Metaphors Of Dragon In Literature

With the integration of global market and technology, multicultural situation is inescapable. Culture exchange in various countries has become vitally important. Under its shadow, all culture becomes significant factors in this international environment. Today, in the information-crash society, the cultural has not merely be seen as separated indicators but seen as a cross-cultural communication habit. For a long time, people are keen to dispute about superiority and inferiority among Eastern and Traditional western civilizations. However, in truth, we lack sufficient reputation of essential aspects on ethnical dissimilarities and clashes. We have to see through the appearance to the fact and take culture views to carefully observe the propensity of global ethnic development. H. L. Menken once said, "Culture itself is neither education nor legislations making, it can be an atmosphere and a history". Dragon culture, as a center culture displays typical variations. Different countries have different ethnic norms worth, such distinctions lead to communication problems in Western thought, resulting in misunderstandings and issues. This article focuses on examining the "Dragon Culture" budded from two culture branches, and from a philosophical viewpoint to summarize the ideology that shows from two civilizations.

Dragon was one of the totem worship images in remote ancient occasions when people liked using the images of animals or plants that they presented in awe as symbols of the tribes. Loong seems a combination of numerous animals, such as snake's body, pig's brain, deer's horns, bull's hearing, goat's beard, hawk's claws and fish's squama. One different view said in distant times of clanship, the Huaxia Clan which symbolized by snake totem in the Yellow River drainage area, conquered other clans and then grew into a huge clan union by integrating others together with their totems. The other Legendary

"results like N˜wa (), Fuxi (˜†) are depicted as having snake systems. Some scholars report that the first legendary Emperor of China Huang Di (», Yellow Emperor) used a snake for his coat of arms. Every time he conquered another tribe, he integrated his defeated enemy's emblem into his own". ˜ Li Rong, 1999, P14˜

The exact origins of the dragon in Chinese language culture remains elusive, though its first depictions can be tracked back to the totems made by various ancient Chinese language tribes. And we, Chinese people often consider ourselves as "the descendents of the loong". From that point, loong has been the most crucial totem in Chinese language traditional culture. Early people admire loong has special power. It might change the space of its body as it desires; it can either take flight or swim and even bring rainfalls.

1. 2 The symbolization of loong in feudal period

When Chinese travelled into primeval modern culture, loong had started to be caved on the bronze storage containers, designed in rings, and embroidered on fabric. Eventually, people who honored "loong" as "almighty God", wanting that caving this special image on daily needs can bless them well and bring them good fortune. People in old China often offered sacrifices to loong to enjoy advantageous weather and good harvest. Together with the deification of "loong", it was gradually monopolized by the imperial lineage, making these images embalmed the national Chinese language empires. Loong were a symbol of power, strength, success, good luck and honor, and it was no surprise that they surfaced as a representation of the imperial electricity of emperors. It was assumed that loong was able to race across the sky using its divine power, and the emperors viewed themselves as exclusively eligible for the dragon's attributes. Chinese empires thought these were real loong, so they resolved themselves as boy of heaven, which meant these were chosen by the future to dominate the earth. They held power over people's lives and property, and acquired personnel in their hands. Emperor became the most honorable person on the earth. Also "loong" became the icon of imperial power. Thus, the imperial clothes were known as "dragon gowns" and their thrones were dubbed "dragon thrones. ", the descendents of empires were titled as "son or daughters of loong", the fitness of an emperor was called "loong ti", the bed they sleep known as "loong bed". Within the Zhou Dynasty the 5-clawed dragon was designated to the child of heaven, the 4-clawed dragon to the Zhuhou (seigneur), and the 3-clawed dragon to the Daifu. About Qing Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was allocated to represent the Emperor while the 4-clawed and 3-clawed dragons were assigned to the commoners. Inside the Qing Dynasty, the united states even preferred to embroider "Loong" as a symbol on nationwide flags. Carvings of loong adorns on the steps resulting in many historical palaces and tombs, most notably, the Forbidden City in Beijing. And it is still taboo to disrespect or disfigure any depiction of a loong in China.

2 The origination of american dragon

2. 1 The introduction of western dragon in early on time

About 11th century BC, the Hebrews made the concept of Seraphim, that was close to the concept of the dragon. Not only in European mythology, faith, but also relevance, the seraphim were the most constant of loong in china. Seraphim was a constrictor in early Rabbinic which is the Seraph's plural. There is certainly other saying it was followed with a suffix on this is of the "flame" or "burning" therefore. In the early Rabbinic vocabulary, because no "dragon" expression, frequently used constrictor to signify dragon. However, spiritual portraits and sculptures of the Seraphim have grown to be a kind of person now which is translated into Seraphim (Blazing Angels) generally.

