Marketing is an integrated interactive strategy of planning, handling and practising the complete chain of advertising, recognition, pricing, promotion, syndication and advertising of any product or services providing the average person and organizational targets of client satisfaction and income maximization. Web or online marketing is the sensation of creating and perpetuating consumer relationships through internet branding, recognition building and advertising in order to encourage and expedite exchange of merchandisable views, commodities and services for common benefits. [Source: Imber, Jane and Betsy-Ann Toffler. 2000. Dictionary of Marketing Conditions. 3rd ed. Barrons Business Dictionaries] To apply an effective marketing case study it's important to winnow all information to strategize and integrate the various marketing management steps taken up to derive the solution as enlisted below:
a history and release to acquaint with the marketing prospects
circumstantial scrutiny about the product promoted or service rendered
elaborative research of the marketing action programs adapted
absolute affirmations to substantiate the case study and information
[Clemes, Michael D. (2002) p. 35]
The marketing case study illustrated this is actually the first hand experience of the article writer while working in middle management team of Chevrolet band of General Motors in India effectively strategizing the brand even through web marketing in midst of the business's uncertainties and global tough economy.
The global financial recession and possible bankruptcy of General Motors urged the government to formulate the 'Bail out Plan' by the White House under the able and diplomatic administration of america Leader Mr. Barack Obama - thus reinstating the company's progress and attractiveness and saving it from the present recession which has damaged its other rivals hugely. This case study accounts the direct experience while positively working in India between the ambitious marketing team of GM's Chevrolet - pioneering marketing and web marketing strategies to attain market management through clever brand awareness intelligently programmed based on the vision and beliefs thus steering them efficiently in face of global monetary melt down.
General Motors regarded as the colossus of American capitalism is becoming synonymous with the North american lifestyle showering friendliness of residing in opulence. Additionally, the recent ideas and strategies of General Motors to regenerate the business concentrates give attention to their four brands, particularly, Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick and GMC. GM vis- -vis Chevrolet champions itself as a prestige brand targeting the affluent and aspiring community to position them among the renowned stature. Chevrolet additionally advocates brand image for the normal corporate course familiarizing them with the brand which is well-acclaimed by the abundant and the famous. Hence Chevrolet curves a category of its synonymous with the prestige and the power of position. With the existing fast forward life styles and the growing style to attain interpersonal awareness especially in the rising marketplaces like India - consumers generally cannot break free the incessant interest of gaining conspicuous prominence in the community by possessing prestige and luxury goods like classy cars. Conspicuous Utilization depicts the consumers' objective to exhibit prominence in affording luxury goods to achieve social presence (Piron, 2000, p. 309). Showing plethora, people who likes Conspicuous Consumption seeks to achieve increased social distinction amidst the normal (Wang and Chen, 2004). Conspicuous use in India is no more confined to abundant class basically, with easy communication funding convenience at any point of the time this affluence is desired among all income communities even the economically backward working school.
In India the advertising, campaigning techniques used by Basic Motors are product-based group-targeted aiming at dynamic-branding strategies aiming at the flourishing commercial class branding especially through online music aesthetic marketing. The free test drive campaigns and extravagant road shows especially sorted out in India by Chevrolet at theory prospective items with propaganda of "least maintenance cost for three years" have instantaneously more sales and immensely strengthened their market show. Niche luxury car portion of Chevrolet also is aimed at focusing on high and medium income teams in India through practising a more specialized privately custom-made promotion strategy through email or internet "Invitation Only" Marketing. Overall Chevrolet's strategy in pleasing the Common Working Man or locally referred to as 'Aam Admi' from varied classes of income organizations in India has proven to be so effective that Chevrolet has seen a sales growth in India even in the face of global recession, at the same time Chevrolet Spark and the Aveo U-VA have bagged the exclusive J. D. Power Asia-Pacific accolades in addition to numerous other accolades in its bouquet. Chevrolet in India amidst the financial meltdown has proven to be the market leader through formulating impressive, decisive brand understanding aiming to glorify and change lives of these loyal enthusiastic enthusiasts and potential customers. In India, Chevrolet through its enterprising marketing, branding masterminding has conquered billions of loyal and prospective consumers - paving enlightened way for flourishing historically important path-breaking strategies.
The consumer's behavior can be broadly examined under cognitive, affective and normative determinants depending on approach, preference, prejudice, perception and conspicuous use of the existent community. The purchasing graph in auto industry is usually an exception. Although car prices are in lessening mode relating to India's perspective for her citizens to possess at least one car per person, the ownership of car in appearing countries like India continues to be a luxury capital purchase. All of the above affecting consumer behaviours vary with time credited to financial condition, time, gender, educational record and lifestyle - which cause two reactions, specifically, the rational frame of mind and the experienced prospect. While purchasing luxury goods like cars in India, consumer acquires in-depth understanding of the marketplace and the company offerings - rationally analysing and assessing all information.
