Needs Evaluation Greco Roman Wrestling Physical Education Essay


Greco-Roman wrestling is a method of wrestling that is used worldwide. From Old Greece, it reappeared in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been performed atlanta divorce attorneys release of the Olympic Video games since then (1). Two wrestlers contend and are being examined by their performance in 3 two-minute times, that can be terminated sooner by a pin.

For this paper we are going to examine an elite 16 year old Greco-Roman wrestler who aspires to improve lower torso strength, lower torso explosiveness, as wells as aerobic capacity to accomplish satisfying values, compared to the median account of at the very top adolescent wrestler.

Needs analysis

Biomechanical analysis

There is little biomechanical research on the sport of wrestling for the reason that this is a sport that involves every muscle group of the body, in their full flexibility. In wrestling because of the reason that sports athletes try to post their opponents to the ground, fight their opponents or keep balance in order to not to be thrown, their bodies may take every possible position to ensure that the opponent does not dominate (2). So specific motions do not are not a common phenomenon in a wrestling competition or training.

Wrestling composes of entire body movements completely flexibility of the bones. All of the muscles in the torso are highly activated when wrestling intensively (3). All of the 3 types of contractions tend to be performed in wrestling, but there is a bigger amount of isometric contractions than other sports.

Physiological analysis

Wrestling is a demanding and complicated sports field and an exceptionally active activity, which requires high levels of anaerobic power, power, agility and overall flexibility (4). Tournaments are comprising cycles of maximal effort and maximum strength anaerobic vitality, with submaximal work intervals between them. Studies show that the general physiological profile of elite wrestlers is: high anaerobic vitality and capacity, muscular power, an above average aerobic electric power, flexibility, zero fat percent prices (typically 5-10% body fat) and a mesomorphic physique (5, 6).

Specifically for the needs of this paper detailed beliefs are needed for maximum repetition principles on bench press, squat and maximum oxygen consumption principles.

Norms for the preferred tests

The maximal oxygen uptake of Korean countrywide and international wrestlers taking part in international competition has been shown to be about 53 to 56 (ml·kg-1·min-1)(6). Those values are believed to be an acceptable profile of an elite wrestler. And have been used as a standard norm in many reports (7).

The squat maximum repetition test (MR) has been used extensively in wrestling for analysis of lower torso strength. In a study done in junior young students (16. 05±1. 09 yrs. old) the Greco-Roman group that was tested in squat MR test had values of 101. 94 ±23. 83 kg (8). The international beliefs, of weight lifted in comparison to bodyweight, for wrestling players is 1, 79 kg*kg^-1 (7).

Countermovement jump has been used thoroughly in the evaluation of lower extremity explosiveness. Lower-extremity muscular ability can make a difference in a wrestling competition to lift up an challenger or resist to a technique by the opposition (9). In wrestling, a study conducted U. S. Wrestling Team showed that Greco-Roman wrestlers experienced an average of 62. 0 cm in vertical bounce height after having a countermovement phase (9).

Injury prevention

In the Greco-Roman style, runners are not allowed to their competitors below the stomach, while this isn't so in the freestyle. However, in both types, the players must struggle difficult to dominate over the strength of their opponent and at exactly the same time try to force and break their rival's defense once he's down on the mat. On this competition all areas of the body are involved in voluntary movements and involuntary movements in other times, that are focused at overpowering the amount of resistance and strength of the challenger wrestler. During this process, bio-mechanical forces are affect both players, which in some occasions may cause undesirable repercussions, including injury in several parts of the body (2).

A research conducted on hurt wrestlers, confirmed that the highest incidence of incidents were to the players' skin (62%), followed by muscle (22%), bone fragments (9%) and joints (7%), respectively (2). Focusing on the spot of injury involvement, it was provided that 33. 3% of the accidental injuries occurred in the upper extremities. In another analysis carried out. in adolescent and preadolescent males, the primary regions of harm were to the upper extremities (33%), and the neck of the guitar and back (24%) (8).

Those results can be explained because in Greco-Roman style, the majority of the techniques are carried out so as to bring the rival down and beat him, use the trunk muscles. The results of such mechanised activities on the opponent's body is a crash fall on the mat, with the likelihood of injurious participation of the skin, followed by very high pressure to the trunk. Also, after the getting on the mat, additional pressure is put on the trunk by rubbing your body on the mat surface, which can cause to simultaneous injury of your skin, neck and trunk, as well (2).

Wrestling on the whole has its risk of harm, as with any type of sports. Nevertheless, the high occurrence of sports incidents in wrestling requires special attention and good preparation of the sports athletes and recognition and support by sports activities authorities, coaches and mentors (10). Proper conditioning of the muscles of the limbs and lower back is necessary prior high power training or competition to ensure sturdiness of the tissue against forces and impacts.