The appearance of dragon is a lot later than the Seraphim, which is the thing of Celtic worship, ranking holy. The early dark ages, the Virgin caved ships like dragons to explore a new journey on the Atlantic Sea, hoping dragons to bless themselves with limitless electricity. While in Britain, the dragon is more commonly associated with Wales because of the national flag has a red dragon as its emblem and their nationwide rugby union and rugby group groups are known as the dragons. "This dragon may originate in Arthurian Story where Myrddin, utilized by Gwrtheyrn, possessed a vision of the red dragon (representing the Britons) and the white dragon (representing the invading Saxons) preventing beneath Dinas Emrys. The red dragon was associated with the Britons who are today displayed by the Welsh and it is believed that the white dragon identifies the Saxons who invaded Britain in the 5th and 6th generations. This particular legend also features in the Mabinogion in the storyline of Llud and Llefelys. " ( http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Seraph)

Specific reactions to alarm calls identifying several of predators have mately local ethnic manifestations, maintaining to this day its form and mature. Though we glimpse the dragon in the world of the old bandsmen˜it will not originate into life from the murky depths of the primate brain until a particular point in cultural evolution˜specially that point in which a multiculturic˜or loosely prepared˜polity moves toward centralization and ultimately statehood. (David E. Jones, 2001, P 107)

The labor and birth of Christianity made the destiny of dragons an earth-shaking change that to some degree became synonymous to Satanas. Dragon is regarded as the symbol of devil in the Christian which comes from Mesopotamia. In mythology Mesopotamia, the dragon is "the awful life of the sea, the scourge of individuals, the fate to be ruined by God. " In Babylonian myth, the hero's opponent Tiamato and Hittite myth Illuyankas, are examples. Living in the Mesopotamia region near by Jewish also influenced, and inherited down such a concept. Dragon in Judaism and Christianity gradually became the mark of the devil.

2. 2. The image of dragon in american society in films and novels

Western dragons aren't always evil, but they often are. At least, they tend to be greed, evil and solitary, which may stand for the dark part of individuals natures. Quite different between Chinese language Loong, the Traditional western dragon is an enormous, winged, green scaly pores and skin, fire-breathing, and dinosaur-resembling creature. An alternative name for dragon is Wyrm, a term clearly related to "worn", this name is additionally used for serpentine, drinking water dwelling dragons but can be utilized for any of these, Wyrms should be especially common in Britain. In the original myths, fairy stories and legends, dragons live in caves, mountains, or virgin forests. They may have vicious capacity to destroy structures, cause catastrophe. They are the mindless monsters that know only killing people, pets, and hoarding silver and gold, and treasure. Each one of these images create an wicked black reflection into the Western awareness. Also, dragons can be found in many literatures and motion pictures, those quite significantly different between Chinese loong. In medieval legend, the highest merit of the hero was to slay of any dragon. In the Beowulf, the national epic of the British people, Beowulf battles against a flames dragon with single-handed. Finally, the dragon is killed, but Beowulf is hopelessly wounded too. Maybe, it is the first complete dragon looks on the paper of English literature.

The Bible, Satan is a fallen angel who rebels God Jehovah. And Satan changes in to a image of a snake (dragon) to beguile Adam and Eva to consume the apple in the Eden. Inside the Bible storyline, Satan is into a red dragon whose tail swept a 1 / 31 / 3 of the actors. they have seven heads, each head crowned, greedily devouring the new-born baby.

The Learned Excursion of the Dragon's Brain" in Lord Peter Views the Body (London: Gollancz, 1928), when a character identifies having seen "hic dracones" on an old map [discovered by both Andrew S. Make and Benjamin Darius Weiss]. (Chales Gould, 1998, , p126 )

Thus, the Traditional western dragon from the "miser" degenerated in to the most evil, described as representatives of wicked, cunning and cruel. With the Christianity growing and European enlargement, the Satan's notoriety shadows dragon in Europe, even in the world.

3. Comprehensive analysis on the clashes of loong and dragon

3. 1 Evaluation from literature background

With the development of science, people little by little be rid of ignorance, the Western has finally acknowledged that dragons only exists in imagination, rather than dread it. But dragons in european culture still become a derogatory terms. In Western literature, the dragon has turned into a vivid explanation of the evil words. British writer Charles Dickens in his masterpiece Hard Times criticizes Mrs. Si Foundation is a evil dragon of keeper loan provider. In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, when Juliet been told her cousin was wiped out by Romeo, she said unfortunately:"ah, blossom face hides a wild snake heart and soul! Which dragon was perched once in this fashionable heart and soul?" Nowadays, it could easily take notice of the track of dragon in a few kinds of legendary novels, like Harry Potter.

