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Introduction to review on Psychology, Postmoderism & Pakistan

Abstract

This study struggles to discover the postmodern themes or templates that are related to mindset in Pakistan. For this purpose a novel Sifar Se Aik Tak is selected which is dependant on the designs of postmodernism and postmodernity which is examined with Foucaulidian discourse analysis. Different themes were extracted from the book. Some of the major designs include Identity Engineering and Personality Transcendence from Traditional to Modern and then from Modern to Postmodern identity, Changes in the patterns of Socialization, Gender Role Engineering and its own transcendence from Traditional to Modern and the Postmodern. Some alternate discourses includes the role of words and changes within it and interpersonal critique which strengthens our major discourses.

Key Words: Sifar Se Aik Tak, Foucaldian discourse examination, Postmodernism

Chapter I

Introduction

1. 1A Short History

Postmodernism cannot be defined in one line or phrase. it started when FriedrichNietzsche said that God is lifeless, and is carrying on since now. Various philosophers and thinkers attempted to explain different perspectives of it. I will make an effort to cover all perspectives. To take action, we have to dive in history. Western divides its history in three phases, old or old, modern and postmodern. Enough time before 14th century is referred to as old or old. In this period, religious beliefs was ruling the world. There is no room for any type of new knowledge or theory, any new theory was measured on the basis of religion and thus negated. No medical knowledge was being produced in those days. Experts like Galileo were hanged only because the new methodical fact which they raised, contradicted religion. It was time of annoyance and regression for thinkers and open public as they simply think on the patterns made by faith. After renaissance, the move in practices, culture, education and every other aspect of life came, there emerged more give attention to objectivity and objective truth and knowledge, hence this time period is named modernity. This move was basically a result of the regressed aggravation created in the old era. Modernism focused on objective real truth. It turned down the blind folded trust in faith and started asking question. The interested minds of that time started formulating new ideas, new scientific inventions. Personal information was considered equivalent and same for many human beings. Focus on the reasonable interpretation became so powerful that anything which cannot be logically justified was negated and not even considered well worth discussing. The social, sociological and emotional distinctions among humans were put aside only as these were not reasonable enough to be considered. In a nutshell this age is the time of enlightenment and logic. Then came a period, when thinkers began to question modernity, its reasoning and everything its value. The word postmodernism was initially used by an English painter John Watkins Chapman in 1870. Then this term was coined by Federico de onis in 1934 against the use of difficult words and experience in poetry. In modern thought, literature and idea were interpreted on basis of reasoning and objectivity. Knowledge became objective and apart from objective fact or fact, all became pointless. This started to shorten the respiration space of your creative or thinking mind. Modernism started out playing the same role of Godly Judge which faith was playing before. It became the reason why of the climb of postmodern time.

The 1960s were the real beginning of the postmodern time. The decade helped bring forth audacious critiques of the modern worldview, episodes on all notion systems. Odd new ideas about such issues as awareness and sanity and objective truth entered the general public dialogue. . . The [I 960~1 revolutionaries challenged the complete modern worldview. -Anderson (7 990, pp. 44-48)

Only the main one who claims to have a simple, certain, and clear-cut id has an id problem. -Gergen (1991, p. 155)

Postmodernism rejected the idea of objective truth and objective certainty on overall. It focuses on subjectivity and subjective fact or reality. Though some philosophers contemplate it a mere expansion of modernism, but it changes the complete scenario. The id, which became all the same for all human beings, suddenly started searching its origins in culture, economy, population and ancestors.

The utilize a theory and politics of difference following a critique of personality politics presupposed notions of the "postmodern" condition decentering and destabilizing personality. Actually, the long discussion of id issues has come to be framed by a growing distinction between your modern and the postmodern. The actions which became absolute results of different actions, are now analyzed culturally, sociologically, gender sensible etc. This change will not come in a single night; it was a complete long process which lays its grounds on generations. -Dunn (1998, p. 51)

1. 2 Indigenizing Postmodernism

Indigenizing postmodernism is quite a difficult phenomena. To do so, we must take help from background. Before the entrance of East India company, subcontinent was divided into many states that have been ruled by Nawabs and Rajas. These Nawabs and Rajas were the political heads of those state governments and were answerable to the Ruler of subcontinent. Prior to the introduction of Islam in subcontinent, it was a place where Hindus were at bulk. The political system at that time was at its failing. Rajas and Nawabs at tha time used to control it because of their own good. School system was at its peak. Community was suppressed till hunger to fulfil the needs of Rajas and Nawabs. In 712, Muhammad Bin Qasim came here and Islam was propagate here. It stated to be a peaceful faith so majority started out following Islam. Class system didn't end by any means but basic individuals rights were being fulfilled. The introduction of Mughals in subcontinent was a blessing in those days. The needs of men and women started fulfilling and art work and literature started grooming. Then emerged the Uk. They finished the Ruler system of ruling subcontinent and presented their own system (which is still prevailing here in somehow improved form). They changed the Raja and Nawab systems and divided the prevailing says into many small areas. To every status, they appointed their favorite Rajas, thus divided a major electric power source into many which managed to get easy to regulate. They also unveiled their culture, their individuality, their norms and ethics into subcontinent. The individuals here, who had been first in the misunderstandings about their personal information that if they were Hindu or Muslim, or they were same and equivalent even after recognizing Islam, acquired no idea and started out receiving this colonial result. This made the perplexing condition worse and after English kept Hindustan divided, the problem worsened. The consequences of post colonialism never emerged up as issue of discussion in those days as there were more important problems accessible at that time to solve. With the formation of Pakistan in 1947, till now, as land we've not understood the post colonial ramifications of our identity, culture, society etc. our company is lost about our personal information that either we name our casts, we name our faith, we name our culture, we name our provinces, we name as Hindustanis or we name as ourselves. In past due 70s the consequences of modernism began approaching here. We, again, just followed them like blind person without the sort of questioning. This continues till 90s, when modernism emerged at its peak here. There is technological revolution, all of a sudden the target of education become research, people began to name their identification on basis of logic etc. once we were just the "victims" of consequences of modernism, we weren't in a position to understand it completely and then we were flushed towards postmodernism. Now if I say that we are in postmodern age of post colonialism, it cannot be described as wrong. The concentrate on subjective reality these days, the subjective fact and subjective interpretation of any phenomena promises our individuality to be postmodern.

1. 3 Mirza Athar Baig

Mirza Athar Baig was created on March 7, 1950. He was associated with the department of beliefs in Government University University of major part of his life. He was just not a simple beliefs tutor but his areas of interests also contains physics, books, space technology etc. These versatile interest causes the production of many creative works of art such as dramas, short stories, and novels. Daldal, Hisaar and Khwab, Tamasha and Nashaib were his famous plays which were on aired on nation tv set. His first book Ghulam Bagh (YOUR GARDEN of Slaves) was printed in 2006 and struck the academics and literary circles just like a bomb. The major theme of the novel, beside many other themes, was postcolonial problem in our contemporary society. His second novel Sifar Se Aik Tak (From Zero to 1) was posted this year 2010. This book covers the vast topic of your present perplexing postmodern condition. His third book Hassan Ki Soorat-e-Haal (The Condition Of Hassan) is just shared in 2014.

1. 4Sifar Se Aik Tak (From Zero to 1)

Sifar Se Aik Tak (From Zero to 1) was the next book of Mirza Athar Baig. Its first edition was published in 2010 2010. The name of the novel depicts the binary terminology/ code system found in education. The novel clarifies the indigenize condition of post modernity via its individuals. Zaki, one of the primary heroes in Sifar Se Aik Tak (From Zero to 1), is

 

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