There have been recommended numerous tests to evaluate the physical aspects relevant with wrestling (8).

VO2potential: Bruce Test is a test used for evaluating Vo2max on fitness treadmill machine (8). Work fill is increased steadily by increasing speed and incline. The athlete eventually is fatigued and VO2utmost is estimated.

Upper body power: Maximum repetition test (RM) for bench press has been considered a valid method for analyzing a wrestlers chest muscles strength (8). Lying down on the bench in a supine position, the topic holds the keep with overhand hold and with the hands roughly shoulder width apart. Lifting the bar from bench, he then pulls it down on the torso, and then stretches the elbows fully, without locking them. For the warm up prior to the test the subject executes 5-10 repetitions with 30-40% of body weight and leftovers for 1 minute, then add 4-9 kg on the pub so that he can lift it in 3-5 repetitions and rest for two minutes, then helps to keep adding weight until he is able to lift the weight appropriately just one single time.

Lower body power: Maximum repetition test (RM) for squat has been considered a valid method for evaluating a wrestlers lower body strength. Using again squat test, the subject from a located position, with legs make width apart, should go under the squat device and places the club on his shoulders, even though keeping a straight back, sits 90 levels and stacks up. To avoid spine accidental injuries, the spine can use a belt. For the warm-up prior to the test the subject executes 5-10 reps with 30-40% of his bodyweight and rests for 1 minute, then executes squat adding 14-18 kg weight until he can lift it in 3-5 reps and slumber for 2 minutes, then keeps adding weight until he is able to lift up the weight effectively just one time.

Leg explosiveness: Countermovement hop is a valid method to test a wrestlers lower extremity explosiveness (8). Rather than performing a countermovement leap with on the bounce mat that automatically estimates the elevation jumped, a field test could alternate the lack of scientific equipment. A graded tape is mounted on wall. With chalked fingertips, the subject stands in front of the wall structure with both hands extended over head and with ft and chin touching the wall. The subject touches and marks the main point where his fingertips touch the tape on the wall. For the leap, the topic jumps after performing a rapid squat in order to gain vertical momentum, and touches the tape at the best point possible. The difference between pre and post leap touch markings is determined as: VJ = maximal bounce height - original reach height. An alternative method is for the subject to leap and thrust away vanes on an instrument, and the amount of vanes pushed is assigned to a hop height.

Hand grip durability: Perhaps the most frequent test conducted in the world of wrestling is the dimension of the strength of the hand grasp by utilizing a hand dynamometer (4). The subject holds the dynamometer, with the arm expanded and the elbow by the medial side of the body. Then the subject matter squeezes the dynamometer with maximum isometric work, for about 5 seconds. No other motion is allowed. There must be strong encouragement to the topic to give a maximum effort.

Selected Tests

For the needs of this paper, the assessments that evaluate lower-body explosiveness, lower-body strength and VO2maximum were chosen.



Bruce test is an sub-maximal protocol for the estimation of VO2potential. Bruce et al reported Pearson product minute relationship coefficients (r) between expected VO2utmost and measured VO2potential of 0. 94 for without cardiac conditions (n=292), 0. 93 for females without cardiac conditions (n=509), and 0. 87 for men with cardiac disease (n=153) (11).


A contrast was completed by Foster et al between forecasted VO2maximum, and assessed VO2maximum for the overall equation and the population-specific equations (12). The common predicted error was -0. 6 mL*kg^-1 * min^-1 for the overall equation versus -2. 0 mL*kg^-1 * min^-1 for the population-specific equations. The correlation between measured VO2utmost and expected VO2potential for the overall equation was high (r=0. 96), with a multiple correlation coefficient (R) of 0. 98 and a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 3. 5 mL*kg^-1 * min^-1 (12).

Squat test


Squat test has been used generally in athleticism for assessing lower-extremity strength, and moreover, in various players of wrestling (8). Durability is the primary attribute in wrestling so analyzing and improving the strength is the primary goal for most wrestling training protocols.


Dong-il Seo after testing 15 guys and 15 females on 1RM squat test, shown the following (13):





0. 345

0. 53


0. 992

0. 973

0. 994

Moreover McCurdy et al. and Tagesson and Kvist reported the trustworthiness of 1RM evaluation on squat, and leg extension that every 1RM test was reliable (14, 15).

Countermovement jump:


The counter-movement bounce is a performance test, which evaluates the energy of the low extremities (16). The counter-movement bounce is has been used thoroughly in studies with plyometric periods and in evaluation of activities that make use of the stretch-shortening routine (16, 17).


The counter-movement bounce, after reliability studying, has shown a higher relationship coefficient with the explosive vitality factor (r = 0. 87) (16). Along with squat leap it is the most reliable and valid field test for estimating the explosive electric power of the low extremities.

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