3. 2. Explaination in interpersonal profounding of loong and dragon.

With a few centuries occurring, the Chinese loong has crystallized the initial culture profundity. Right up until now, "Loong" continues to be superior to any of the mythological in people's mind. "Loong", this expression have been extensively used in our day to day life. For instance, "Long tou qi ye", of course, we can not translate it term by word. Inside our China, this is an honor distributed by the local federal government to a company that achieves highest income through the commercial business. Here "Loong" means, "leading the very best, being first". So we can said into "the leading enterprise". "In the eyes in our ancestors, loong, since it is held sacred, of course, also contacted with the good fortune collectively. With good metaphor, the image of the dragon switches into all aspects of social life. Such as lobster, longan˜ ˜˜, lichee˜ ˜, asparagus˜ »˜, Longjing tea, the noodle of Long Xumian, etc. The name of the foods are plenty enough from their figures, while some are propitious meanings. Another example is the Seasonal Eating Custom, from the early Yuan Dynasty, it has been noted "on Lunar Feb 2, loong flys up to heaven". Expressing the wish of the harvest, people in many places are widespread of eating noodle this day. Noodles made this day is called "noodle of Long Xu" pancakes called "Interfax"˜ ˜, dumplings called "fossil teech"˜ ˜''. (Ji Chenming, 1998, p58)

And China has a whole lot of festivals about culture of Loong, such as dragon vessel. Dragon boat auto racing which originates in China over 2000 years ago. For competiton incidents, dragon boats are usually rigged with ornamental Chinese dragon minds and tails every total annual Duanwu Festival. In the Merriam-Webster Dictionary˜dragon woman means "an overbearing or tyrannical girl, also glamorous often strange woman". However˜the Collins Cobuild English language Dictionary clarifies that if you call a woman a dragon˜you mean she is unpleasant and brutal. In the famous Chinese Tv set play Several Chivalrous Swordsmen and their Supernatural Eagles, there is a girl known as little dragon maid. Maybe when the foreigners mind dragon maid, the image showing up in their mind is ferocious rather than holy and real.

What's more, the same feature of two sorts of dragons is they have been interpreted as symbols of the energy to control the type. They often times are associated with weather, like rain, lighting, thunder. Meanwhile, people in China regard Loong as controllers of weather. Thus, in folk, they may be honored as "the ruler of Loong". Adversely, dragon in american, this greater electric power of nature frequently carries a malign or destructive quality. When the character "Loong" shows up in the words and expressions, we always send it to the analogical meanings, that happen to be developed by the profound civilization of China.

Above, we have explained two dragon ethnicities by studying the origination, development, and connotation, dissimilarities. Culture is a wealthy multi-dimensional expansion, including value systems. Prices are the essence spirit of nationwide culture to decide the characteristics and design of culture. Corresponding to cite the difference of metaphors and symbolizations between Chinese loong and traditional western dragon, we will clarify the origin of Viewpoint.

4. Explore the West "dragon" philosophical root base of cultural differences

4. 1 The Chinese language monism "unity of Characteristics and man

4. 1. 1 Living environment impact the Chinese principles.

Different ways of thinking led to the different "Dragon" metaphor, which leds to ethnic misunderstanding. China is monistic of unity on character and man, while American mains dualistic. At an atmosphere of living on ordinary of farming expansion, Chinese folks have always targeted inward-looking on Heaven, inside intermediation of nationwide character. 7 Chinese language people believe that nature is a loop. Everything can be an element in routine of nature. Certainly, people also belong to the natural world, rather than the relatively isolated product element. Therefore, people go back to nature, to maintain harmony. Cultural individuality is adhere to the local community, calm solid, plain thick, peace. Chinese culture believe people and dynamics, spirit and subject, subject and subject, which both into one with God, concentrating on both the interdependence and unity. In the relationship between human being and nature, Chinese language advocate the tranquility between human and dynamics.

