Self Research Criterion Concept

Explain the idea of 'self research criterion' and show its importance to a marketing company planning to enter into international markets for the very first time. Why if the international marketer have knowledge of sub cultural groupings when attempting to segment markets in a particular country or region.



culture, generally interpreted, is a major part of the course therefore students should have little difficulty responding to a question associated with this issue. Students should appreciate that the idea of

'self reference criterion' is of important importance to ethnical understanding and cross-cultural examination. (7)

The key obstacle to international marketing, particularly for those

firms nearing international marketing for the very first time, is a person's self reference point criterion (SRC) to make decisions. Students should identify SRC and the actual fact that it is an unconscious reference to one's own ethnical values, encounters and knowledge as a basis for decisions. (7)

In particular students must be aware that the

SRC impedes the ability to assess a international market in its true light, which could possibly bring about serious flaws. (6)

When faced

with an issue or situation in a overseas culture, the trend is to respond instinctively referring and then our SRC for a remedy. Our effect, however, is dependant on meanings, values, symbols and behaviour relevant to or own culture, and usually not the same as those of the overseas culture. (9)

Students are expected to

illustrate the possible impact of the SRC, for example misunderstandings may appear about personal space between people of different cultures. This could also be related to high and low ethnical context situations. (8)

Generally students must be aware that the

ethnocentrism caused by the result of the SRC could effect an evaluation of the appropriateness of marketing strategies and the marketing blend for a overseas market. (6)

To avoid this, international marketing companies, especially those joining an international marketplaces for the first time,

need to perform a cross ethnical analysis of every situation and isolate the SRC result and influence that triggers the problems of any ethnocentric view of the marketing situation. (7)





People from different parts of the globe have a tendency to follow different civilizations and behavior habits. In Parts of asia, some expresses have its vocabulary and culture making it a highly diverse. The social surroundings do impact the marketing of the merchandise or service. The needs and requirements of the differing cultural surroundings of the world are different and hence an effective product in a single area of the world might grow to be failing at the other end.

Culture displays our life-style, behaviour and personality on the whole. The way we think, eat, dress, education, principles etc are all cultural reflections. It goes without saying that culture effects marketing. The customer market needs to be properly investigated and for this the idea has to be effectively communicated. One of the obstacle which can hamper communication is 'Home Reference point Criterion' (SRC) and Ethnocentrism.

In this study will appreciate that the concept of 'self reference criterion' is of fundamental importance to ethnic understanding and cross-cultural analysis

(A) Explain the idea of 'self reference point criterion' and display its importance to a marketing organization planning to type in international market segments for the first time. (50% of the available grades)


Much has been written about culture and its own implications. Whilst on the surface most countries of the world demonstrate ethnical similarities, there are numerous differences, concealed below the top. One can discuss "the West", but Italians and British, both belonging to the so called "West", are extremely different in view when one looks below the top. The task of the global professional is to find the similarities and variations in culture and account for these in making and growing marketing plans. Inability to do so can be disasterous.

Terpstran9 (1987) has identified culture as follows:

"The integrated total total of learned behavioral characteristics that are manifest and distributed by associates of society"

Culture, therefore, relating to this classification, is part of the external influences that impact the buyer. That's, culture represents influences that are enforced on the buyer by other individuals.

The explanation of culture offered one words is "That complicated whole which includes knowledge, belief, art work, morals, custom, and some other capabilities and patterns received by man person as an associate of world. "

Much argument in the study of culture has revolved surrounding the "standardisation" versus "adaption" question. In the search for standardisation certain "universals" can be recognized. Murdock7 (1954) suggested a list, including get older grading, spiritual rituals and athletic sport. Levitt5 (1982) suggested that traditional dissimilarities in task and doing business were breaking down and this meant that standardisation somewhat than adaption is now increasingly prevalent.

Culture, alongside economical factors, is most likely one of the most important environmental parameters to consider in global marketing. Culture is very often concealed from view and can be easily overlooked.

Approaches to the analysis of culture

XXXXXXXXXXXXX suggested a number of methods to the study of culture; one of these including the Self- Reference Criterion (SRC) and an associated ethnocentrism.

Self- Reference Criterion (SRC) and an associated ethnocentrism

The key to successful international marketing is version to environmentally friendly differences in one market to another. Version is a conscious effort on the part of the international marketing expert to anticipate the affects of both the foreign and domestic uncontrollable factors on a marketing blend and then to adjust the marketing combine to minimize the effects.

The primary obstructions to success in international marketing are a person's self research criterion (SRC) and an associated ethnocentrism. SRC is an unconscious mention of one's own social values, experiences, and Knowledge as a basis for decisions. Closely connected is ethnocentrism, that is, the notion that one's own culture or company is aware best how to do things.

