Literature Review On Material Management Construction Essay

Nowadays, many companies are doing investment to construction project to earn their income. Unfortunately, there aren't all contractors in a position to earn the earnings of the investment in structure projects. This is because some of the contractor will not proper management the materials. For samples, a service provider over order the materials such as cements, bricks and reinforcement, the price will increase and the gains can be low or deficit of the money. Therefore, a organized materials management is very importance in engineering site to avoid over ordering and receive poor materials at exactly the same time can minimizing the cost and maximum the profits

Construction materials can be consisting as a major cost for just about any construction project. This is because 50% or even more of the full total cost of the job is good for purchasing the materials or even storage the materials costs. Thus, efficiently materials management is very importance since it will cost big money. Therefore, the service provider should consider enough time to order the material when they needs and enough time delivery to the website. This is because if the material will not come at the schedule time may cause wait of the projects.

In additions, an effective site plan to put the materials is very importance for construction site. For instance, if the materials such as concrete batch flower putting too far from the build places, it will cause a whole lot of energy for labours to bring the concrete to sites. This will delay the time to complete. Therefore, difference materials can locate at the best location. This will increase the output of the structure projects.

Now, Almatad Sdn. Bhd is following a housing task which is semi-detached residences and two times storey terrace in Johor. The engineering site layout has been ready which illustrates the structure equipment, building materials and gain access to roads for the erection of the building. As a new site director of the task, I pointed out that many problems are carrying out by the programs and the ones problems may cause the tasks to be wait or increase the cost of the projects. Thus, I have to re-organize the design of the website and increase the site appropriately.

2. 0 Books review on materials management

According to Arnold, J. R. and Chapman (2004), materials management can identify as an arranging function responsible for planning and handling the materials stream. This means that the materials management is a planned procedure which involves from the original purchasing, delivery, handling and minimisation of waste materials of the material with the purpose to ensuring the product quality, volume and time of the requirement should meet appropriately.

Material management are the activities engaged to plan, control, purchase, expedite, transportation, store, and concern in order to achieve an efficient flow of materials and this the mandatory materials are bought in the mandatory quantities, time, quality and at an acceptable price. (Stukhart, 1995)

2. 1 Need for materials for a job.

Most of the business are having the same problem which is related to the managing the flow of the materials. Therefore, the useful management of materials is the main keys issue to look for the success of the completion of a project. Furthermore, the control to the materials is at the mercy of the difference company and really should be dealt with effectively to complete the job. Building materials cost is the major cost for the project. The cost symbolized by materials modified and may include between 20 % and above of the full total of the task.

According to the Stukhart (1995) and Bernold and Treseler(1991) studies, the materials cost can be around of 50% to 60% of the total of project cost. Materials are extremely important in the functions of the development site since unavailability of materials can stop the structure work. Furthermore, unavailability of materials will impact the efficiency and cause to the completion of the project.

Other that unavailability of materials, the increased quantities of materials could also create the serious problems to professionals in the development site. This is because storage of materials can raise the costs of the project. In addition, whenever there are limited spaces in the development site, the managers have to find other storage space from other people to store the materials until they can be needed. So that it will demand the re-handling of materials and the costs of the task. A number of the requirements must try handle and store the materials properly when they are received. Thus, special attention should be given to materials after they purchased from the dealer.

According to Damodara (1999), there exists evident that materials can offer saving when it obtained at the lowest price to the company. In early structure industry, many construction companies experienced that the increase in costs and a reduction in productivity which due to inflation and economical problems. From the study of Stukhart(1995) we can figured early construction industry were not using their resources proficiently and that the decrease in productivity is due to poor management in the engineering site and materials. (Stukhart, 1995). Materials management has been the main issue of concern in the construction industry. By the research of Baldwin t. al (1994) that is more that 40% of the time lost due to bad management in building site, poor paperwork of materials, insufficient materials on site when needed and insufficient storage.

Therefore, the necessity for an effective material management system becomes mandatory. Many companies increased their efficiency of materials management to remain the competitive and guarded for their future job. They try to reduced their overheads cost and better their production strategies. The cutting down cost and improvement can run appropriately by materials management. The material on site and management system is the primary point to success a engineering project.

