As we know that motivation is a process where our need triggers a selected patterns because of we can try to achieve our goal, It drives us to do something in ways to attain our desire goal and it' s the general term for all those processes involved with starting, directing, and keeping physical and subconscious activities. Maslow hierarchy of needs theory is one of the most popular motivation theories and it's also considered one of the most crucial theories in mindset. Relating to Maslow people has a particular needs and they are determined by their prefer to gratify these needs. In addition to this he assemble these needs in hierarchical order, he put physiological needs at the bottom of hierarchy, accompanied by safe practices needs, the belongingness and love needs from then on esteem needs and near the top of hierarchy self -actualization need. He proposed that the lower -level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become important. Travel motivation shows one's needs and would like and can be viewed as a critical changing with regards to their purchase decisions. Maslow hierarchy theory help us to understand the several needs that stimulate travelers and in other palm it will be boosting service providers' knowledge about what kinds of activities travelers seek, specifically for certain sets of people. Maslow's hierarchy is considered a good tool for understanding consumer motivations, growing marketing strategy, appropriate advertising appeals so when the basis for market segmentation and product setting because consumer goods often provide to satisfy each of the need levels
The determinants of travel decision-making and the influential factors would also be analyzed since they are related to the travel motivations. Knowledge of travelers' motivations is critical to predict future travel habits. Maslow's five-level hierarchy need theory has been broadly accepted and used to describe travel behavior. This paper will try to go over the Maslow hierarchy theory in travel and leisure and the value of this theory in travel and leisure field. this paper also will involve some studies in tourism which predicated on Maslow hierarchy theory and the way the authors applied this theory in travel and leisure field.
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory
Hierarchy of needs theory was proposed in the 1943 by Abraham Maslow who was simply born in Apr 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He received his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of Wisconsin. Maslow offered hierarchy of needs. On the bottom of the pyramid are all physiological and safe practices needs such us food, normal water, air, slumber etc. Higher levels symbolize higher needs, that happen to be more complex. An affiliation on the 3rd level of the pyramid says about belonging to a categories such as family, institution or work fellow workers organizations; a need of love and a friendly relationship. Within the forth level are self-esteem needs such as value, achievement, assurance, need to be regarded. Self-actualization needs are on the previous level of the Maslow's pyramid are creativity, morality, spontaneity, problem resolving etc.
He also suggested that the lower -level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become important in addition to this Maslow in 1970 also discus two important needs related straight with tourism ;the visual need and the need to know and understand. (maslow, 1987)
1-Physiological needs: - in this level of hierarchy people must be satisfied their physiological need that involves basic survival needs including the needs of air, water, food and shelter. People can't become worried about other higher-order needs before they satisfy these needs
2-Safety needs: - this level is the next level of maslow;s hierarchy of needs which concerns people's need to be secure and safe in their environment. It offers the necessity for protection psychological and physical injury.
3-Belongingness and love need: - these needs include coping with and popularity by other people, giving and obtaining affection and friendship. Predicated on Maslow's theory people can't reach to the level until satisfied their physiological and basic safety needs
4-Esteem needs: - regarding to Maslow theses needs may be classified directly into two subsidiary sets. First, the desire to have achievement, adequacy, durability, competence and flexibility. seconde we have what we may call the desire for reputation or prestige, position, recognition importance and dignity.
5-Do it yourself actualization needs: - people dependence on do it yourself- actualization represents their desire to fulfill their potential, increasing the use of these skills and abilities. malsow proposed that even if all the previous need are satisfied we may still often expect that anew discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual does what she or he, individually is fitted for. (Hitt, Miller andColella, 2006)
There is no doubt that, all these needs affect the decision of destination selected by travellers by visitors, an extreme -excursion visitors might forgo all lower must meet self actualization.
The basic notion of Maslow's theory is that individuals are waiting beings they always desire more and that they want relays on what they curently have. It's essential to know that Maslow's theory relates to specific development and drive in life and not just to the action of people at the job. That's suggest the hierarchy of needs can be applied to the satisfaction of the needs and expectations of travellers as well concerning members of staff who work in vacationer establishment. (Mulins, 1998)
Maslow theory in tourism
This theory is very important in travel and leisure sector because the determinants of travel decision-making and the influential factors would also be examined being that they are related to the travel motivations. Knowledge of travelers' motivations is critical to forecast future travel patterns. Maslow's five-level hierarchy need theory has been broadly accepted and used to explain travel behavior. Furthermore, the satisfaction of men and women (travelers, employees) needs performs a vital role to build up this sector.
