Sense Of Horror In Monkeys Paw English Literature Essay

Jacobs creates a sense of horror within the Monkeys Paw by using a variety of literary techniques. As 'The Monkeys Paw' was written in 1902, Jacobs makes the tale scary with techniques that are extremely dissimilar to modern horror films and books. We are able to tell that the story was written in the early twentieth century as it contains many details that would have been common in Victorian books. One of the most apparent features from 'The Monkey's Paw' that says us that the storyline was written over a hundred years ago, is the old-fashioned dialect that Jacobs uses. The language used throughout the story is made up of words such as 'rubicund' and 'visage', which are not words that are generally used today. Also, the actual fact that Ј200 was regarded as a lot of money shows that the storyline was from a long time ago as Ј200 is not viewed as a large sum of money in the modern world. Other aspects of the storyplot also show that 'The Monkey's Paw' was written in the Victorian time frame - the fact that India was regarded as a new, spectacular and unexplored country says us that the story will need to have been written in a period when transport wasn't as easily available as it is today. Inside the story, when the Sergeant-Major says the Whites about his exploration, they seem almost in awe of him as he is seen to be the bravest & most adventurous person that they have ever before met because of his voyage to India. The fact that Jacobs used a Sergeant-Major persona is also another typical feature of Victorian literature. Finally, the household things that the Whites use within 'The Monkey's Paw' show that the storyline was not emerge modern times. For instance, the Whites use candles for light and heat up their kettle on the fire as there is no electricity in Victorian times.

As 'The Monkey's Paw' was written over a hundred years in the past, Jacobs doesn't use explicit gory details to produce horror like modern frightening films and catalogs. Instead, he uses refined hints generally in most aspects of the storyplot to develop an aspect of terror and one of these aspects is the way that Jacobs uses setting. The main manner in which Jacobs uses setting to increase the stress in 'The Monkey's Paw', is the way that he creates distinction between the outdoors outside weather and the cosy atmosphere inside the Whites' home. At the beginning of the storyline, Jacobs describes the night time as 'frosty and moist', whereas Jacobs explains the Whites' home by writing 'the open fire burned up brightly'. This distinction makes the audience associate the outside with dark, frosty and bad while associating the inside with light, warm and good. There may be a very important factor that is keeping the White family safe from the badness of the outside, and that is the blinds. The blinds are drawn in part 1 of 'The Monkey's Paw' when the Whites are a cosy, normal family shielded from grief and terror. However, partly 3 of the storyline when Mrs White wants Herbert to come back from the dead, Jacobs creates 'the old female, with burning sight, walked to the screen and raised the blind'. I think that the blind is a symbol for a hurdle that defends the Whites from the threat of the outside and when Mrs White raises the blind to consider her child she lets some of that danger into her home. Also, the tourists bring some of the danger and badness from the outside in to the Whites' home when they visit. For example, when the Sergeant-Major goes to, he brings the monkey's paw which changes the Whites' lives forever so when the worker at Maw and Meggins trips, he brings the news headlines of Herbert's loss of life. It really is clear that throughout the story, Jacobs corresponds the outside atmosphere to the spirits of the heroes. For example, in part 3 of the storyplot, the house is 'steeped in shadow and silence' which is much like the couple, as there is no much longer any banter or chatter between them after Herbert's fatality. For this reason, the reader is lulled into a phony sense of security when they read about the 'wintry sun' and 'prosaic wholesomeness' at the beginning of part 2. The reader thinks that sunlit weather and common atmosphere will correspond to the individuals' moods. However, just a little later on, the Whites discover about Herbert's loss of life; this leaves the audience feeling surprised as they might have been planning on the Whites to truly have a normal day, when instead the Whites obtain horrific news of these son loss of life. Finally, we realize that the house is very isolated as Mr White says at the start of the storyline 'that's the worst of living so far away'. This adds to the suspense partly 3 of the story as we know that the Whites are alone and there is no-one that will help them.

