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Motivation As The Key To Performance Improvement Commerce Essay

There can be an old saying-you may take a equine to this but u cannot push it to drink; it'll drink only if it is thirsty-so with people. They'll do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it's to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be motivated or influenced to it, either independently or through exterior stimulus.

Motivation is essential for any business to make it through and do well.

Performance is considered to be always a function of potential and drive, thus:

Job performance = f (ability)(drive)

Ability subsequently is determined by education, experience and training and its own improvement in a poor and long process. On the other hand, determination can be upgraded quickly. You will discover many choices and an uninitiated administrator may well not even know where to start. As a guide, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation:

Positive support/high expectations

Effective self-control and punishment

Treating people fairly

Satisfying employees needs

Setting work related goals

Restructuring jobs

Base rewards on job performance

Essentially, there is a gap between a person's actual state plus some desired talk about and the director tries to lessen this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a way to reduce and manipulate this gap. It is inducing others in a specific way towards goals specifically mentioned by the motivator. Normally, these goals as also the drive system must comply with the corporate insurance plan of the organization. The motivational system must be personalized to the situation and the organisation.

Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards natural to a task or activity itself - the entertainment of a puzzle or the love of taking part in. [2] This form of drive has been studied by interpersonal and educational psychologists because the early on 1970s. Research has discovered that most commonly it is associated with high educational achievements and fun by students. Intrinsic motivation has been described by Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, [3] and Ryan and Deci's cognitive analysis theory. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if indeed they:

attribute their educational results to internal factors they can control (e. g. the quantity of effort they put in),

believe they can be effective real estate agents in reaching desired goals (i. e. the results are not determined by luck),

are considering mastering a topic, rather than simply rote-learning to achieve good levels.

Extrinsic motivation originates from outside of the performer. Money is the most evident example, but coercion and threat of consequence are also common extrinsic motivations.

While fighting, the crowd may cheer on the performer, which may motivate her or him to do well. Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is on the whole extrinsic because it induces the performer to succeed and defeat others, never to benefit from the intrinsic rewards of the activity.

Social mental health research has mentioned that extrinsic rewards can result in overjustification and a following decrease in intrinsic motivation. In one research demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) compensated with a ribbon and a platinum star for attracting pictures put in less time playing with the drawing materials in following observations than children who had been assigned to an urgent reward condition and also to children who received no extrinsic prize[4]

These articles on determination theory and practice concentrate on various ideas regarding human character generally speaking and motivation in particular. Included will be the articles on the useful aspects of desire at work and the research that has been carried out in this field, notably by Douglas McGregor (theory y), Frederick Herzberg (two factor inspiration hygiene theory), Abraham Maslow (theory z, hierarchy of needs), Elton Mayo (Hawthorne experiments), Chris Argyris Rensis Likert and David McClelland (accomplishment motivation).

The motivation theory of motivation

A incentive, tangible or intangible, is shown after the event of action (i. e. action) with the purpose to cause the action to occur again. That is done by associating positive interpretation to the habit. Studies also show that if the person receives the pay back immediately, the effect would be greater, and reduces as duration lengthens. Repeated action-reward mixture can cause the action to be habit. Motivation originates from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two resources are called intrinsic drive and extrinsic inspiration, respectively.

Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it appears. Steven Kerr records that whenever creating an incentive system, it can be easy to reward A, while longing for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals. [5]

A reinforcer differs from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to make a measured upsurge in the pace of a desirable behavior following addition of something to the environment.

Drive-reduction theories

There are lots of drive ideas. The Drive Reduction Theory grows from the concept that people have certain biological drives, such as being hungry. As time passes the strength of the drive rises if it is unhappy (in this case by consuming). Upon gratifying a drive the drive's power is reduced. The theory is dependant on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of opinions control systems, such as a thermostat.

Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance while preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with feelings of rising being hungry as the food is ready, and, following the food has been used, a reduction in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive decrease open for argument. The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no natural or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. Second of all, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as possessing a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular being - an attribute criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his needs.

In addition, it is clear that drive lowering theory cannot be an entire theory of tendencies, or a starving human could not prepare a meals without eating the meals before they done cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with a myriad of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which incorporate with drives for "food" in order to explain preparing render it hard to test.

[edit] Cognitive dissonance theory

Suggested by Leon Festinger, this occurs when a person experiences some extent of discomfort caused by an incompatibility between two cognitions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, sense, in retrospect, that another decision might have been preferable.

Another example of cognitive dissonance is when a idea and a tendencies are incompatible. A person may decide to be healthy, believes smoking is harmful to one's health, and yet continues to smoke cigars.

Need theories

[edit] Need hierarchy theory

Main article: Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of inspiration.

The theory can be summarized as follows:

Human beings have needs and desires which effect their patterns. Only unsatisfied needs affect tendencies, satisfied needs do not.

Since needs are many, they are arranged in order worth focusing on, from the essential to the complex.

