14] The Fine art of Folk Custom. <http://www. chennaionline. com/artscene/history/folkart. asp>.

References

Thakur, Upendra, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Abhinav Magazines, n. d.

Thakur, Upendra, History of MITHILA. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, n. d.

Jain, Jyotindra, Ganga Devi: Custom and Appearance in Mithila Painting. Ahmedabad, India: Mapin Posting Pvt Ltd. , 1997.

[A fine book on a respected artist who utilized what is sometimes called the Kayastha design of MADHUBANI painting. ]

Vequaud, Yves, THE LADIES Painters of Mithila. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.

[A publication that contributed to and then mirrored the worldwide popularity of MADHUBANI painting. ]

Osaki, Norio, MADHUBANI Paintings. Kyoto Shoin, 1998.

Shearer, Alistair. The Hindu Vision: Types of the Formless. Thames & Hudson, 1993.

Aldred, Gavin. Indian Firework Skill. Trafalgar Square, 2000

Prakash, K. Authentic Folk Designs from India. New Delhi: Dover Pubns, 1995.

Dawson, Barry. Block Graphics India. Thames & Hudson, 2001.

Archer, W. G. , MADHUBANI Paintings. Mumbai, 1998.

Anand, Mulk Raj, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Federal government of India, 1984.

Online exhibit of MADHUBANI Paintings. <http://www. clas. ufl. edu/users/gthursby/rc/index. htm>.

About an Designer. <http://www. bampfa. berkeley. edu/exhibits/devi/>.

The MAITHILI BRAHMANS: A WEB Ethnography. <http://www. csuchico. edu/anth/mithila/>.

Marketing God: About spiritual content on Indian tv. <http://www. blonnet. com/catalyst/2002/01/24/stories/2002012400020100. htm>.

Indian God in Advertising. <http://www. magindia. com/ex2000/ganesh/main. html>.

Mudra Communications: A respected advertising organization from India <http://www. mudra. com>.

Mithila Museaum in Japan. <http://www. bekkoame. ne. jp/~mithila/Eindex. html>.

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