Ethnocentrism is particularly problems for American professionals at the start of the 21st hundred years because of America's dominance on the planet economy through the overdue 1990s. Ethnocentrism is generally issues when managers from affluent countries work with managers and market segments in less affluent countries. Both SRC and ethnocentrism impede the capability to assess a overseas market in its true light.

When met with a couple of facts, we respond spontaneously based on knowledge assimilated on the life time - knowledge that is product of the history of our culture. We hardly ever stop to think about a effect; we simply react. Thus when confronted with issues in another culture, the propensity is to behave instinctively and make reference to our SRC for this a remedy. Our effect however is dependant on meanings, values, symbols and behavior relevant to our own culture and usually different from, those of the overseas culture. Such decisions tend to be not good ones.

To demonstrate the impact of the SRC consider misunderstandings that can occur about personal space between people of different cultures. In the United States, unrelated individuals keep a certain physical distance between themselves and more when chatting or in categories. We do not consciously think about that distance; we just know what seems right without thinking. When someone is too close or too far away, we feel unpleasant and either move farther away or get closer to correct the distance. In doing this, we are counting on our SRC. In a few cultures the satisfactory distance between individuals is significantly less than that which is comfortable for People in the usa. When someone from another culture approaches an American too tightly, the American unaware of that culture's suitable distance, unconsciously reacts by support away to restore the correct distance (i. e. proper by American standards) and misunderstandings results for both celebrations. Americans suppose foreigners are pushy, while foreigners believe. Us citizens are unfriendly and literally "standoffish". Both respond based on the beliefs of their own SRCs, making both patients of a ethnical misunderstanding.

Ethnocentrism and the SRC can effect an evaluation of the appropriateness of the domestically designed marketing mix for a overseas market. If US marketers aren't aware, they could evaluate a marketing blend based on US experiences (i. e. their SRC) without fully appreciating the ethnical differences that require version. Esso, the brand name of a gasoline, was a successful name in the United States and would appear harmless enough for international countries; yet, in Japan the name phonetically means stalled car an unhealthy image for gasoline. Another example is Dog or cat in pet Dairy. The name has been used for decades, yet in France the term pet means, among other activities, flatulence again, not the required image for canned dairy. Both these instances were real flaws made by major companies stemming from reliance on the SRC to make a decision. In US culture, someone's SRC wouldn't normally reveal an issue with either Esso or pet, however in international marketing, counting on one's SRC could produce an inadequately adapted marketing program that ends in failure.

Elements of the global marketing mix

The "Four P's" of marketing: product, price, location, and promotion are all affected as a company moves through the five evolutionary stages to become a global company. Ultimately, at the global marketing level, an organization trying to speak with one tone of voice is faced with many challenges when creating an internationally marketing plan. Unless an organization holds the same position against its competition in all markets (market leader, low priced, etc. ) it is impossible to establish identical marketing plans worldwide.


A global company is one which can create a single product and only have to tweak elements for different marketplaces. For example, Coca-Cola uses two formulas (one with sugars, one with corn syrup) for all markets. The merchandise packaging atlanta divorce attorneys country features the contour bottle design and the active ribbon in some way, condition, or form. However, the container or can also includes the country's indigenous language and is also the same size as other beverage containers or cans for the reason that country.


Price will always change from market to market. Price is influenced by many factors: cost of product development (produced locally or brought in), cost of elements, cost of delivery (vehicles, tariffs, etc. ), plus much more. Additionally, the product's position with regards to the competition affects the ultimate profit percentage. Whether the product is considered the high-end, expensive choice, the cost-effective, low-cost choice, or something in-between helps determine the purchase price point.


How the merchandise is sent out is also a country-by-country decision affected by the way the competition is being offered to the target market. Using Coca-Cola for example again, not absolutely all ethnicities use vending machines. In america, beverages can be purchased by the pallet via warehouse stores. In India, this is not an option. Placement decisions must also consider the product's position on the market place. For instance, a high-end product wouldn't normally want to be distributed via a "dollar store" in the United States. Conversely, something promoted as the low-cost option in France would find limited success in a pricey boutique.


After product research, development and creation, advertising (specifically advertising) is generally the largest collection item in a worldwide company's marketing budget. At this time of a company's development, included marketing is the target. The global corporation seeks to lessen costs, reduce redundancies in employees and work, take full advantage of speed of implementation, and to speak with one tone. If the goal of a worldwide company is to send the same message worldwide, then providing that note in a relevant, participating, and cost-effective way is the task.

