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KERS Energy Recovery

ABSTRACT

In the past decade of the present day car era tries at inducing Alternative Technology in vehicles had been made out of some amount of success. This gave birth to autos that ran on Electric, Hybrid and Gasoline cell technology. Though these cars are present in the market they have didn't make a big change as people still choose gasoline fuelled autos. In 2009 2009 FIA experienced presented a row of technological changes to the activity also permitting the teams to run regenerative technology called KERS so that they can regain the followers interest and prove that F1 does care about the surroundings. The technology already been around in hybrid vehicles but the key goal behind its benefits was to develop an efficient technology that could be transferred to street cars. All of the major factory teams came prepared with KERS system but most of them struggled through the first half of the season many even steering clear of it after three races credited to consistency issues. The ban on tests made trends harder and frustrating. The KERS equipped cars earned only three races in the whole season with the first be successful approaching late after middle season. Even after making an investment large amount of resources and money on KERS the groups failed to obtain the best from the system. In this report the many KERS technologies developed by the F1 groups like electric, flywheel and electromechanical established KERS units and similar systems within road cars with their benefits and drawbacks are discussed in brief. In addition to the above, which system has more potential to be inducted in road autos is also talked about.

INTRODUCTION

I do agree that KERS in F1 would gain the mainstream engine industry given the actual fact that you of the primary reasons for its advantages was to facilitate a smooth copy of the technology to highway cars though substantive amount of work needs to be done. This year's 2009 F1 season introduced the widest range of technical rule changes the sport had observed for greater than a decade. The one specific theme that received significant attention both from the F1 clubs and the marketing was KERS a tool which stores the throw away energy produced during braking and produces it during acceleration. The rules limited the quantity of energy restoration of KERS to 400kJ per lap, providing a supplementary 80hp for about 6. 5 seconds. The groups were allowed to apply any means with the condition that they pass the F1 basic safety standards. After calendar months of research and development the clubs came out with progressive ideas but it was obvious that the field was divided into two types. Williams was the only team which developed a mechanical flywheel centered KERS product, though they never used it in a competition while the remaining field went for electric KERS device. In contrast to what most people believe that KERS is not a new technology in fact it has been used in a variety of applications including hybrid buses and cars. We shall now study both the systems and the advancements they may bring to the auto industry.

KERS in F1 cars

As in any hybrid vehicle the principal factor that limits the efficiency benefits over its lifetime is the recoverable energy storage space system (RESS). Both most significant characteristics of any RESS are specific energy and specific electricity. The former refers to the amount of energy per kilogram that the machine can store and the second option to the rate at which energy can be put into or taken out of the machine per kilogram. Within the wake of preparations for the 2009 2009 season clubs had tested a range of different systems including electric, mechanical, hydraulic and even pneumatic centered KERS systems. After careful analysation most the teams figured the electric system would be the best option that could deliver the mandatory amount of energy from the brakes. The norm in F1 to make things as compact and light as it can be led the teams to the decision. With the rules allowing the teams only 60Kw of energy for 6. 5 seconds per lap, drivers needed to be very wise with regard to using this extra electric power. The KERS system was mostly intended to aid the overtaking of cars but as seen throughout the season the majority of the KERS prepared automobiles lacked overall rate in the beginning of the season and used the KERS for better acceleration from the corners and to protect their positions. The basic working of the kers unit in F1 autos is very similar to people in hybrid street cars.

ELECTRIC KERS

This system includes three components, the mototr/generator; KERS control unit and the battery pack. The engine/generator is directly connected to the drive train. It produces electricity during braking and releases it back again through the transmission when required. The vitality captured is stored in the battery pack which in turn is linked to the Kers control unit that governs the release and storage area of energy to and from the batteries. The electric motor/generators were provided by motorsport company's specialising in this field eg. Magnetti Marelli (offered for Ferrari, Renault, Toyota, RedBull), Zytek ( Mclaren) who did the trick meticulously with the teams to manufacture motor unit/generators tailor made to suit their design requirements. The heat generated through the charging and discharging process hampers the performance of the motors, hence the motor unit has an built in liquid cooling system which weighs in at just 4kgs altogether. The RESS product (battery pack) has been produced by the teams themselves and Lithium-ion was the most well-liked choice. The complete system including the engine/generator, Kers control product and the batteries weighs about around 25-35 kgs with 25. 3 kgs being the lightest produced by Zytek for the Mclaren Mercedes team.

ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC KERS

  • The electric systems allow the teams to be more flexible in terms of placing the various components around the automobile which helps for better weight distribution which is of essential importance in F1.
  • The specific energy of Lithium-ion batteries compared is unrivalled as they can store somewhat more energy per kg which helps decrease the size of RESS.

DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC KERS

  • Lithium-ion batteries take 1-2 hours to charge completely due to low specific power (i. e rate to demand or discharge) hence in high performance F1 vehicles more batteries are needed which escalates the overall weight of the batteries.
  • Chemical batteries heat up during charging process which takes place a number of that time period in KERS devices which if not placed under control might lead to the batteries to lose energy in the pattern or worse even explode.
  • The specific electricity is low as the power must be converted at least two times both while charging or discharging causing energy losses in the process.

MECHANICAL KERS

This system produced by the Williams F1 team is quite similar to the electric kers system comprising a electric motor/generator that is matted to the transmitting, a power control product to govern the energy released to and from the motor unit but instead of storing the power in a battery a flywheel can be used as RESS medium acting as an electromechanical battery pack. They opted for the initial solution of making use of the motor/generator in to the flywheel. The shape below designed by Williams Hybrid Electric power shows the internal framework of the flywheel comprising a stator attached in the outer wall space of the casing. The long lasting magnets of the motor unit are incorporated into the composite composition of the flywheel itself thus making the flywheel magnetically packed. This reduces the entire size and weight of the machine leading to a concise structure.

The motor/generator is wound with fibre to keep carefully the design intact at high speeds. The fibre is inserted with metal contaminants which allow it to be magnetised as a permanent magnet. This greatly reduces the eddy current deficits of the device as there are no additional metals in the arrangement. When it spins, it can generate an up-to-date in the stator or be spun such as a motor by way of a current through the stator. In order to achieve high specific vitality the flywheel is spun at speeds in excess of 50000 rpm which is possible in a vaccum.

The concern here was to allow the transfer of energy without permitting any exterior air from entering the vaccum. This led to a highly reliable system whose heat could be stored under control in an easy manner without influencing the performance and functional life span. The result is a concise and efficient mechanism that may be packaged easily in the car.

There was another similar system produced by Flybrid Systems LLP which acquired also designed a flywheel founded KERS system but with a different design theory. As mentioned by J. Hilton the flywheel was crafted from carbon filament wrapped around a metallic hub and weighed around 5kgs. The flywheel was matted to the transmission of the car with a several predetermined ratios, a clutch and CVT that was branded by Torotrak. The CVT contains input and result discs which were formed so the toroidal areas on each disk produced the toroidal cavity. Inside each cavity there were several rollers in touch with the torroidal surfaces of both insight and the end result shaft. If the roller is at a tiny radius (near the centre) on the insight disc with a sizable radius (close to the border) on the result disc the CVT produces a "low" proportion. Likewise a "high" percentage is produced when the rollers are relocated in the contrary manner across the discs described in detail in. As highlighted in and CVT plays a vital role in the entire performance of the system without which the flywheels full probable is hard to extract. The copy of electric power through the discs and rollers takes place via specially developed traction force fluid. This fluid separates the rolling surfaces of the discs and rollers at their contact points. The type and outcome discs are clamped which results within an efficient device for transferring ability between the rotating discs and rollers. To be able to maintain high efficiency the flywheel rotates at 60000 rpm in vaccum. The machine was well capable of storing the mandatory 60Kw of vitality as demanded by the teams. The total weight of the machine was 25kgs comprising both CVT and flywheel which is the same weight as the lightest electric system.

ADVANTAGES OF MEACHANICAL KERS

  • The specific electric power of flywheels in comparison is much greater than that of batteries.
  • The energy lost during transfers amongst the machine components is relatively less credited to high efficiency.
  • The flywheel system can deliver almost the whole amount of energy stored in it, regularly without any decrease in efficiency.
  • The mechanical system doesn't need to be replaced as its life routine is as good as that of the car.

DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANICAL KERS

  • The specific energy capacity of flywheels is leaner than some of the advanced electric battery models.
  • Friction stated in the bearings and seals cause the flywheel to slow down and loose energy.