4. 1. 2. View of nature and the dragon's supernatural forces in nature

In China, romantic relationship and humans to mother nature is: harmony with nature, the following: live according to the rhythms of character; everything has its character; be well balanced. Chinese traditional medication shows the social value of harmony with nature. Chinese people are deeply influenced by the Confucian and the ideology in I Ching or Chouyi. They feel that the greater conducts a person makes in his life, a lot more meaning shows. Therefore, people who gets the largest political perspective are afflicted by such a unitary value of life, most people do not want to be the main one who is interested in Natural Science, that have been caught in the embryonic stage of medical. Also, folks have the intelligence to concentrate on political ability, so that can create a genuine political culture super-solid model in a distinctive world. In this particular model, the Chinese will have a distinctive historical phenomenon. Once the ancients cannot fight against the natural or supernatural phenomena, they improve the imaginary loong for the ideal treatment for be deified. "With the stage of no loong exiting, snakes, crocodiles, lizards and other reptiles are related to drinking water, and even some on the moving into the water. People who go on the land t are all produced puzzle on crocodiles submerging in water, water snakes going swimming fast in water, no ft but can be free movements of snakes. This the secret became to awe, and the misconception. Into the real dragon time, people made a decision to supply the loong their homes in this inflatable water. Folks have them resided in the in order to let loong control drinking water for the needs of agriculturing water. " (Yang Rong\ Liu Zhixiong, 2002, P106)

Therefore, the loong in Chinese legend could have exceeded the causes of nature. For example, loong could control clouds, rain, thunder, etc. Last loong gain the sanctity in people's brain.

4. 2. The american dualism of Host-guest

Western knowing of environmentally friendly background

Western culture is restricted by the small opportunity on the island. In order to survive, for economical and ethnic development, people often face an unbiased nature, fighting the sea, which develop the type of novelty, change, attention and hyperactivity and the view point of separation between heaven and characteristics. Western culture feels that individuals and nature, heart and matter, subject matter and object, where in fact the standard of God into two specific lines, emphasizing the coexistence and the opposite binary. The mainstream of Western cultural worth is dualism of Host-guest, the spirit of fighting for self-satisfaction.

"As if the destruction of the dragon cannot be too detailed for the individuals nature˜the dragon next appears to metamorphose into a palpably unreal persona of fantasy". (David E. Jones, 1984, p237 )

Western culture publicizes personality, emphasizes the protection of individual hobbies, give attention to the probable of impartial individuals and strengthens the awareness of individual rights. The famous Greek physicist Archimedes once said: "Give me a fulcrum and I can turn the whole world. " Vivid demo of this phrase reflects a man's soul of vibrant exploration and change in the natural world.

4. 2. 2 Dragon culture produced from the western worth.

From old time and energy to now, Westerners tends to put into two different worlds universe, the parting of man and character, ever against. Westerner's self-awareness on the "original sin" is to permit these to atonement and perseverance to conquer mother nature, and transform these to be divine electric power, to achieve One God. Traditional western culture stresses the learning of individual potential, personal goals and chasing personal interests. Individual-based awareness is the deepest core of European culture, with the best value. Western culture of "individualism" makes a analogy to the rule of survival of the fittest. Individuals only make through their own initiatives, and ability to explore their probable, to protect their interests, to choose a location in society. Individual character in European culture is extremely important value. The development of individual potential, personal hobbies, pursuits and personal privileges are often paramount. The Traditional western experience of individuals life separated from nature can be found in the Bible storyline of creation. As experts of mother nature. humans are encouraged to control it and exploit it at all they choose to understand the natural world. People need to study and explore it to determine how it operates, to figure out how a machine works before using it. Westerners prefer showing their power to control, transform, and dominate character. Therefore, in the story, the dragon changes into a wicked body, the embodiment of greedy, then brave knights fought for victory. All show that human stress the self-reliance of the individual's awareness; so they want some type of evil makes to contrast out of people's endless potential.

Be vital, "unity of Mother nature and man " and "Host-guest" both different world view and prices in the engineering of Chinese and Western wondering way. And almost nationwide character performs a decisive effect on the communication patterns.


Culture is some sort of social patterns, which is correlated with people's customs and habits. Together with the intercultural communication, we should recognize the health of our unique culture; acquaint other ethnicities to avoid unnecessary culture clashes and misunderstanding so far as possible. Loong and dragon cultures are incredibly important parts to countries. Each nation's special culture provides owe special cultural connotation. Western dragon and Chinese loong culture clearly have variances, which exactly cause the obstacle of cross-cultural communal intercourse. If there is no communication, there would be no culture. The two cultures reflect the countrywide characteristics, not only including historical and ethnical background of this race, but also the position in nature, including competitive viewpoint alive styles and the ways of thinking. Therefore, to grasp the different culture, we must explain the foundation of philosophy. We not only need to have culture exchanged˜but also have to value culture in the cross-cultural communal intercourse process. Only we attempt to analyze cultural dissimilarities, we can hold the deep contact of culture effectively.

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