Effective global advertising techniques do exist. The main element is testing advertising ideas by using a marketing research system proven to provide results that may be likened across countries. The ability to identify which elements or moments of an advertising are adding to that success is how economies of size are maximized. General market trends steps such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Sentiment and branding moments provide insights into what's working in an ad in virtually any country because the actions are based on aesthetic, not verbal, components of the ad.

(B) Why if the international marketer know about sub cultural teams when wanting to segment marketplaces in a specific country or region. Use illustrations in your answer. (50% of the available marks)

A global 'geocentric' marketing strategy

Acording to XXXXX, in addition to the Ethnocentric, a different type of orientation that International Marketers could take is a Geocentric online marketing strategy.

Managers at global and transnational companies are regio centric or geocentric in their orientation and go after both extension and version strategies in global marketplaces.

Geocentric orientated companies vies the entire world as a potential market and makes special effort to develop included world market strategies. Companies having regio or geocentric orientations tend to be known as a global or transnational company.

Global marketings importance today is molded by the dynamic interplay of several traveling and restraining forces.

Driving makes include:

needs and wants


transportation and communication improvements

product costs


world economic trends

opportunity recognition to build up leverage by functioning globally

Restraining makes include:

market differences

management myopia

organizational culture

national settings such as non-tariff barriers

Sub-culture meaning and examples

While we belong to one large culture, of more interest is just how our culture is broken down into groups of more specific norms and prices. While we talk about many overarching norms and ideals there are numerous which we do not.

It is important to note that people can study people from the perspective with their standard culture, or in greater detail by viewing what subcultures they take part in and therefore at any particular norms and ideals associated with those subcultures. At the heart of the is the actual fact that every individual participates in not just a single sub social group but in numerous groups all of which may have different norms and principles.

In sociology, a subculture is a culture or place of people with distinct behavior and values within a more substantial culture. The essence of any subculture, that distinguishes it from other communal groupings, is awareness of style and differences in style, in clothing, music or other interests(Thornton, Sarah (1995). Club Civilizations: Music, Mass media, and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity Press. )

Several subcultures flourish due to almost hereditary need for folks to belong, especially youth. As a result of this, many corporations have taken notice of these and begun to exploit and benefit off said subculture's music or fashion likes. This brings about a complete bastardization of the original intentions of the group and may kill from the group entirely.

Inside some organizations, subcultures can are present at all levels of it, highlighting the actual fact that we now have multiple cultures or value combinations usually evident in any one company that can go with but also contend with the entire organisational culture.

Dick Hebidge (1981) used style as a subculture's styles, mannerisms, argot (see also slang, jargon, and polari), activities, music, and passions. Subcultural styles are recognized from mainstream styles by being intentionally "fabricated", their constructedness, as not the same as conventional.

Hebidge considered punk subculture to share the same "radical cosmetic tactics" as dada and surrealism: "Like Duchamp's 'ready mades' - created objects which trained as artwork because he thought we would call them such, the most unremarkable and incorrect items - a pin, a clear plastic clothes peg, a television aspect, a razor knife, a tampon - could be helped bring within the province of punk (un)fashion. . . Items lent from the most sordid of contexts found a place in punks' ensembles; lavatory chains were draped in elegant arcs across chests encased in plastic material bin liners. Safeness pins were removed from their home 'utility' framework and worn as gruesome ornaments through the cheek, ear canal or lip. . . fragments of university standard (white bri-nylon shirts, institution ties) were symbolically defiled (the t shirts covered in graffiti, or fraudulent blood vessels; the ties left undone) and juxtaposed against leather drains or shocking red mohair tops. " (p. 106-12)

Sarah Thornton (1995), after Pierre Bourdieu (1986), described subcultural capital as the ethnical knowledge and commodities acquired by users of your subculture, raising their position and helping distinguish themselves from associates of other teams.

Marketing segmentation

Aplying the sub-culture meaning, and extracted from a demographic point of view The essence of an subculture, that distinguishes it from other interpersonal groupings, is awareness of style and dissimilarities in style, a Market segmentation is a strategy that involves dividing a more substantial market into subsets of consumers who have common needs and applications for the products and services offered in the market. These subgroups of consumers can be identified by a number of different demographics, with regards to the purposes behind determining the groupings. Marketing campaigns are often designed and integrated based on this type of customer segmentation.

One of the primary reasons for participating in market segmentation is to help the business understand the needs of the client base. Usually the task of segregating consumers by specific conditions will help the company identify other applications for their products that may or may well not have been self evident before. Uncovering these other ideas for use of goods and services can help the company concentrate on a more substantial audience for the reason that same demographic classification and thus increase market talk about among a particular sub market foundation.