According to Horner and Swarbrooke, (2001) fulfilling the vacationers in tourism is very important for three reasons:-
It contributes to positive phrase -of -mouth area advice of the service to friends and households, which earns new holidaymakers.
Creating a do it again customer by satisfying them with their first use of product brings a steady income source with no need for extra marketing expenditure
Dealing with problems is expensive, time-consuming and harmful to the organization's reputation. in addition; it can bring immediate cost through reimbursement payment.
In tourism we have two customers one who pay and the other who's working in tourist's organizations'. when we satisfy the workers need in office which will be shown in their works and quality of service which provide to travellers.
Maslow as we realize that also discuss two important needs related immediately with tourism ;the aesthetic need and the need to know and understand. these needs are less known to people because they were not included in the hierarchical needs model. however, from travel and leisure standpoint, these needs take more weight than others beyond the hierarchical needs model. people travel to learn about something new also to be exposed to things of beauty. Alas, a few tourism studies have applied Maslow's model with regards to these two sets of individuals needs. (Hsu and Huang, 2008)
TOURISM MARKETING FOR Towns AND TOWNS
Using Branding and incidents to get tourists
By Bonita M. Kolb
The publisher in his book used this theory when he discuss the factors which have an effect on on a person action to chose holiday destination, we can observe that the Hierarchy of needs theory has direct software for marketing because several needs are satisfied through the purchase of services and products. Naturally, person must continue to satisfy his basic dependence on food, clothing shelter and security even while they are satisfying his belonging and self-esteem needs. A well-designed travel and leisure offer will give
Chance to travellers to satisfy many of their needs at exactly the same time. In the end, on subject how interesting is the place's appeal, the tourist will still requiring good food, a comfortable be, and personal security. Therefore, tourism marketers must definitely provide information in their promotional on how tourists can fulfill their basic needs while stimunesaly promoting how a visit to the place will satisfy travellers' need for belonging, self- esteem, and even self-actualization needs.
Tourists want confidence that the place can provide the right resort rooms and high quality restaurants. Inn addition to this the tourists information about the place's safeness can encourage them to visit this place. Promotional materials must definitely provide information on the place's restaurants, hotels and security[mark. in other side money is one hotels prize that is possibly related to these must the level that it offers for food and shelter. , in addition to this workers must consider their careers are security factors as opportinity for keeping what they have received ( mulins, 1998)
The social that belong and self -esteem needs play a key role to stimulate people to visit anyplace by using a good promotion such as a little places or travellers destination can fulfill tourists belonging need by connecting a friendly and welcoming atmosphere.
A large vacation spot also can gratify these needs through the number of tourists from every where can be helped to make travelers feel like they can be aside of new communal group. Furthermore when the holidaymakers build a strong marriage with a local community that may help to stimulate a do it again visit. Furthermore, Personnel satisfaction in hotels will come from family romantic relationships, employment usually provides an additional source of relationships, The director may use this theory when he desires to motivate workers through provide them with money in order to gratify them basic needs after that by communication can make a good work environment. also when the staff member seems there are affair system in hotel that's mean profession development he'll become more satisfy
To satisfy vacationers belonging need, all vacationers vacation spot have to provide a social occasions and activities that allow visitors to cope with indigenous people and with other travellers. in other hands the staff in travellers establishment must fulfill their owed needs
These needs also can be utilized to motivate people to visit by showing the info about the trip with others after returning home.
Tourists can meet their do it yourself -esteem by traveling to learn or improve skill or pursue anew or existing interest. in other palm these needs can be be improved by involvement in situations that are unique or of limited availableness. workers can also fulfill their esteem needs by money and financial rewards because they offer impulses of people's price to the hotels.
Tourism may provide the opportunity for tourists to boost their own special skills or passions to a specialist level; tourism marketers could improve a traveler package which involves advanced lectures by experts or training by superstars.
Self actualization also involves the need to do best for others; travel and leisure marketers also must consider hosting special activities for tourists that also have an altruistic goal.
