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Proper Designs For AIR-CON In Mosques Environmental Sciences Essay

To maintain comfortable thermal conditions for the occupants is the essential requirement of any environment, because the thermal conditions have immediate impact on the health, morale and output of human. Through the entire history using by using the intelligence and by being creative humans has been able to create environments which are comfortable to allow them to perform their activities also to keep maintaining such environments is very important. An entire thermal comfort occurs when the net high temperature gained by body is equal to the web heat reduction from your body, in other terms; there occurs no safe-keeping of heat in the body. This is situation is known as thermal balanced situation. Thus to attain thermal comfort it is is important to accomplish thermal balance. It is possible to attain the thermal balance at a huge selection of environmental conditions but the thermal comfort is mainly achievable in conditions that are readily versatile for the body. Thermal comfort is infact the state of mind which shows satisfaction within the existing thermal environment (Hutchean, 1989). There are various parameters involved which make a decision the thermal comfort conditions. These variables are those that are related to the body heat loss and gains. Some of the important variables which determine the heat balance in a specific thermal environment for a body are: Air velocity, air temperature, humidness of air, activity levels of human, human clothing, means glowing temperature etc. Different models are being used till date by many people to be able to associate the human comforts with these guidelines in a specific environment. Oftentimes body has been regarded as a thermal subject which exchanges temperature with the encompassing environment through different methods like: convection, conduction, radiation and can loose high temperature to the surroundings through evaporation and by adapting to the surroundings using the regulatory system of the body. (Cheng, 2006) Thus prediction of thermal conveniences in different conditions is of considerable importance for folks and organizations like ASHRAE which package with air conditioning. Thus one important part of the present research would be to develop a strategy which would be helpful for examining the thermal comforts and problems for the complexes which would then be utilized for a pilot review on a few of the mosques of Kuwait and near by areas where in fact the environment is tough and humid. During tough hot and humid climatic conditions, an efficient air conditioning system is necessary for properties, which can provide a satisfactory thermal comfort level. Although such systems prevails in many places however in many situations either the properties gets over cooled or oftentimes proper levels of thermal comfort aren't achieved because of incorrectly designed system, or improper operation methods with insufficient maintenance and thus resulting into an inefficient air-conditioning system. Thus the other important aspect of the research would be to conduct a report for Mosques in harsh hot and humid climatic conditions. Mosques are a kind of building which has their own operating schedule which depends on enough time of prayers or others. So in the work a designed analysis would be completed to keep an eye on the thermal comfort conditions and to monitor the power use of a number of mosques during hot and humid conditions to be able to assess accurately the thermal comfort conditions and the power efficiency in such structures through the occupancy period so that an useful air-conditioning system can be created for them.

1. 2 Problem statement

One of the top essential requirements from an indoor environment is that it should be in a position to provide proper thermal conveniences to be able to satisfy real human desires. Undesired conditions can lead to human being dissatisfaction and subsequently influencing their activities. Thus in this circumstance it's very necessary to give urgent factor and attention to the thermal comfort conditions of the complexes especially building in the severe hot and humid climatic conditions like Mosques where occupant satisfaction is very important during peak time of prayers etc. In the majority of the structures today the comfort levels are achieved through complicated air conditioning systems but this might direct result into to the thermal comfort problems which can occur because daily businesses in the building. Many a times it could be very difficult to identify thermal comfort problems and solve them because they could be very diverse in character and can be cause because of large number of factors. Thus there's a need of developing a systematic approach so as to deal with the problems of thermal comforts in building, which in the present case is Mosque. Mosques are the host to great importance for the worshipers and it is needed that the worshipers feel relaxed and comfortable in the mosque and when they leave the mosque they have the feeling of peacefulness and tranquility. Thus a careful analysis of mosques is needed for thermal comforts and dependence on energy. Till particular date only a few studies have been conducted to fulfill this requirements for Mosques and thus there is a need of systematic study which is often helpful in monitoring the thermal conveniences and energy use for Mosques in order to assess effectively the thermal comfort conditions and the energy efficiency in such complexes during the occupancy period so that an productive air-conditioning system can be made for them.

1. 3 Targets of the Research

Detailed research on the methods for predicting the thermal comforts and energy use and prior work done by people in predicting the thermal comforts in buildings

Development of an systematic procedure for identifying and dealing with thermal-comfort problems

Investigating the essential design Elements of Mosques

Monitoring thermal comfort conditions and energy use in some of the mosques of Kuwait and near by areas

Suggesting recommendations for achievement of proper thermal comfort levels and properly designing air-conditioning systems for Mosques

1. 4 Methodology

The methodology implemented for performing the research and to meet the desired objectives is really as below:

Step 1: First of all the situation is discovered through thorough discourse and observation of the area to be studied. After than understanding the background of the challenge and learning the need areas where in fact the research must be conducted

Step 2: Exhaustive research about the prevailing models and approaches for thermal comfort problem's identification and ways to solve them. Studying the prior research done in the required area for Mosques or similar kind of structures in various environmental conditions and there by making a roadmap for today's research.