Market segmentation strategies can be developed over a wide range of characteristics found among consumers. One group within the marketplace may be identified by gender, while another group may be composed of consumers within confirmed age group. Location is another common aspect in market segmentation, as is income level and education level. Generally, you will see at least a few founded customers who fall under several category, but marketing strategists normally allow for this trend.

Along with participating in a role in the introduction of new marketing approaches to draw in a certain demographic within the market bottom part, market segmentation can also help an organization understand ways to enhance customer devotion with existing customers. Within the process of figuring out specific groupings within the bigger client base, the company will often ask questions that lead to sensible suggestions how to make the products more suitable to customers. This activity can lead to changes in packaging or other similar changes that not impact the main product. However, making a few simple changes in the looks of the product sends a specific message to people that the company does indeed pay attention to customers. This demonstration of good will can go quite a distance to fortify the ties between consumer and merchant.

The implications of sub-cultural organizations to segmentation decisions

The idea of cultural diversity can be used to illustrate how this may influence the demand for goods and services. The UK offers a good exemplory case of a cultural variety. The country has provided a home for successive years of immigrants from around the globe and this has created a rich mixture of cultural and other sub-groups, often focused in particular parts of the country and having their own languages and traditions and standards of living.

(Worthington, Britton. 2009)

Marketers have long recognize the importance of demographic, ethnic and communal factors in shaping people's demand for goods and services. Marketers can be segmented in many ways and this styles to differ between consumer market segments and the ones which involve business to business ventures.

All organizations are an integral part of the society where they can be found and perform their activities and therefore they are affected by the number of influences emanating from the demographic, sociable and ethnical environment. These affects can change as time passes and help to shape both demand and supply area of business activity. Business and other organizations have to be alert to and respond to the procedure of societal change also to the opportunities and threats that such change can engender.

According to the creators Worthington and Britton (2009) some implications of sub-cultural categories to segmentation decisions must be studied in consideration:

Organizations can be found and operate within contemporary society and are subject to a number of demographic and socio-cultural affects.

Demographic is nervous about population parameters, including populace size, framework and distribution.

The social context of business includes factors such as sociable class, lifestyle and reference group influences. The intake of goods and services within an overall economy can be associated with such factors.

The ethnic environment of business comprises those establishments and other makes which help to form society's basic attitudes, values, perceptions, tastes and patterns.

Societies usually contain sub-cultures which can impact a person's values, attitudes and activities.

Like demographic and communal factors, cultural affects can change over time and make a difference organizations. Business have to be delicate to such change.


Along with "economics", "culture" is another so called "environmental uncontrollable" which marketers must consider. Actually, it is a very important one as it is so easy to misread a situation and take decisions which eventually can prove devastating.

The analysis of culture has considered many forms including the anthropological methodology, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the self applied research criterion, diffusion theory, high and low framework culture, and notion methods. "Culture" itself comprises of lots of learned characteristics including appearance, education, religious beliefs and attitudes and values. One of the principal experts on culture and its consequences is Hofstede, who, because of this of his studies, offers many insights and courses to marketers when interacting with diverse nationalities. Ignoring distinctions, or even similarities, in culture can result in marketers making and performing decisions with possible disastrous results.

Culture is the totality of our life style & personality. Instantly is can be said that, culture is the fact that that which we are i. e. our way of dressings, specking, eating, pondering, learning, attitude, feels, beliefs, norms etc all contained in our culture. International marketing is the marketing activities of the company outside their country of origin.

Culture has a great effect on international marketing. A internet entrepreneur must have to review about the local culture in-depth before offering a product to them. Due to every marketing campaign has done to promote the product i. e. communicating product feature to the clients and effect customers to buy it.

To have a powerful communication one must send the subject matter in line with the receiver's culture, customs and learning process. There are a few major barriers where effective communication can be hampered. Self applied Reference point Criterion (SRC) and Ethnocentrism can make the effort worthless.

Here we can sketch a good example how SRC can make all work worthless. As we know that Disney land is a name of success in the leisure park business around the globe. But when they may have started their journey in France they faced a tremendous problem and fall in billion Money loss.

In USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan they received plenty of profit. But why they failed in France? Disney management started a report and fined out that do it yourself Reference Requirements of American managers make the French people hart. As a result they don't used to be here in Parish Disney Area.

Not only in France out of every ten US managers eight have to displace from Saudi Arabia within three month of the joining. It is because they neglect to handle the Saudi culture and customs.

It is human character that, everything want to judge regarding to self learning process and Cultural way of measuring. But a single thing can have different so this means in different culture. For instance showing thumb carries the signal of most to the western but it posesses serious negative meaning to the Bengali rural people.

For this reason a marketer in international market will need to have to convert his all thinking into the culture of the local people. Sometime marketing expert fails to make this conversion successfully because of this they fail to have residents attention and make huge loss.

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