The publisher in this paper attemptedto explore the field of food tourism in Finland by using Maslow's theory in classification and how do the food tourism promoters highlight on the necessity of men and women to motivate them
According to Tikkanen food and drink expenditure amount to one-third of overall tourist expenditure of the global tourism because eating is one of your physiological needs, in addition to this in his newspaper he attempted to find the hyperlink between needs and motivations in hierarchy of needs and also how are they linked with tourism.
As we realize that Food need is one of the main basic needs which person cant make it through without it but also wedding caterers services and food images are incredibly important element of cultural tourism.
In this newspaper the author described that If the physiological needs are relatively well gratified, consequently, a new group of needs emerge, which might be categorized around as the security needs, The safety needs symbolize the desire to be free of hazard, additionally it is a multidisciplinary problem. Which includes food control and legislation; management systems and organizational culture; microbiological, chemical substance and physical dangers; and human tendencies. After the physiological and security needs satisfied, needs of the necessity for love, passion and belongingness happen.
The esteem needs show a person desire for a sense of self-confidence and adequacy. This might reflect internal feelings of strength, accomplishment, independence, or exterior needs of reputation, prestige, recognition, attention, etc
Even if each one of these needs are satisfied, we may still often expect that a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual comes with an inward vocation. In other words, what a man can be, he must be. These needs called self-actualization.
Food tourism identified as''a visitation to primary and secondary food makers, food celebrations, restaurants and specific locations for which food tasting and/or exceptional features of specialist food creation region are the most important motivating factor for travel. The authors think that this explanation is insufficient in detailing all food travel and leisure and he agrees with the view which said that food and tourism have a strong related and Food has recognized as:
a area of the local culture, which visitors consume;
a part of holiday promotion;
a potential element of local agricultural and financial development; and a local factor that is damaged by the consumption patterns and recognized choices of the vacationers.
The authors in his study used multiple-case design because the data obtained this way is often regarded as more impressive and ensuring. In addition to this five cases representing each type of need in Maslow's theory of needs were decided on. The goal of the discovered five industries with instances is to clarify the case study results with related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs and its own applicability into food tourism.
According to authors the five sector of food travel and leisure in Finland are; food travel and leisure predicated on physiological needs, food tourism based on safety needs, food tourism based on esteem needs, and food tourism based on self-actualizing needs. In such a paper author discussed food tourism value to hierarchy of needs.
When the main motivation of food travel and leisure is physiological needs, food is then regarded as a tourist interest such as, on cruise lines the quality and the variety of the meals is attracting holidaymakers, That's imply the vacationers want to fulfill their mental needs through food tourism. The authors reviewed the situation of food travel and leisure in Finland and he mentioned that the international cruising food travel and leisure dates back to the 1960s when cruising tourism began between Finland and Sweden. In those days the range of foodstuffs in outlets was thin, and the screen was imperfect compared to that of today, and also he centered on the alcohol that was one of the primary motivations for the international cruising tourism between Finland and Sweden as well as Finland and Estonia. Furthermore Within the Suonenjoki region, strawberry picking attracts holidaymakers from Russian Carelia every warmer summer months offering seasonal income. Self-service strawberry picking attracts tourists locally and regionally on a smaller level.
In this sector of food travel and leisure, it well known to safeness needs which comprises mainly of local and international food, as well as health and safety conferences, where members are mostly school researchers, health officers and merchants. the authors emphases on the international conferences of basic safety food which sorted out Feb 1-3, 2003 in Paris, France and one of the One of the companies sending delegates to the event on an annual basis is Kesko, the second biggest shop in Finland.
In this sector of food travel and leisure the author talked about that Food is becoming the main point of celebrations and special activities that appeals to visitors as well as indigenous residents in addition to this Food and food activities can be viewed as complementing the trip and assisting to the trip's success, the tourist's intake experience, nevertheless they can also form a top activity during the trip. Therefore, food and the activities linked to it could end up being the region's core appeal such as; the International Wine Festival in Kuopio accumulated about 50, 000 guests in 2003.