Step 3: Based on the detailed evaluation of the various approaches and by adding new ideas through conversation and in depth observation of area, a organized approach for discovering and dealing with thermal-comfort problems in building swould be developed which would then be applied for the Mosques of Kuwait or near by places

Step 4: Before carrying out the analysis of comfort levels of mosques a report on the basic design elements of the Mosques would be performed to make the study more effective

Step 5: Finally by using developed procedure thermal comfort conditions and energy use in a few of the mosques of Kuwait and near by places would be monitored and the issues related to thermal conveniences would be identified

Step 6: At last a list of tips would be produced which would be helpful in enhancing the air-con performance, thermal comfort levels and efficient energy use.

Step 7: And the research would then be completed by concluding the studies from the analysis and giving another vision to the study and some tips of research in future.

1. 5 Expected Outcomes

A systematic procedure would be suggested by using which thermal comfort problems can be determined evaluated and can be dealt with in a proper way.

The developed approach will operates as a helpful tool for the building professionals and the providers in order to deal with the thermal comfort problems arising in a building.

Based on the analysis conducted for the mosques a set of recommendations would be produced. Although this recommendations would be genrated from the mosques in hot and humid climatic conditions but an effort would be produced to make them generic in order to be applicable in any mosques generally.

Chapter 2:


Mosques represent a location of great importance and unique function and procedure as worshipers using the mosque need to feel safe and calm, and also leave with a feeling of tranquility and peace. Consequently, they need to be carefully examined in conditions of thermal comfort and energy requirements. However, only a restricted volume of studies have handled these requirements of mosques. A report on thermal comfort requirements for Fri prayer through the hot season in Riyadh (Saeed, 1996) mentioned that a lot of people are comfortable and few favor cooler conditions. Thermal comfort factors are usually paramount generally in most buildings concerning people occupancy. This requires the addition or removal of heat from the area depending mainly on the growing season and type of activities performed indoors. The thermal environment parameters involved are those affecting body heat benefits and deficits. Air temp, air moisture, air speed, mean radiant temperatures as well as real human clothing and activity levels are factors that determine the heat balance of an human body in confirmed thermal environment. Several models are available in the books to connect the human discomfort of comfort to those factors. Prediction of thermal comfort has been of significant interest to ASHRAE.

ASHRAE has developed a comfort index which is based on the effective temperatures. The effective temps is defined on the basis of 50 % relative humidity. The foundation of this is would be that the effective temperature describes the uniform temperatures of enclosure which is radiantly dark at 50% RH (ASHRAE, 1997) and in that your comfort, high temperature exchange and physiological pressure experienced by the occupant would be same as that of the genuine environment with same air velocity. Fanger, 1970 has done a very elaborative research on the prediction of thermal comfort levels under continuous point out conditions. Fanger, 1970 developed a comprehensive formula for heat balance that was based on the many parameters of temperature exchange. Fanger, 1970 developed a comfort equation which involved the use of two empirical relationships which relates skin temperature and evaporative warmth loss to the metabolic rate. With the help of the equation produced by Fanger, 1970 comfort conditions for just about any type of environmental conditions with any type of guidelines of clothing and rate of metabolism can be determined. The other major development in this analysis by Fanger was the estimation of the PMV (Forecasted Mean Vote) for a space where there are variations in the thermal sensation from the perfect the perfect value. This PMV is effective in predicting the ratio of dissatisfied people. Taking into consideration the variability of thermal feeling under the same conditions, Fanger devised a way of estimating a expected mean vote (PMV) of the themes in a space where there are deviations from maximum in the thermal feeling. While using the PMV, the ratio of men and women dissatisfied (PPD) can be forecasted.

The impact of air activity and the effect of its stream patterns on thermal comfort have been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies(Jiang, 1992) (Chow, 1994). Results from those studies have emphasized the role of air velocity and air distribution habits as a determinant factor of thermal comfort. Furthermore, models for predicting comfort at different move regimes and air circulation habits have been advised. Charles (Charles, 2003) examined and evaluated the validity of Fanger's Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Model, and Fanger's Draught Model. The review also suggested that the bias in PMV predictions varies by framework. The model was a better predictor in air-conditioned structures than in a natural way ventilated ones, in part as a result of impact of outdoor temps, and opportunities for version. Ji et al, 2006, analyzed the thermal comfort of individuals in normally ventilated surroundings in a field analysis in Shanghai, China. The analysis suggested that individuals residing in such hot area have designed to its local climate and their goals for comfort permit them to endure warmth better than expected