Another way in which Jacobs creates horror is through his use of characterisation. Firstly, we reach see the pleasure of the White family from the start of the story. There are numerous types of their close-knit, normal family life throughout part 1 of 'The Monkey's Paw' such as Mr White and Herbert playing a family game of chess at the start of the storyplot. The Whites are generally presented as enjoyable and common people. Therefore, when their first wish upon the monkey's paw comes true but at the price of their son's life, we are even more shocked at their misfortune as they seem to be only a normal family and not foolish individuals who have no common sense. The actual fact that Mr and Mrs White are elderly also increases the sense of risk in the storyline as they are seen to become more vulnerable than more radiant people may be. Partly 3 of the story, Jacobs uses distinction in the characters' moods for a remarkable effect. At the beginning of the storyplot, the couple are chatty and make jokes with one another which makes a light family atmosphere. However, partly 3 of 'The Monkey's Paw', Mr and Mrs White have radically became uncommunicative couple who 'rarely exchange a expression' as they have 'nothing at all to talk about' after their son's death. This huge contrast makes the reader realize the enormity of the effect that Herbert's loss of life has already established on Mr and Mrs White. This impact is also portrayed through Mrs White's recently irrational behavior throughout part 3. She is constantly having combined feelings - 'she laughed and cried along' - which show that she is not in charge of her feelings and she's 'wild' ideas about taking her son back again from the useless. Finally, another way in which Jacobs creates dilemma through his use of heroes is by demonstrating that the Sergeant-Major is unwilling to talk about the paw. The Sergeant-Major is described as 'doughty' making us think that that he's very brave, so his reluctance to discuss the paw shows us that if even an extremely courageous soldier is too scared to talk about the paw, then it must be a remarkably strange and terrifying object that shouldn't be messed with.

Jacobs also creates a sense of tension in 'The Monkey's Paw' by building in the suspense throughout the several parts of the storyplot. The composition of 'The Monkey's Paw' is similar to many bits of Victorian books; it is sectioned off into three brief chapters. Partly 1, we get to see how close the White family are, the monkey's paw is first unveiled and the first wish is made. At this point in the storyline, we have no idea the power of the paw so we aren't as frightened as we are down the road in the storyplot. However, the Sergeant-Major's reluctance to talk about the paw leaves us with questions. We ask yourself if needs on the paw do become a reality, why the Sergeant-Major is wary of the paw and we also ask yourself what hopes the Whites can make. These questions make us want continue reading the story to discover what goes on. Part 2 of the story begins on the seemingly ordinary day - 'there was an air of prosaic wholesomeness'. This lulls the reader into a incorrect sense of security because they think that these were foolish for having fears of the monkey's paw as it appears to be such an regular day. The tension then begins to build when Mrs White places the dubious and 'secret' man from Maw and Meggins outside of the house. Then, when Herbert's death is revealed, the audience is even more surprised due to huge comparison to the seemingly normal start of the day. The news of Herbert's loss of life also leaves the audience with even more questions. We ask ourselves whether needs on the monkey's paw do actually become a reality or if the reimbursement of Ј200 was only a freakish coincidence. This, again, makes us want to learn further into the story to discover the answer to our questions. The explanation at the start of part 3 sets the field for the rest of the story; it is night time and Mrs White is weeping. We connect this info with badness and we therefore expect for something frightening to happen in the next area of the story. As soon as that Mr White makes the next wish, the strain is made up throughout the rest of part 3 by the increasing swiftness of the knocks and Mrs White's attempt to open the entranceway. The suspense is merely relieved right at the end of the story when Mr White makes the 3rd wish. This way, the reader feels scared for the longest time possible which creates the greatest sense of fear.

