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Mushroom Fungi Nutritional Content Biology Essay

INTRODUCTION

Mushrooms have been an element of our real human diet since forever. They were used as food before man understood the utilization of other organisms. Certainly mushrooms were one of man's most elementary foods, plus they were often considered an spectacular and luxurious food reserved for the rich. Today mushrooms are food for both the rich and the indegent. They could be grown anywhere so long as the conditions because of their growth and cultivations are given.

The word mushroom may have different meanings and perspectives in several literatures and geographical territories. Mushroom is thought as a macro fungus infection with distinct fruits body that can be either epigeous or hypogenous and large enough to be observed with naked eyes and to be picked yourself. Mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of your fungi, typically produced above earth on earth or on its food source.

Mushrooms, an organization known as fungi, absence chlorophyll and cannot therefore make its own food. It grows up on dead organic and natural subject either parasitically or symbiotically with other living organisms. Among the various mushroom species, button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species. ), paddy straw (Volvariella species. ), milky mushroom (Calocybe Indica) are most popular among the commercial growers.

Mushroom which is a fleshy saprophyte fungus infection are found growing on damp rotten log of wood trunk of trees, decaying organic subject and in damp soil rich in organic chemicals. Edible mushroom are highly nutritious and can be weighed against eggs, dairy and meat.

Mushrooms are rich in proteins, supplements, and minerals and called as the vegetarian's meat. Mushroom proteins are considered to be intermediate between that of animals and vegetables (Kurtzman, 1976) as it includes all the nine essential amino acids which is necessary for human body.

Mushroom has a high protein content of 25-50%, fat (2-5%), sugars (17-47%), mycocellulose (7-38%), nutrients (8-12%) and vitamin supplements such as D, C, B1, B5, B6, niacin and riboflavin. Apart from portion as a necessary protein food, that they are really most popular in Nigeria, mushrooms are also therapeutic and also have some biotechnology structured functions.

Many of mushrooms produce a range of metabolites of strong interest to the nutriceutical and pharmaceutical (e. g. antitumour, immunomodulation providers, and hypocholesterol-aemic providers) and food (e. g. flavor substance) industries (Chang, 2007).

Many Asian countries use traditionally outrageous edible mushrooms as delicious and healthy foods and drugs. Crazy edible mushrooms are valued not limited to texture and flavour also for their substance and healthy characteristics (Sanmee et al. , 2003). Cultivated mushrooms have higher proteins contents and vitamins, low in fat and rich in B vitamins, vitamin supplements D, vitamin K and sometimes natural vitamins A and C.

Because of its oyster like shape Oyster mushroom (i. e. Pleurotus species. ) is commonly called as Dhengri in India. Genus Pleurotus belongs to family Tricholomataceae and has about 40 well-recognized varieties, out which 12 species are cultivated in various elements of country. Pleurotus is an efficient lignin-degrading mushroom and can develop well on different kinds of lignocellulolosic materials. Cultivation of the Mushroom is very simple and low cost which gives consistent progress with high natural efficiency. Different species of Pleurotus can increase well in variable temperature conditions; hence they are ideally suited for cultivation throughout the year in various regions of exotic country like India. Among the Pleurotus varieties, P. sajor caju have been widely analyzed for the cultivation accompanied by P. ostreatus. These studies mainly focused on the cultivation on wastes of forest and agricultural plants. Almost, all the available, lignocellulosic chemicals are likely be used as substrate for Pleurotus types. Cultivation with slightly variation in the number and mixture of the substrates in several part of world predicated on their availableness in abundant and being cheaper in the respected region. The technology can also limit polluting of the environment associated with burning agriculture wastes as well as to decrease environmental pollution due to unutilized agricultural wastes.

Pleurotus species presents the 3rd largest group of cultivated edible mushrooms on earth, grown on a number of plant residues, and they have been found to be nutritionally and gastronomically important. They might be cultivated on a sizable number of substrates, according to local availableness in different parts of the world. Many of these studies centered on the higher produce and quality of fruiting systems of Pleurotus sp. regarding cultivation times. The cultivation of edible mushrooms offers one of the very most feasible and economical method for the bioconversion of agro-lignocellulosic wastes. One of the features of the Pleurotus group is their capacity to expand on lignocellulosic substrates without the need for a composting or casing level. Production approaches for these basidiomycetes are well toned and are not at all hard, weighed against those used for the most commonly cultivated mushroom. Pleurotus mushrooms, commonly known as oyster mushrooms, increase wildly in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and are easily articially cultivated. They are really healthy foods, lower in calorie consumption and in fat, rich in proteins, chitin, minerals and vitamins. They also contain high levels of О-amino butyric acid (GABA) and ornithine. GABA is a non-essential amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter whereas ornithine is a precursor in the formation of arginine. Draw out of P. ostreatus was able to lessen the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats and also the draw out from P. ostreatus appeared to protect major organs like the liver, heart, and brain of aged rats against oxidative stress. You will find about 40 varieties of Pleurotus mushrooms and they ranks second among the list of important cultivated mushrooms on the planet.

The mushroom cultivation is a profitable agribusiness and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) can be an edible mushroom having excellent flavour and flavour. It belongs to category Basidiomycetes, subclass Hollobasidiomycetidae, order Agricals. It grows up outdoors in the forests of hilly areas and it is cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. The technology of unnatural cultivation of mushroom is slightly recent creativity; incorporation of non conventional plants in existing agricultural system can help in improving the communal as well as economic position of small farmers. Mushrooms will be the way to obtain extra ordinary vitality and virility and also have therapeutic properties like anticancerous, anticholesteral, antitumorous. Mushrooms are of help against diabetes, ulcer and lungs diseases.