According to Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders and Wong (1999), as well as the cultural happening, there are communal, personal and psychological aspects which govern the purchasing vitality of individuals. Across India, the globalization has ushered within an open up door market and financial boom leading to easy to get at information, technological progress, communication systems, international social networks - these 'global developments' enormously impact both the marketplaces and the consumers (Borg, 1996). Following a Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to analyse and evolve the human emotional factors configuring and constituting their needs and motivations - the determinants are categorized into five classifications in a pyramid - like the most affordable level shows physiological demand to appease basic being hungry and thirst, the next level arouses an individual to consider security and safety, the third level pacifies a person's desire for social that belong, the fourth level affects the individual to quench his esteem to achieve social status and finally the fifth level inspires to accomplish self-actualization accomplishing one's ultimate potential and self-reliance. In developing countries like India significant determinants are present for the increasing requirements of high involvement products like automobiles. India being the next most populated country has emerged as one of the most preferred nations by foreign multinational buyers in vehicle sector like Chevrolet of Basic Motors- mostly fascinated because of the huge demand obviously created by India's growing populace through the extensive expanse of qualitative skill and competitive labour pool available. Principal credit of publicizing and popularizing of Chevrolet's huge Indian expansion is contributed by the creatively advanced advertising market especially the web advertising and marketing strategies which has not only motivated its individual Indian people but also drawn the audience worldwide. The secret method behind Chevrolet's marketing success in India dwells after communication and the magnitude to which a consumer recognizes and recalls a brandname. In this context it is appropriate to estimate Aaker (1991, p 63), "A name is like a special record folder in the mind which is often filled with name-related facts and thoughts. Without such a record readily available in memory, the facts and emotions become misfiled, and can't be readily accessed when needed. " Consequently it depends on the "Degrees of Awareness" as illustrated below: (Source: Aaker; 1991, p 62)
"Unaware of Brand->Brand Acknowledgement->Brand Recall->Top of Mind"
A direct extraction from the summertime Internship Article on 'Role of Advertising in Brand Communication through Television Media' published by Sumantra Ray (A0102207185) of Amity School Uttar Pradesh the next useful information can be considered:
The above graph shows the quantity of people who've given the related rates to the mediums according to the time devoted. The total is calculated with the addition of up the merchandise of the quantity of individuals and corresponding rates.
[Example for television set: it is (1X35) + (2X30) + (3X26) + (4X9) =209]
The medium getting the cheapest report is one getting the best average get ranking.
Hence the ranks are:
Next probing deep in to the impact of the digital media rising between which is the internet advertising and its affect on auto-sales in India, the following extracted international statistics can be cited and then Indian variables be produced with present research data as described below:
[The above tabular graphical data immediately extracted from the foundation Ong, Jessica (Apr 21st, 2009) Archive for 'Advertising Effectiveness', Big Domain or Big Homepage? Homepage Guests at the Top Publisher Sites [online] (Cited 4 February 2010) Available from: http://blog. compete. com/topics/advertising-effectiveness/page/2/]
[The above pie-chart visual data directly extracted from the source Coad, Chris(March 3rd, 2009 ) Hyundai (pronounced like Sunday) Accelerates into 2009, [online] (Cited 4 February 2010) Available from: http://blog. compete. com/2009/03/03/hyundai-assurance-sales-increase/ ]
In India according to the scrutiny conducted the internet is generally browsed by younger generation and the organization class, and it is also seen that while investing in a completely new first side car people frequently do visit websites and collect feedbacks or media updates from the internet in addition to the classic method verbal assessment with friends and relatives. But in the current scenario with the satisfying publicity recognition created in India by the cultural networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, etc even between the oldest generations, political leaders, superstars, public characters that the common mass in India are changing pretty much as net savvy and world wide web dependent while finalizing on the high engagement purchase and the more aged generations, conventional classes or house-wives as well are now talking to the internet rather than discuss out with friends and family. Thus online users advertisements do play a central conclusive role in aiding them to take their decisions. The creative companies in India aren't only involved with advertising in the conventional methods they may be always inventive in venturing into progressive vistas like planning for symposium, conferences or just interacting with points to socialize the promoters with the potential consumers and pass on the global views for a promising prospective and productive future. 'Search engine Optimization', 'Pay per click', 'Invitation Only Marketing' and 'Exclusivity' advertising strategies are implemented to establish as an effective brand intelligently using the internet marketing effectively. The advertisements of automobile industries in this passing phase of global monetary downturn are also geared to reinstate and strengthen the renewed presence of the automobile brands and proclaim the word of assurances for their stable support and thus honouring their brand loyalties with perpetual guaranteed services. That is noticeable in the extracted case of press release of a credibility reassurance plan related to the overall Motors's US Bankruptcy case where GM's Leader and Managing Director (India) Mr. Carl Sym is highlighted - as rightfully justified:
