Puritanism Romanticism And Transcendentalism British Literature Essay

From the earliest days of our life books has been heading along. The subject of literature demonstrated us the richness of the ancient works and we liked reading the best booklet ever before written: Malory knight stories, fairy tales of Grimm, Shakespeare's poetry, novels of Charles Dickens and Walter Scott. In other words, we were getting familiar with the treasure of each nation, using its best works ever. But if to ask a question "what exactly is literature", it is very difficult to answer. We are able to say what of gratitude, criticism, likes and dislikes, but the easiest way to spell it out this word is our bookshelves. Books is our life, passions, dreams, and creativity. Books makes us think of occasions, assessing them and making conclusions. When the writer writes the reserve, he must be in depth in the appearance of the content of the story, as well as the design of it. He's usually very careful in choosing appropriate words, showing events in the simplest way. He gives great attention to the melody of the storyline and its shade. He carefully decides stylistic devices. We may like these or that people or dislike them, but still we will understand the goal of them in a book. Literature is the greatest education - moral as well as moral. Literature discovers our imagination, awakens our emotions, and makes us think about these or that event and also to fret about the fates of the key characters. Catalogs cause emotions of sympathy, esteem, love, sometimes enmity, sometimes disgust. It can help us to discover our deep thoughts and, what is the most important, to inherit the experience of the more than 100 years of people's living. Why don't we explore the start of the fantastic and powerful books - the books of America.

In 1620, way back when following the first American settlements were found, an organization of people arrived to the present day status of Massachusetts is the search of better life. They were called Pilgrims plus they sailed from England on a ship called "The Mayflower". The primary reason to allow them to come here's displeasure with the Church of England. They dreamed about establishing of the ideal church for America. Soon, they created their own set of values, and their goal was to establish the new, 'real' religious movement. This is the origination of the Puritan Literature. This kind of books completely depended on the firm values:

"The Puritans thought in the innate depravity of man. They also believed that a lot of people were "predestined" to experience an afterlife with God. Only the "elect" or "chosen" were in a good relationship with God.

The Puritans would "search" their daily lives and discover any icons from God.

The Puritans were educated and trained their fans to be rational thinkers.

The Puritans feared that humanistic learning would sketch people away from the cathedral.

This important Puritan belief became complicated since it had to be identified who belonged to the band of "chosen" people. " (Mr. Kelly)

All Puritan thoughts and values represent in their literature. The most apparent in the Puritan books is the description of life in a "pure", truly way, with no exaggerations, vagueness and embellishment. The plainness of the Puritanism works, their ease, made literal works designed for every one of the people. It generally does not mean that Puritanism writers were illiteral; they just tended to make people a little bit closer to religion, as the one book they had and were impressed by was the Bible. Being among the most famous writers Anne Bradstreet must be pointed out, as the first follower of the Puritanism activity. "A few of her early on poems, including "The Prologue, " made an appearance in a e book called The Tenth Muse Recently Sprung Up in America, printed without her consent in Great britain in 1650 thanks to the work of brother-in-law. " (Anne Bradstreet, Puritan Poet). It concerns people's daily routine: life, relations, birth, family etc. She was the only feminine writer at those times, and continued to be so until the appearance of Emily Dickson 200 years later. William Bradford's contribution to the American books, as well as background can't be overestimated. Besides he was one of the first governors of the Playmouth, he is the writer of the famous "Of Plymouth Plantation", which explains the lives of English colonists from the first times in Cape Code.

Edward Taylor, who was simply a Puritan Minister, became an originator of the metaphysical phenomena. He was a get better at to express astounding and undiscovered things with the aid of simple, common words.

Nevertheless the movements of Puritanism did not previous long and was not that fertile, it definitely were able to bring its great contribution to the further development of American literature. The Puritans dreamed of better life, they wished for the creation of the new Garden of Eden plus they firmly believed that this would happen. That is why exactly their works are packed with optimism. This later prompted such famous writers as Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, and Adam. Many critics say that Puritans were the early founders of symbolism, as they presumed that the word was religious and meant much more than a simple explanation of finished. . This affected the works of Melville, Poe, and Hawthorne.

From the time of the 1784 to 1864 America underwent a lot of changes. After receiving the Warfare of Independence, the American books was full of strength to build something new, it needed activities and entertainment. It is now time of the establishment of the new propensity in books - Romanticism. Still, the development of this movements was greatly influenced by the United kingdom or at least Western european traditions. But still, the new authors of this period truly depicted American culture, American practices and American thought. It had been very important, taking in to the accounts the establishment of the new country. The main idea of the Romanticism is the fact that the average person is in the heart of occasions and the occasions cause different varieties of emotions in him. What like individualism, mysticism, sensibility, primitivism, liberty, thoughts, love are strongly connected with this very part of books. "Characteristics of American Intimate fiction are thus the depiction of the inexplicable, irrational and incomprehensible universe, supernatural foreshadowing, and silences of the written text, as they show universals, rather than discovered truths" (Sirinya Pakditawan).