Better materials management will boost the efficiency in the procedure in development site and decrease the overall cost from the full total cost of the project. Top management such as task manager, site manager or architect should pay more work to materials management. It is because available of the materials will impact the successful from their project. If the material is shortages, the high interest rates should pay, increasing prices of the materials and competition with others.

There is a growing attentiveness in the building industry that materials management needs to be solved as an overall integrated supervision activity.

2. 2 Advantage of material management

An effective materials management system may bring many benefits for a firm in construction industry. From the study of Engineering Industry Institute (CII) we can figured labor efficiency could be advanced more than 6% and can produce 4-6% additional cost savings from the total cost (Bernold and Treseler, 1991). Among these benefits are:

Reducing the overall costs of materials

Better handling of materials

Reduction in duplicated orders

Materials will be on site when needed and in the volumes required

Improvements in labor productivity

Improvements in job schedule

Quality control

Better field material control

Better relations with suppliers

Reduce of materials surplus

Reduce storage of materials on site

Labor savings

Stock reduction

Purchase savings

Better cashflow management

2. 3 On-site Materials Management Functions

Chandler (1987) stated that, the function of site control of materials is to regulate their transports to the website in order to control the waste material and ensure the material on site in the right time. He also added that, materials control obligations can be separated into two areas of activities which is:

Action Prior to Site Delivery

This may include the following activities:

Continuous check on order pending delivery or demand division dates

Managing the change in the pace of work motion and examine its impact or materials

Deliveries program to adapt delivery dates consequently.

Inform the distributor about delivery adjustments

Discuss and settle with the dealer to adjust to the agreed plan.

Follow up the quantities and standards changes of the materials

Chasing a significant project in a reasonable time period before supply guarantee.

Action after Site Delivery

Concerned for materials receiving, checking and payment. These activities and actions offer an important means for controlling the waste of materials, and make the right dealer to reducing the addition cost paid. However, regardless of the activities of materials management is working, they desire a cooperative involvement of both celebrations such as hq and the website functions that are major manipulated under the action of site management:

Materials Planning and expediting

Materials receiving and inspection.

Materials controlling and distribution.

Inventory and inventory control

Materials handling and distribution

Quality Assurance and Quality control

Material Surplus disposal

2. 4 Procedure for the materials management

There are few steps which can apply the material management to development site which is planning, purchasing, logistics, handling, stock and misuse control. Each process was express out its characteristic as important role for an effective materials management.

Planning

Materials planning include calculating, ordering and arranging. It really is emphasized that planning is an essential process to improve the productivity, profit, and assisting enough time to complete the development projects. The production of the engineering project will be hanged if the material planning process is not integrated properly.

Purchasing

Purchase the materials and have the assistance from dealer to find the support of procedures as the building project from production to marketing, sales and logistics. For examples, a detailed material list and co-ordination of the purchasing and order of material are significant to guaranteeing the materials will on construction site.

Logistics

Logistics is a concept that stresses motion of the materials and it require planning, applying, and managing the movement and storage of all things from recycleables to the completed of the merchandise to meet customer requirements. During building task, routing of the materials will impact the price and the perfect time to complete the building projects.

Handling

Handling of materials is the flow of the materials to the part that provides for his or her motion and location. Because of the rate of handling materials, there are some quality must be in considerations when making a materials managing system. The selection of the materials handling equipment is important to enhance the development process, provide the effective procedure of manpower, increase development and advance the machine to become more flexible.

Stock and Waste material Control

Stock control can categorize as a method planned to be the cover and also to ensure all materials or equipment can be found when needed. Stock control include recycleables, processed materials, assemblage components, consumable stores, basic stores, maintenance materials and spares, work happening and finished products. It is vital as the engineering materials were delivery as wanted and with the development by the proper management of stock control. At exactly the same time, construction activities will generate big amount of the waste products and it will cause difficulty to the development industry. However, with the look of the materials management which is effective will help to reduce the waste materials of materials and raise the profit of the companies.

2. 5 Challenging of Materials Management

There are few categories that determined in Materials management:

The specs and measurement of the materials;

Where to find and therefore procurements development when the instruction of stock is done dealings by the company;

Transaction to site and inspection of the order as off-loading, and storing onsite;

The professional and monetary process of payment;

The consumption of materials in production face to face site and waste products remove production.