As we said that before esteem needs show a person desire for a sense of self-confidence and adequacy, the authors focused on Provincial la carte assignments which established to promote culinary food tourism and planned in the following parts: Kainuu, Lake Finland, Lapland, Middle Finland, North Savo, Northern Carelia, and Ostrobotnia. Among the main aim of this project is to increase information of the regional food tradition and main materials also to utilize them in the present day catering services
In this kind of food travel and leisure the authors emphasized on classified business to be the purpose of a visit in conferences and conferences. Corresponding to thee authors Food trade fair tourism requires of international and domestic food trade fairs. There are various international food trade fairs, such as BioFach - World Organic and natural Trade Rational in Nuremberg, Germany. International food conferences attract food experts to increase their knowledge. One yearly organized domestic food discussion is the Finnish Food Congress which has been organized yearly since 1970. It is the greatest professional educational event for the meals sector in Finland. Through these meetings we can meet self actualization of food experts who seek new kinds of culinary ideas and new food products. Such as for example cooks, restaurant professionals, food wholesale clients etc.
The authors in his newspaper used the empirical conclusions which indicate that whenever classifying food travel and leisure by areas, Maslow's hierarchy of needs and motivations can be used as the foundation in the classification.
The intent of this study represents the introduction of travel motivation idea over the entire year; the creators apply Maslow's hierarchy theory to visit motivation theory. in addition to this they highlights both conceptual framework ; travel career innovator and travel profession pattern. The study also reviewed other concepts which impact in travel motivation such as thrust and take, Mannel and Iso-Ahlo model of escaping and seeking measurements, merits of Plog's allocentrism / phsycontrism. Furthermore the study described methodological issues in holiday determination research. We will focus only on the uses of Maslow's hierarchy in this analysis.
According to Hsu and Huang (2008) travel desire related to why people travel motivation related to why people travel which means this area is relatively difficult research portion of tourism enquiry. Predicated on this issue this newspaper reviews a few of the main research pieces associated with the subject, and which file the conceptual development of the motivation construct.
Authors mentioned that sociology and interpersonal psychology is reason behind theoretical construction of travel motivation studies. Furthermore Maslow's hierarchy of needs may be used to review the theoretical of several tourism studies because is one of the most influential motivation theories in the educational and in the general public domain name, one reason of this recognition of theory is its simpleness. Maslow's theory was developed by clinical mindset, the premise is applicable to others areas such as guidance, marketing, travel and leisure and organizational mindset.
The review also explained how Pears in (1982) used Maslow's hierarchy theory in his study "the social psychology of tourism behavior ". Pears in his review analyzed 400 circumstances of travel experiences provided by some 200 travellers in Australia, European countries, U. S. A and Canada. he published down each respondent one positive experience and one negative experience.
Pears examined and coded the travelers experience data in to five categories in accordance to Maslow's hierarchy. Predicated on the info s which gathered through examined, he advised that travel motivation gets the properties of the approach-avoidance paradigm and travelers drawn to holiday destination because of the possibility fulfilling self-actualization, love and belongingness and physiological needs for the reason that order of importance. (Hsu and Huang, 2008)
This paper also mentioned hat Maslow in his theory reviewed two others important human needs: cosmetic needs and the necessity to know and understand something new. These needs are very important in travel and leisure field because person journeys to be able to see and find out about something new. But these needs were not contained in the hierarchy of needs so the needs are less know to people.
Maslow's of needs theory as put on travel and leisure field has been one of the significant main point in travel motivation research, even as said that before this review also highlights both conceptual construction in understanding travel motivation; travel career innovator (TCL) and travel career routine (TCP).
Travel career head can be traced to Pearce's prior work in tourist behavior and it is based upon Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Based on the TCL tourist's needs or motivations are sorted out in a hierarchy with rest needs at the lowest level followed by safety needs, marriage needs, self-esteem and development needs and finally fulfillment need. The primary idea underlying this conceptual construction is a person's travel determination changes with his /her travel experience. (Hsu and Huang, 2008)
The second conceptual construction which presented lately by Pearce and his good friend Lee in (2003) is Travel Job Pattern (TCP), it is also known as adjusted version of TCL. In fact it's quite different of travel job leader.