KERS TECHNOLOGY USED IN ROAD CARS

Both the Electric and Mechanical KERS developed in F1 aren't new to the automobile industry. Electric hybrid automobiles such as Toyota Prius(1997 Japenese market), Honda Civic Hybrid(2002), Ford Break free Hybrid(2005) did quite well since their release on the market especially the Prius. Flywheels on the other palm were created in travel buses in Sverdon, Switzerland (1950) and also in small electric locomotives for shunting purposes. The key reason why flywheels have never been found in road cars is because they were heavy and produced high gyroscopic makes which upset the handling characteristics of the automobile hence these were installed in heavy buses and trams as talked about in. The kers system in commercial and carry vehicles was used to accelerate the vehicle from low speeds or standstill situations were an engine utilises most amount of gas thus giving better gas average characters. The electric hybrid vehicles mentioned previously possessed good emissions and gasoline average though the actual results were less than those mentioned on paper. This is because manufacturers conducted testing in a secure environment were the battery pack system was examined in its ideal temperature range which in reality was not the case. These were then operate on drive cycles whose numbers wary from the real world numbers, thus resulting in efficiency figures that are inaccurate. The batteries used in hybrid cars are still quite heavy and credited to constant charging and discharging wear out faster. Hence they have to be replaced from time to time. Because of the commerce involved in any new technology designers found it hard to gather money and resources to make such hybrid technology and thus the tempo of development was gradual. As car manufacturers face tougher emission norms hybrid solutions are receiving more importance by the day.

CONCLUSIONS

Apart from increasing overtaking the primary purpose of introducing KERS was to challenge the best technicians in the business to develop impressive ideas that would directly benefit the mainstream motor unit industry. Given the resources and rate of improvements in F1, the Kers systems made by the teams would have taken the automobile manufacturers much longer to develop. Both types of KERS can be retrofitted in vehicles albeit with trivial modifications. Given the existing trend of engine unit downsizing they can truly add large amount of performance to the automobile without impacting on the engine unit and average. The mechanised system is more efficient than the electrical power systems that use inefficient batteries making them more likely to be induced in vehicles in the near future. The flywheels used in F1 automobiles were quite powerful though they'll be modified to match real life situations which will be capable of stocking 75kW and consider about 35-40kg which in comparison to current electric battery systems is half the weight as observed in.

The carbon fibre found in F1 flywheels can be reduced in quantity for road cars where as all of those other materials like aluminium and material are readily available and would be cheaper to produce in quantity than electric systems. Flywheels are easy to recycle while the utilization of rare globe materials make batteries more costly to recycle. The flywheels could be costed immediately by the machines thus charging faster which would help deal with the road conditions better. The electric systems developed by F1 have demonstrated there may be room for improvement in this field but comparatively flywheels seem to be the better option in conditions of efficiency increases and sustainability though further work must be achieved to make it road ready. Flybrid systems happens to be testing with Jaguar, the Technology Strategy Panel established by the English government is financing a project relating Prodrive and Flybrid to help develop the technology for road cars as stated in. Initially manufacturers intend to present it with top quality models and last mentioned to city an automobile which helps the declaration that F1 KERS will gain the motor unit industry.

REFERENCE

  1. Vehicle Propulsion System by Prof. Lino Guzzella, Dr. Antonio Sciarretta, ETH Zurich, Institut fur Mess-und Regeltechnik, Sonneggstr. 3, 8092 Zurich Switzerland. 2005 webpage ( 87-106) and (124-130).
  2. Handbook Of Automotive Powertrain & Chassis Design by John Fenton 1998 site (131-139).
  3. http://www. racecar-engineering. com/articles/f1/426958/exclusive-mclaren-f1-kers. html.
  4. Flybrid Systems LLP http://www. flybridsystems. com/Technology. html
  5. High Accelerate Flywheel Established Hybrid System For Low Carbon Vehicles by D. Cross, J. Hilton from IEEE Xplore Oxford Brookes University or college.
  6. TorotrakPlc. http://www. torotrak. com/Resources/Torotrak/Documents/SAE_WC_2009_09PFL-0922_KERS. pdf
  7. Williams Hybrid Electric power Lt. http://www. williamshybridpower. com/technology/
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