The person developments to another degree of needs only following the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.

The further the improvement up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and emotional health a person will show.

The needs, detailed from basic (lowest-earliest) to many sophisticated (highest-latest) are as follows:

Physiology (cravings for food, thirst, sleep, etc. )




Self actualization

[edit] Herzberg's two-factor theory

Main article: Frederick Herzberg

Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, AKA intrinsic/extrinsic desire, concludes that certain factors at work cause job satisfaction, but if absent, they dont lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. [6]

The factors that inspire people can transform over their life-time, but "respect for me personally as a person" is one of the very best motivating factors at any level of life.

He distinguished between:

Motivators; (e. g. challenging work, identification, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and

Hygiene factors; (e. g. position, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that not stimulate if present, but, if absent, bring about demotivation.

The name Cleanliness factors is utilized because, like health, the presence is not going to cause you to healthier, but lack can cause health deterioration.

The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory. "

Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of individual satisfaction (see Computer consumer satisfaction).

[edit] Alderfer's ERG theory

Main article: Clayton Alderfer

Clayton Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory (lifetime, relatedness and growth). Physiological and security, the lower order needs, are located in the presence category, while love and self esteem needs are placed in the relatedness category. The development category contains our self-actualization and self-esteem needs.

[edit] Self-determination theory

Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the value of intrinsic determination in driving individual action. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory while others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any kind of "autopilot" for success, but instead requires active encouragement from the surroundings. The primary factors that encourage drive and development are autonomy, competence responses, and relatedness.

Broad theories

The latest methodology in Achievement Desire is an integrative perspective as lined out in the "Onion-Ring-Model of Accomplishment Drive" by Heinz Schuler, George C. Thornton III, Andreas Frintrup and Rose Mueller-Hanson. It is based on the idea that performance drive results from just how broad components of personality are aimed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of proportions that are highly relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally thought to be being part of performance desire. Especially it integrates formerly separated solutions as Need for Success with e. g. sociable motives like Dominance. The Achievement Motivation Inventory (AMI) (Schuler, Thornton, Frintrup & Mueller-Hanson, 2003) is based on this theory and assesses three factors (17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success.

[edit] Cognitive theories

[edit] Goal-setting theory

Goal-setting theory is dependant on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to attain a clearly defined end status. Often, this end point out is an incentive in itself. A goal's efficiency is afflicted by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. An ideal goal should present a predicament where the time between the initiation of action and the end state is close. This points out why some children are more determined to learn how to ride a bike than understanding algebra. An objective should be modest, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both circumstances, most people are not optimally determined, as many want a obstacle (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At exactly the same time people want to believe that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the target in their course. The target should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get optimum quality. Most children have no idea how much effort they have to reach that goal.

Models of action change

Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of desire and volition. Drive is seen as a process that causes the forming of behavioral motives. Volition sometimes appears as an activity leading from intent to actual tendencies. Quite simply, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory initiatives. Several self-regulatory constructs are had a need to operate in orchestration to attain goals. A good example of such a motivational and volitional build is identified self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is meant to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action projects, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action.

See also:

Health Action Process Approach

I-Change Model

[edit] Unconscious motivation

Some psychologists assume that a significant part of human tendencies is energized and aimed by unconscious motives. Regarding to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often proven that the relationship between a conscious desire and the best unconscious aim that underlies it do not need to be in any way direct. [9]" In other words, mentioned motives do not always match those inferred by skilled observers. For example, it's possible that a person can be accident-prone because he has an unconscious want to hurt himself rather than because he's careless or ignorant of the security rules. [citation needed] Likewise, some obese people are not hungry in any way for food but for fighting and kissing. Eating is merely a defensive a reaction to insufficient attention. [citation needed] Some employees damage more equipment than others do because they harbor unconscious emotions of hostility toward authority information. [citation needed]

Psychotherapists[who?] point out that some habit is so programmed that the reasons for it aren't available in the individual's conscious mind. Compulsive cigarette smoking is an example. Sometimes maintaining self-esteem is so important and the motive for an activity is so threatening that it is simply not identified and, in truth, may be disguised or repressed. Rationalization, or "explaining away", is one such disguise, or security mechanism, as it is called. Another is projecting or attributing one's own faults to others. "Personally i think I am to blame", becomes "It is her fault; she is selfish". Repression of powerful but socially undesirable motives may cause outward behavior that is the reverse of the repressed tendencies. An example of this might be the employee who hates his manager but overworks himself face to face showing that he holds him in high respect. [citation needed]

Unconscious motives enhance the dangers of interpreting human being habit and, to the magnitude they are present, complicate the life span of the administrator. Alternatively, knowledge that unconscious motives are present can lead to a more careful diagnosis of behavioral problems. Although few modern-day psychologists deny the lifestyle of unconscious factors, many[who?] do assume that these are turned on only in times of nervousness and stress, and this in the normal course of occasions, human patterns - from the subject's viewpoint - is rationally purposeful.