Process of buying and supply of materials, the difficulties often occurs when the materials is not equal as the ordering purchase, the skipped list out buying materials, timing of materials arriving, quantities of materials, lack of training and satisfactory management, insufficient Just WITH TIME strategy, lack of communication and relation between contractor and supply chain companies are the key impediments.

In engineering site the challenging are evident which are specifically as:

Miscarriage to order stock promptly which postponements the assignments;

Mistaken time delivering which interrupts the work schedule;

The amount purchasing more than the needs;

Wrong materials or mistake in tabs on materials leads two times work;

Scamp on materials from delivery into production;

Double handling of materials because of limited material.

The key to success of your construction management process is usually to be effective in building. The main problems lead to ineffective are fault timing of materials received by the site or inadequate quality, improper information for materials arrival to the site stock, absent materials, unavailability of storage space, and throw away of labour for materials searching on site.

3. 0 Comment and measure the existing site structure regards to the setting of the materials on the construction site

Timber

Concrete batching plant

Access

Double Storey Terrace

Semi-detached houses

Temporary Road

Materials

Scaffold store

Temporary building

Waste materials

Store

Reinforcement

Materials

Store

Figure 1: Existing Site Layout

3. 1 Analysis of Existing Site Structure (Number 1)

From the existing site structure plan, many material or place can be found wrongly as below.

Concrete batching seed is putting too much with the materials which is cement and aggregate. It normally must put near to the build place because concrete batching place is for combine the concrete and aggregate to form the cement. Therefore, if store it far away from site, it will require time to transfer the mix cement to the building places.

Waste material should not located at behind of the short-term building. This is because the short-term building used for job manager among others consultant to possess meeting or discourse session also to make decision. In case the spend located behind of computer, the audio or odour will disturb the individual which is inside the temporary building.

Store must have a check indicate have record through the transferable of the materials and device of the store. Minus the check point, the instrument will easy to be lost and hard to find the needed. Together with the check point, it will be easier for the staff to get checking record of the material or device. Therefore, the contractor could save up some lightweight cost as when the must rebuy the new tool or materials that happen to be lost founded through the record in the statement.

Entrance to the website or offices was too long as when the pickup truck originates during working time it will disturbs the labour performance as with their works.

Security of the site will not be consider in the website plan, this imply the stolen easy to be happen without any security at the site

Each store does not name it accordingly. So when the employee need find some device will take times.

4. 0 Identify possible problem which could face by site supervisor relating the materials management on the site

There a wide range of problem faces by site supervisor associated with the materials management on the webpage which is:

Limited space and cost

There are limited spots allowed on structure site for the location of the materials or store. In addition, budget for build the store and materials places is bound. Therefore, Site director need to solve the problem relating their encounters.

Late or early delivery the material on site

Materials does not delivery in right time will cause problem to site director. If the materials delivery early, site administrator need to set up a location for position the materials. In another way, if later delivery materials to site, it'll cause delay of the work as plan by site director.

Delivery wrong materials, wrong quality and wrong quantity

If the materials delivery on site without any checked by site director, when the materials is must be used only satisfy that the materials in the situation of wrong materials incorrect quality and also incorrect quantity, it'll cause wait of the work and improve the cost of the assignments.

Theft or spoil when the materials is needed.

When the materials does not put or keep appropriately, it'll cause theft or materials spoils happen. Therefore, the website manager needs to take extra cost to acquire the new materials or instruments.

Waste materials increase

When the materials does not keeping in the basic safety place, the materials will be spoils then increase the spend. As example when the concrete just located at site with no cover, when rainfall the concrete will spoils.

Poor site layout

When the site layout will not plan accordingly, it'll cause many trouble to the site manager and employees. For instances, the concrete batching place located definately not the site, it will take time for worker transfer the cement to the site so it could cause delay of are time desk.

5. 0 Proposed new site layout to improve the existing site layout

Waste materials

Reinforcement

Timber

Joint shop

Temporary Road

Aggregate

Store

Concrete batching plant

Double Storey Terrace

Semi-detached houses

Security

Check

Access

Car

Park

Temporary building

Check

Point

Materials

Materials

Scaffold store

Instrument

Store

Safety Equipment Store

Figure 2: New Site Layout

5. 1 Suggested Much better Layout (Figure 2)

As a site manager, I recommend the new site design as shows in Amount 2 which is have some changes of the positioning from existing site design plan and addition new locations, which is

Concrete batching place moves to the website and will have a temporary aggregate storage to place cement and aggregate. This will increase the work daily because the labour you don't need to move the cement from way to the website. At the same time, when hold the rain, the cement can just located at the aggregate stored without worried the concrete will be damage.