Romanticism got a great effect on the further development of fine art. Romantic writers confirmed people liberty and made them recognize that they were free. Romantic works were read with great pleasure plus they were available to common people, as the primary persona, the hero, was often a simple farmer or a shepherd. There came out a great deal of different kinds of literary works: essays, novels, experiences, poems, narratives. To mention the most well-known writers it is Edgar Poe who's worth mentioning. He was famous for his tales, such as "The Black colored Cat", "The Masque of the Red Death", "The Oval Portrait", "Hop-Frog" and more. Despite Poe was mostly known as a literary critic, he managed to make plenty of the supporters of his works and gain a worldwide reputation not only on the list of readers, but among the other famous authors and his contemporaries as well.

Nathaniel Hawthorne's works will be the types of the dark romanticism. He inherited some of the ideas of the Puritans. These ideas confirmed that bad was the primary inherit feature of any person. His romances ("The Marble Faun", The Scarlet Notice, THE HOME of the Eight Gable) show internal problems and there's a unique image of symbolism - all of this later inspired the new propensity in American Literature - Transcendentalism. Actually, some critics declare that Transcendentalism is Romanticism, but on the backdrop of Puritanism. A group of like-minded individuals once proven the Transcendentalist Club. They met from time to time and distributed their ideas. They were of the firm notion that "people would go above their animal instincts and live matching to higher key points" (Andrew Ladd)

They presumed, that the most crucial thing in the globe is heart (God quite simply) in support of the soul is in charge of all the occurrences happening with people. God is omnipresent and omnipotent and he looks like a human. These were also of the impression, that every person must be an example to the further generations and thus, this will contribute to the development of the perfect characteristics. Besides, the physical world in the imagination of transcendentalists was a symbol of the religious one, thus underlining the fact and the value of icons in dynamics (for example, the streaming normal water is the sign of infinite living of the planet). As we can easily see, the religious ideas of transcendentalists were quite likewise those of the puritans. They as well considered God a superpower, in charge of everything in the World.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, the founder of the Transcendentalist Membership in Boston, soon became the primary its consultant. In 1836 he shared his first article "Nature", which consisted the astonishing evaluations of mother nature and it was soon called "the Bible of Transcendentalism" as it comprised the principal ideas of this movement. This booklet was packed with optimism and the information of character, as well as the comparing the bad with the good, where in fact the good is usually stronger. "The American Scholar", "The Poet", "Self-Reliance" are the ones of the list of Emerson's works, which, as it has already been pointed out, in their ideas is tightly connected with the ideas of Puritanism. A pal of Emerson was Margaret Fuller, who was an intellectual, thoughtful conversationalist, very talented writer and only a smart female. In her first work "The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men, Woman versus Women" she fought for women's protection under the law. Later arrived "Woman in the Nineteenth Century", which later became the background of the feminist theory. She fought for women's equality, for permitting them to work anywhere they need, not only the careers which a feminine. She had written: "I wish girl to live, first for God's sake. Then she'll not make an imperfect man for her god, and thus sink to idolatry. Then she will not take what is not fit for her from a sense of weakness and poverty" (George Perkins)

Another functions by Margaret, which have earned attention are "Summer on the Lakes" and "Paperwork on Literature and Art".

Another leading transcendentalist is Henry David Thoreau. He also backed ideas of aspect and its symbols, and he himself was often pleased to explore nature: go walking, go fishing, going and take into account the symbols the World provides us. . "Noncooperation with bad is really as much a moral obligation as is assistance with good. No other person has been more eloquent and ardent in getting this idea across than Henry David Thoreau". (Martin Luther King, Jr). His literary works are a little difficult, sometimes overloaded with images, but this is performed deliberately. The reader, while exploring Thoreau's works must rethink his lifetime, think over his life and opt to change something immediately. Henry tended to produce the moving books, which would touch after people's hearts and to make sure they are do crazy things, taking into consideration the mother nature to be the most crucial thing in life. To name some of his works are: "The Service", "A Walk to Wachusett", "Slavery in Massachusetts", "Herald of Freedom". Henry David Thoreau's job influenced a great deal of authors and political numbers. Ernest Hemingway and William Butler Yeats were as well expressed by the essays of Thoreau and tried to imitate his style.

To conclude, it must be said that the three activities on literature, which have been touched upon in the given newspaper, were the irreplaceable durations for the introduction of the American books and the most important. The history of the country gave its premises to the advantages of the new thoughts, ideas, themes or templates and topics. It is noticeable, that any skill depends on the realia which surround us. Thus, Puritanism experienced the belief in God as the key idea. Romanticism revived the perception in human being, making him the key persona of any literary work. Transcendentalism had taken a lot from Puritanism, still it was the very best, the summit of the introduction of the Romanticism, expressing, that characteristics was filled with symbols. Both Transcendentalism, - a religious and visionary idea, - and Romanticism - asserting the goodness of character - are idealistic philosophies. " (Andrew Ladd)

The American books developed very quickly, and one literary trend inspired another greatly. Each new arriving author studied the prior spheres of literature, and attempted to fill up, to enrich the earlier known ideas along with his own. Still, the American books for the brief time frame became famous all around the globe, spreading its suggestions to the next generations.

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