[edit] Intrinsic desire and the 16 basic wants theory

Starting from studies affecting more than 6, 000 people, Teacher Steven Reiss has suggested a theory that find 16 basic wishes that guide almost all human tendencies. [10] [11]

The desires are:

Acceptance, the need for approval

Curiosity, the necessity to think

Eating, the necessity for food

Family, the need to raise children

Honor, the necessity to be faithful to the original values of one's clan/cultural group

Idealism, the necessity for cultural justice

Independence, the need for individuality

Order, the need for organized, secure, predictable environments

Physical Activity, the need for exercise

Power, the need for effect of will

Romance, the necessity for sex

Saving, the need to collect

Social Contact, the necessity for friends (peer associations)

Status, the necessity for social standing up/importance

Tranquility, the need to be safe

Vengeance, the need to strike back

In this model, people vary in these basic desires. These basic desires represent intrinsic needs that directly inspire a person's behavior, and not aimed at indirectly gratifying other wishes. People can also be determined by non-basic wants, but in this case this does not relate to profound desire, or only as a way to attain other basic desires.

[edit] Other theories

Reversal theory

Motivating operation


Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1917) submit the theory that employees are determined mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:

Workers do not in a natural way enjoy work therefore need close guidance and control

Therefore managers should break down production into some small tasks

Workers should then get appropriate training and tools so they can work as proficiently as possible using one set activity.

Workers are then paid based on the range of items they produce in a collection period of time- piece-rate pay.

As a result workers should work hard and maximise their efficiency.

Taylor's methods were extensively followed as businesses observed the advantages of increased productivity levels and lower product costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the beginning of the era of mass production.

Taylor's approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style (professionals take all the decisions and give orders to those below them) and Macgregor's Theory X method of workers (employees are considered lazy and wish to avoid responsibility).

However staff soon came to dislike Taylor's way as these were only given boring, recurring tasks to carry out and were being treated little much better than human machines. Organizations could also find the money for to lay down off employees as productivity levels increased. This led to a rise in strikes and other kinds of professional action by dis-satisfied individuals.


Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) presumed that employees are not only concerned with money but could be better determined by having their sociable needs found whilst at the job (something that Taylor ignored). He launched the Human Relationship Approach, which focused on professionals taking more of a pastime in the staff, treating them as people who have worthwhile thoughts and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.

Mayo conducted a series of tests at the Hawthorne manufacturing plant of the American Electric Company in Chicago

He isolated two groups of women employees and studied the effect on their production levels of changing factors such as light and working conditions.

He likely to see efficiency levels decrease as lighting or other conditions became gradually worse

What he actually uncovered surprised him: regardless of the change in lighting or working conditions, the production levels of the workers increased or continued to be the same.

From this Mayo concluded that workers are best determined by:

Better communication between managers and staff ( Hawthorne staff were consulted within the experiments and also had the possibility to give responses)

Greater manager engagement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne employees responded to the increased degree of attention these were receiving)

Working in organizations or teams. ( Hawthorne personnel did not recently regularly work in teams)

In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to encourage increased use of team working and add employees departments to encourage increased manager engagement in looking after employees' interests. His theory most strongly ties in with a paternalistic style of management.


Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) released the Neo-Human Relations University in the 1950's, which centered on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow submit a theory that we now have five degrees of human being needs which employees have to have fulfilled at the job.

All of the needs are organized into a hierarchy (see below) and only once a lower level of need has been completely met, would an employee be encouraged by the opportunity of having another need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For instance somebody who is dying of appetite will be encouraged to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about possessing a secure job agreement or the value of others.

A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers to be able to help them satisfy each need subsequently and progress up the hierarchy (see below). Professionals should also recognise that employees are not all motivated just as and don't all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to give you a slightly different group of incentives from worker to employee.


Frederick Herzberg (1923-) experienced close links with Maslow and thought in a two-factor theory of drive. He argued that there were certain factors a business could create that would immediately motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there have been also factors that could de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually stimulate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)

Motivators will be more concerned with the genuine job itself. For example how interesting the work is and exactly how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are factors which 'encircle the job' rather than the job itself. For example a worker is only going to arrive to work in case a business has provided a reasonable degree of pay and safe working conditions but these factors won't make him work harder at his job once he's there. Essentially Herzberg seen pay as a cleanliness factor which is at direct distinction to Taylor who looked at pay, and piece-rate in particular

Herzberg thought that businesses should motivate employees by implementing a democratic method of management and by increasing the nature and content of the genuine job through certain methods. A number of the methods managers could use to do this are:

Job enlargement - staff being given a greater variety of jobs to execute (definitely not more challenging) that ought to make the task more interesting.

Job enrichment - requires workers being given a wider range of more technical, interesting and challenging duties surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of success.

Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over regions of their working life.

(http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Motivation)

(http://www. accel-team. com/motivation/index. html)

(http://tutor2u. net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories. htm)

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