All storage area should name according to the kind of thing they put, therefore it acquiredt be mixed up with other materials and easy to learn the gear or instrument when needs. The safe-keeping from new site design all already named appropriately such as aggregate storage area, instrument storage space and safety equipment storage space. Aggregate storage is merely for short-term for placing the cement, piles and aggregate. Tool storage is perfect for placing machine and tool. Safety equipment safe-keeping is for adding some safety equipment such as signboard, helmet, safe boots while others.

Reinforcement and timber can be located jointly besides of the joint shop. Therefore, the labour can easy take out timber and encouragement to do the joint without carry from far off places. It helps to save lots of time and boost the daily work.

Addition an automobile park for car parking. Therefore, the labour can park their car safely places with no extra fee and can perform will when work because no need scare the summons when auto parking outside.

Addition a security check in the key entrance. It's important to truly have a proper shield in the entry to keep an eye on all visitors to the job. Therefore, the security of the internal site and the materials will be safeguarded.

Addition a check point as the shield for material, tool, security equipment and scaffold. The primary responsibility of the check point is received and checks the materials regarding to quality and quantity which order by the site managers. Furthermore, it also helps to record and deliver the materials or tool based on the needs of the website.

6. 0 Suggestion/recommendation that gives strong effect on the material management process in the foreseeable future based on the case study

The recommendation that will give strong impact on the material management process is the very best management of contracting companies should encourage their development using materials management systems in their engineering project. They can make some incentive for their worker to attend training courses of structure materials management. To allow them to save more commitment to attain more exact results.

Besides, the site manager should set up the waste materials consequently by recycles and without recycles. For examples, some spend from encouragement can recycle. Which means site administrator should right it at a location and sell the recycle stock. This method can help site director to repay back some cost even is less but at the same time will reduce the waste materials from building.

In additions, idea of Just WITH TIME (JIT) should apply in materials management. The JIT idea hails from the creation sector. It helps to smoother the production process through the effective management of materials such as providing the right materials with right amounts and quality, just in time for production in manufacturing sector. By applying the idea of JIT, it can benefit to increase the motion of materials from the suppliers to the building site. Together with the JIT management system, the materials maybe sent to site according agenda or just the day before.

Health and protection should be provides based on the health and basic safety handbook. Even it is costly to provide that safe practices equipment but it is very importance to the staff member determined their safety. In order that when they will work, the incident can be guaranteed accordingly. Furthermore a successful construction project is having the zero incident in building site. So the health and protection is vital in construction site.

The momentary facilities should provide consequently to the project. The project supervisor should select the non permanent facilities some as office buildings, canteen, and rest room for employee and other. It should estimate the size in line with the site space and the needed of people. In addition, a proper management of short-term facilities will raise the productivity in building site.

7. 0 Conclusion

In conclusion, materials management is the primary key for success a construction project. It is because the cost of materials is symbolized more than 60% or above cost from the full total cost of project. Therefore, with the effective management of the materials, the company can save more than 6% or above of the cost from a job. Therefore, the materials management method must apply in engineering site to steer the materials. With the proper set up of the materials can help contractor minimum the cost and maximum their revenue.

Besides, the correct site plan is very important to the engineering site. The location of the materials, storage area and other non permanent facilities should located according the efficient of the development work. This will help the staff complete their are schedule by the site manager without the addition of needless work. If the production is high, the job cans completion of that time period given by the client or early on from the conclusion date.

In addition, the very best management should give their worker going to the course regarding materials management. This will helps them set up the materials appropriately to increase their future job and arrange the website layout based on the needs of structure project.

Health and safeness also is an integral part of importance in engineering site to provide zero accident. It should follow according to hand book of health insurance and safety. This is because the building site is the dangerous site, when medical and basic safety can be motivated on site; the worker will feel secured and confident to execute their work as well as you can.

Successful management of structure resources must be based on kept up to date information and refined employing a well-designed engineering resources management system.

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