Another way that Jacobs creates a feeling of horror in the storyline is by withholding the full information from the audience to create a sense of mystery. For example, the reader does not know if the Ј200 payment for Herbert's loss of life relates to the paw or whether it is merely a coincidence. We never find this away, even by the end of the story, and so there creates an element of unknown about the complete story. Our company is also left wanting to know about other questions at the end of 'The Monkey's Paw', such as whether wants on the monkey's paw actually do become a reality and whether Herbert did actually come back from the inactive. These questions make us discuss and take into account the story even directly after we have completed reading it, which is an indicator of an effective report. Also, Jacobs withholds information in another aspect of the storyplot when he doesn't tell us what Herbert's mangled body appears like. Jacobs writes that Mr White says 'I could only recognise him by his clothing' when explaining Herbert's body. This is very powerful as it does make us imagine Herbert's body being far more contorted and gory than Jacobs may explain with words. Also, partly 3 of 'The Monkey's Paw', Jacobs doesn't give us any information about Herbert. Instead of writing something like 'Herbert the zombie approached the house', Jacobs is much cleverer in his use of terms to build up the tension. He does not discuss Herbert once; instead he escalates the suspense by talking about the 'fusillade' of knocks on the door. In this manner, Jacobs will keep the puzzle of the monkey's paw in tact as he will not declare that the knocks are definitely via Herbert, for any we realize, the knocking might just be a figment of the couple's creativity. Finally, senses are one more thing that Jacobs removes from the heroes to improve the tension in the story. Depriving the individuals of a few of their senses in parts of the story increases the tension as the personas are having something that is essential to them removed; this increases their level of fear. For example, partly 3 when Mr White moves downstairs, it's very dark so he is deprived of his eyesight. He must use touch and audio as his main senses to be able to get around. Jacobs creates that Mr White 'felt his way to the parlour' before he 'lost the direction of the door'. By detatching one of is own senses, he manages to lose the direction of where he's going which shows just how fundamental senses are and what impact being deprived of them can have. Jacobs goes on to prove that that Mr White is worried at getting rid of his direction by stating 'his brow cold with sweat'. When Mr White is scared in this part of the story, we empathise with him making us feel frightened too.

A reason we empathise with the personas is the way that Jacobs uses of words. The Whites' dialogue is very sensible and believable - it makes the Whites appear like real people making the audience feel sympathetic towards them. Also, the Whites just seem to be like an standard family as they make jokes with the other person and in the beginning of the story they can be participating in chess and knitting by the fire. They don't seem to be like greedy or foolish people so we empathise with them at their misfortune of experiencing their wish become a reality but at the cost of their son's life. A different one of the primary dialect tools that Jacobs uses in 'The Monkey's Paw' is irony. Jacobs creates irony throughout the story which makes the eventual horror even more shocking. For example, partly 2 of the storyline, Mr and Mrs White appear gladly contented with their lives as they are making jokes and seem to be a close couple. Then when they have the information of Herbert's fatality, the audience is taken aback at this information as the few seemed to have a flawlessly good, normal life before Herbert's fatality. Other examples of irony in the storyplot will be the way that Herbert says goodbye when he's going to work and just how that Mrs White makes comments about looking forward to Herbert to get back. Herbert says 'before I come again' and Mrs White says 'when he comes home' that happen to be both discussing Herbert's return. That is ironic as they don't know that Herbert will not be returning. Another language technique that Jacobs uses to build horror is syntax. For instance, when Jacobs is explaining the Whites in the beginning of the tale, he uses long sentences like 'Daddy and boy were at chess, the past, who possessed the theory about the game including radical changes, putting his king into such pointed and pointless perils which it even provoked comment from the white-haired old lady knitting placidly by the open fire' that get into a great deal of detail to describe what is occurring. However, when the storyline becomes more tense, Jacobs uses brief sentences showing the change in speed of the storyplot and to increase a feeling of panic. For instance, partly 3 when the couple hear the first knock, the suspense boosts considerably and Jacobs shows this by by using a series of brief, simple phrases such as 'A third knock sounded through the house'. The final way that Jacobs uses vocabulary to set-up horror in 'The Monkey's Paw' is simply through the decision of the words that he uses. The way that he describes things creates powerful, frightening imagery. Jacobs can make even the most normal household objects seem terrifying. For example, when describing a candlestick he writes '[the candle-end] was tossing pulsating shadows on the ceiling and wall surfaces, until, with a flicker bigger than the others, it expired'. This description gives the most powerful sense of imagery as Jacobs makes the candle appear alive by stating that it has a pulse. The use of the word 'pulsating' also makes the reader think of the Whites as they are incredibly tense at this time of the story and their pulse rate is probably very high because of the nervous anticipation of viewing whether their wish has come true.

I think that WW Jacobs is a very powerful and wise writer that has cleverly used every possible feature in the storyline of 'The Monkey's Paw' to create a sense of horror. The literary techniques that he uses are incredibly typical to people of most short stories written in Victorian times. Privately, I think that these techniques, including the unknown of the unknown, are a good deal scarier and build-up a much better sense of pressure than present day horror experiences. Modern horror films and catalogs mainly use gore, wounds and blood to generate the factor of disgust that produces the most profit. However, I feel that Jacobs cleverly uses simple details and advice in 'The Monkey's Paw' to build up a sense of throughout the storyplot, and this is exactly what creates a classic horror story that basically takes on with the reader's brain.

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