It can be grown up on agricultural and commercial waste products. These wastes can be recycled into food and environment may be less endangered by pollution (Hayes, 1978). Mushroom cultivation is highly labour extensive, short period crop and land cutting down, can be welcomed by the poor farmers.

At present mushroom production is about 1. 5 million lots on the globe. Every year about 90 a great deal of mushrooms are exported to European countries from Pakistan. There is certainly need to build up varied agriculture in the Pakistan. It is unfortune that in Pakistan and Azad Kashmir they may have not found the creativeness of the public at large scale to be an important meal, perhaps the reason for not being adopted broadly is non option of mushrooms at low prices and insufficient knowledge. The farmers should come forward to cultivate edible mushrooms like Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom) on commercial level to fulfill certain requirements of balance diet.

The significant problem associated with the transfer of technology for mushroom cultivation is the lack of technical know-how for its cultivation. During a study of the cultivation of mushroom on agricultural residues, it was discovered that rice husk sorghum stover, saw dust, cotton waste materials, cocoa bean shell, and sawdust - Gliricidia combination are suited substrates for the cultivation of edible mushroom.

Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus varieties), the third most significant commercially produced mushroom in the world are located growing obviously on rotten lumber materials. The growing increase in utilization of oyster mushroom is largely due to its taste, therapeutic and dietary properties. Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the very most produced kinds, cultivated mainly on sawdust. The unavailability of sawdust and the actual fact that felling of trees in most regions of the entire world is prohibited helps it be critical that other sources of substrates be utilised for its cultivation. Within the tropics and sub-tropics, large volumes of unused lignocellulosic byproducts can be found. These byproducts are still left to rot in the eld or are disposed o through using. Cultivation of mushrooms on these by-products may be one of the answers to transforming these inedible wastes into accepted edible biomass of high market value.

Oyster mushrooms are produced from mycelium (threadlike filaments that become interwoven) propagated on the platform of steam-sterilized cereal grain (usually rye or millet). This cereal grain/mycelium concoction is called spawn and is employed to seed mushroom substrate. Most spawn is made with mycelium from a stored culture, alternatively than mycelium whose parent or guardian was a spore. It is because spores will probably yield a new tension and performance would be unpredictable. Spawn-making is a fairly complex task rather than feasible for the common mushroom grower. Spawn of varied oyster mushroom species may be purchased from commercial spawn creators who usually provide instructions for its use. Spawn frequently is sent from the manufacturer to growers in the same aseptic storage containers used for spawn production. Inoculum for spawn development is frequently produced in polyethylene bags made up of a microporous breather strip for gas exchange. Most commercial spawn creation companies produce spawn only from inoculum that has met rigorous quality control benchmarks. These standards include verification of inoculum development performance before it is use to create spawn and insurance of the spawn's biological purity and vigor.

Mushroom has high protein content of 25-30% and also compasses of Extra fat (2-5%) my cellulose (7-38%), sugar (17-47%) mineral (8-12%) and vitamins such as D, C, B, B1, B5, B6, Nicin, Riboflavin. The known species of fungi are about 69, 000 of which about 10, 000 types are fleshy macro fungi and only handful of these are lethal. About 2000 kinds are thought to be best edible mushroom but only 80 of them are cultivated experimentally, 40 types are cultivated economically and only 20 types are cultivated commercially (Chang, 1999). There are numerous types of substrates used for cultivation of mushroom across the world however, many important substrates include paddy straw, wheat straw, cotton waste, cotton boll locules, maize straw and chopped leaves etc. It's been reported that mushrooms can grow on sliced cocoa pods, cotton misuse, dried chopped maize straw, oil palm (fiber content and number) wastes, tobacco straw, used tea leaves, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, newsprint, old rags and sawdust.

Pakistan is an agricultural country having 70% of its manpower engaged directly or indirectly in agriculture sector but regrettably we are not able to preserve our agriculture on strong basis. It requires a long term planning to increase our area under cultivation transforming baron and arid areas into fertile lands. In such circumstances small cottage industry like mushroom cultivation as well as commercial cultivation will not only ameliorate the unpleasant conditions of your poor farmers but on the other palm can be a way to obtain forex. Oyster mushroom is quite easy to cultivate is compared to its other relatives and has more healthy and medicinal value as compared to vegetables.

Oyster mushroom cultivation can play an important role in taking care of organic wastes whose disposal has become a problem Malnutrition is issues in growing countries, Mushrooms with their flavour, texture; nutritional value and high productivity per unit area have been recognized as a great food source to alleviate malnutrition in growing countries.

The oyster mushroom Pleurotus species is a saprophytic fungus infection commercially cultivated throughout the world because of its delicious basidiocarp and simple cultivation technology. Additionally it is one of the choicest white rot fungi for research scientists to research. Pleurotus kinds lignocellulolytic enzymes for bioremediation (Arisoy and KalanKayan 1997) its flavour chemical substances, (Mau et al. , 1998). Oyster mushrooms are mainly cultivated on residues from agricultural plants such as wheat, paddy, cotton, sweets cane or soybean.

Consumption of edible mushrooms as food and drug is carefully related to the history of mankind. Lately, oyster has been put into the list of commercially produced mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are cultivated worldwide under various climatic conditions. Their total annual production on earth is more than 1. 2 million lots. These

mushrooms are grown up on commercial range in several countries. However, no systematic start has been designed to grow them in Pakistan, which includes varied climatic zones and abundance of manpower and agro-waste resources. You will discover about 5000 different types of mushrooms, which at least 1220 are reported to be edible.

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