This concept examined by Pearce and lee in two studies and generate very similar determination factors, these factors can be categorized in two organizations ; the first one entails the most significant and common drive factors to travelers such as novelty, relax and marriage while the other group requires motivation factors which were less significant to respondents e. g. stimulation, isolation and sociable status. In addition Pearce and lee proposed three degrees of TCP they put significant common motives e. g. relax, marriage and novelty in the primary layer, the next layer which adjoining the main covering involves the reasonably important travel motives e. g. personal -actualization. The exterior part includes of common and less important travel motives e. g. cultural status, isolation and nostalgia. Furthermore Pearce and Lee explained that pleasure travellers at all degrees of TCP are damaged by the main and central travel motives as well as by less important motives. Travel Profession Patterns as a vacationer motivation model continues to be underdevelopment and it's validity requires further thorough exams. (Hsu and Huang, 2008)
We can take notice of the romantic relationship between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and TCP and how do Pearce and his acquaintances Lee in 666 used maslow's theory to expose this new model.
4-Travel motivations of deal tour travellers
By Jui Chi Chang
In this review the authors examined travel motives as well as travel decision-making of Taiwanese tourists with an organization package tour overseas. Tourism is an industry for individuals who are looking for something different and they want to be cared for as valuable customers travel motivation as we know demonstrates one's needs and wishes and can be viewed as a critical variable in relation to their purchase decisions and outcome of satisfaction. Inspiration emerges when a person wants to satisfy a need.
According to Maslow theory one has different needs which he wants to satisfy it and these needs motivate person to act anything in order to fulfill his needs, the writer mentioned that, Studying travel inspiration helps someone to understand customers' needs, thus enhancing service providers' understanding of what kinds of experiences tourists seek, specifically for certain groups of people furthermore Understanding of travellers' motivations is critical to predict future travel patterns. that's suggest it's necessary to study motivation theory especially the Maslow theory of need which determine the individual need
According to the author Maslow's five-level hierarchy need theory has been broadly accepted and used to clarify travel behaviour. Personal actualization, the highest need in Maslow's hierarchy, creates interior satisfaction and explains the need of acquiring knowledge and studying different cultures. Fulfilling higher-order needs may also be associated with lower-order must which multiple motives add. Still, it is arguable that not absolutely all travellers have the ability to fulfil the highest need of self-actualization since a lot of people may not consider it to be so significant.
The author talked about that It is difficult to determine which stimulation triggers one's needs to begin with. Besides, one person's needs might not be exactly like another's, even though they are simply in the same life routine. Nevertheless, theories of motivation have played an important role in the development of tourism psychology
This study shows that socio-psychological needs are an important determination for travel, and socio-economic factors are seen as a crucial drive for travel decision-making. Furthermore, holidaymakers' decision-making may be highly affected by their communal romantic relationships - friends/family members' referrals.
Finally we can say that Maslow hierarchy theory can used to explain travel behaviour and can help to determine which factor play a vital role to influence on person decision to visit vacation spot and practice some activities.
There is a multitude of theoretical frameworks which have been developed and found in attempts to describe the issues of determination and satisfaction. As we know that, Human needs can be divided into different categories and the successful in travel and leisure field based about how can tourism fulfill stakeholders' needs in tourism sector, .
Maslow's hierarchical needs theory, although developed in neuro-scientific clinical psychology has become widely influential as the best-known standard theory of desire and has been put on explain desire in many social disciplines, and areas such as business, marketing and travel and leisure. it's been named an 'emotional cause' that allows marketers to talk to their concentrate on audiences on a personal, meaningful level that will go beyond product benefits.
This theory has been broadly accepted and used to explain travel behaviour. Self applied actualization, the best need in Maslow's hierarchy, creates inner satisfaction and explains the need of learning and learning about different ethnicities. Fulfilling higher-order needs may also be associated with lower-order must which multiple motives contribute. Still, it is arguable that not all travellers have the ability to fulfil the best need of self-actualization since some people may not contemplate it to be so significant.
One of the main known reasons for the level of popularity of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is most likely its ease. This hierarchy could be related to the travel industry in the sense that unless people have their physiological and security needs met, they are really less likely to be considering travelling the planet to make a difference. Home actualization can, in fact, be considered the finish or goal of leisure.
Finally we can say that, Maslow's five-level hierarchy need theory performs a vital role to find out these needs and helps all the celebrations to understand the several needs of people in order to satisfy it and achieve success in tourism field.