Many studies have been conducted and carried out in several environmental conditions to be able to learn the difference in requirement of thermal comfort levels based on parameters related to intimacy, body build and get older. Results showed that there surely is no significant difference in the comfort conditions required by male or female, older or young etc. (Chung, 1990), (Cheng, 2006). Dear and Brager, 2002 summarized before adaptive comfort research, provided some of its findings for normally ventilated structures, and discussed the process to getting the adaptive comfort contained into Standard 55. Adaptive models include in a way the variations in outdoor climate for identifying thermal choices indoors. Cheng and Ng, 2006 discussed in a recently available study the adaptive model in thermal comfort, which includes been contained in the new revision of ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. Furthermore, it proven the introduction of a comfort temperature chart for effortlessly ventilated complexes in Hong Kong. Vehicle Hoof et al (2007) discussed two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in conditions of usability and energy use for average maritime climate zones through literature research, a research study comprising temp measurements, and building performance simulation. The study figured for moderate weather zones the adaptive model is merely applicable during summertime, and can reduce energy for by natural means conditioned buildings. The main topic of thermal comfort in complexes is intimately related to the vitality consumption/conservation issue as the majority of enough time either heating system or cooling is required to keep up with the space at an appropriate level. Many studies have been carried out to investigate this relationship and explore means and ways to conserve energy without compromising comfort (Tham, 1993). A multidisciplinary way for achieving energy saving and thermal comfort concurrently was developed (Tham, 1993). The impact of varied energy conservation methods and HVAC system and component characteristics on building thermal performance including thermal comfort has been investigated. Results have suggested that adaptation of an increased temperature place point in summer months can result in a significant decrease in cooling down energy without loss of thermal comfort. The energy consumption because they build warming, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has evoked increasing focus on promote energy efficient control and procedure of HVAC systems(Mathews, 2000 and 2002). Many other actions related to the design and procedure of the HVAC system can be considered for conserving energy. However, in no circumstances if the comfort of occupants be compromised. In hot and chilly climates, thermal comfort in building is achieved by HVAC systems, resulting in appreciable energy costs. In many situations, structures are over cooled or the HVAC system is retained running for a much longer time than needed. This will allow considerable opportunities to save energy while achieving better comfort conditions or at least retaining the desired comfort conditions at a lower life expectancy level of energy consumption. Just lately, Budaiwi (2007) proposed and executed a multi-phase method of investigate and remedy thermal comfort problems in properties. Although mosques are important buildings with a distinctive function and intermittent procedure, evaluation of their thermal performance, problems and, eventually, possible remedies didn't receive adequate attention by researchers. This paper reveals the results of a report monitoring energy use and indoors environmental conditions in several mosques to be able to assess the quality of their thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy times in such intermittently operated buildings in hot-humid climates. This research is part of a thorough research conducted on mosque thermal performance (Budaiwi, 2005). On this part of the research, energy use and thermal in house conditions for three mosques were checked over an interval of one season. These mosques were preferred to represent the common types of any single-zone daily prayers mosque, a single-zone Friday (large) mosque, and a two-zone Fri mosque. The criteria of representative mosques selection as well as their physical and functional characteristics have been presented in prior work.

Chapter 3


Before going further on the talk related to the thermal comfort conditions and energy put it to use is important to first briefly discuss the essential and important elements of a typical design of mosque and the different activity modes in mosque.

3. 1. Basic Elements of typical design of Mosque

Mosque is generally a simple rectangular wall enclosed building having a roofed prayer hall. The longer area of the rectangular shape has orientation in direction of the Makkah City getting the holy mosque. This much longer wall is generally termed as 'Qibla Wall structure'. In the heart of the wall membrane is a recess in the form of niche wall to create as 'Mihrab'. In addition, it includes an increased floor commonly referred to as 'Minbar', in the right of Mihrab, that Imam gives or preaches the talk on Fri, i. e. 'Khutba'. These are some of the essential components of any mosque design. In Fiugre1 an isometric and an idea of the simple design of a mosque has been shown emphasizing the essential elements of design of a mosque. Although from the functional point the mosques are not different and also have remained unchanged but the space, building materials, architectural varieties and the engineering systems have advanced and developed to very different extent in the various elements of the world of Islam which are influenced by many other factors as well.

Figure 1: The essential design components of a straightforward mosque (a) plan, and (b) isometric [Reference point: [22]].

Figure2: The geometric configurations (plans) of the investigated mosques.

3. 2. Activity settings in a mosque

The design of the mosque is greatly inspired by the worship factors. There are usually two methods of worship in a mosque. The first mode is the prayer function which involves doing prayers either in communities or individually as per the spiritual prescription. Generally while executing group prayers the worshippers stand, prostrate, bow and be seated behind the Imam in parallel rows and on the same floor level that are aligned parallel to the Qibla Wall membrane using a distance of around 1. 2 m. The second method of worship is the preaching mode, where the worshippers seating in random rows and listens to the Imam who preaches and deliver Khutba, sitting on the Minbar which is a enhanced floor. The elevation of the Minbar floor differs in different mosques. The mosque capacity is dependent upon the ground area and is determined by dividing the area of the floor with the average area required with a worshipper for doing the prayer which is roughly 0. 80 * 1. 2 = 0. 96 m2.

Gantt Chart

Thermal Comfort in Mosques























Submission of Research Proposal

















Literature Survey

















Interim Statement Submission

















Development of Systematic Approach

















Field review of Mosques

















Result analysis

















Concluding Remarks and Recommendations

















Final Task Submission

















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