"Piyush Rathi, business director, Quasar Press, the digital organization which has conceptualised the campaign, instructs afaqs!, "It really is an assurance-building marketing campaign, targeted at informing consumers that India and the US are two separate businesses of GM. Plus the Indian arm is debt-free and self applied- sufficient and consumers will continue to get after-sales services. ""
[Kapil Ohri (June 03, 2009) Digital reassurance by GM India, New Delhi, http://digital. afaqs. com/perl/digital/news/story. html?sid=24156]
This induced the top honchos in the car industry like Chevrolet to purchase the enormously prospective emerging market of India - as evidenced in the Chevrolet Aveo U-VA's "Bada Dil. Badi Car" ad of Bollywood superstar Saif Ali Khan depicting through online adverts and electronic campaigns the friendly in charge Indian common man popularized as "Aam Admi" - which at once is victorious the hearts of millions of Indians. (http://www. prdomain. com/companies/G/GeneralMotors/newsreleases/20066733214. htm) Broadly there are four interdependent perspectives to collectively add towards giving the merchandise its brand substance, specifically, product, people-organization, product-personality and signature-symbol - all the factors jointly are actually a revolutionary strike even in the case of web marketing for the Chevrolet brand in India.
The Web Marketing Strategy implemented in cases like this is illustrated below:
Paid Charges 30. 7
Used Instant Messenger 26. 8
Played Games 22. 4
Made Travel Strategies 19. 8
Got Medical Info 17. 4
Download Music 15. 7
Tracked Purchases 13. 2
Got PROPERTY Info 12. 3
Looked For Job 12. 1
Watched Video 11. 4
Listened Radio 10. 9
Made Purchase, Business 10. 7
Visit Sites 6. 7
In marketing of high engagement purchase like autos in India, beneficial web advertising through public writing of the sensational deal, affordable prices, vehicular features, fantastic mileage, spare-parts accessibility, world-class presence are proven to be the focus of interest in communication strategies as effectively illustrated by Chevrolet in its powerful persuasion of forceful advertisements as evidenced in Saif Ali Khan participating in the brand ambassador. In India, with rising fuel costs and considering 'inexperienced' becoming excitement words amidst people; Chevrolet of Basic Motors has progressed immensely with enhancements exclusive in gas efficient and environmental-friendly autos of world standard. The Brand Understanding strategies of Chevrolet are a grand success on adopting the following steps as advocated by Aaker (1991):
Be different, Memorable: To identify amidst the competitive market, Chevrolet manifests fantastic, sensational, attention-pulling successful web campaigns and e-ads to attract the exclusive consumer community. Classy, hyped ramp walks during new series kick off with cocktail get-togethers in grand occurrence of dignitaries and superstars - are added crowd-pulling sensations practised universally in India by the automobile gigantic brand Chevrolet - which are all posted in web sites and internet advertisements to attract customers.
Involve a slogan or jingle: To augment the effect of visual sensible impact of the brand, the witty attractive slogan in Chevrolet advertising has achieved unimaginable acceptance since the most successful progressive pioneering one-liner captivates a million hearts as in "Bada Dil. Badi Car" signifying "Big Heart and soul. Big Car.
Symbol Coverage: Popularizing of Chevrolet's unique attractive golden cross mark has further magnetized the consumers and pulled the brand from its grass root level to the current acclaimed glory - the icon sometimes be observed as advertisings at different reports, informative and sports activities websites.
Publicity: In this particular period of fast, rapid communications Chevrolet's excellent accomplishment in India dwells in advertising, especially in electric and internet press, which are well-timed prepared and strategized - thus acquiring millions and vast amounts of consumers at the same time.
Event Sponsorship: The free try campaigns, extravagant street shows planned by Chevrolet in India at process prospective tips with propaganda of "a minimum of maintenance cost for 3 years" to attract the targeted mass of consumers have been highly successful in creating the dominant aftereffect of the brand values and ideology - thus making a recognition augmentation phenomenon - which are widely marketed throughout the net.
Consider brand extensions: Chevrolet is renowned in India to popularize its brand property in trademark symbol to identify in a faster, broader horizon worldwide using the internet since individual ram recalls small symbolic visuals instantly and familiarize it with daily lifestyle.
Using cues: The 'close to heart' marketing bundle of Chevrolet in India targeting the youth, active working class, popular, classy yet adoring and nurturing community is the supreme determinant, the first interaction or synergy point with the buyer. As the word will go, "The first impression is the previous impression", hence during kick off of the first brand communication through progressive emails and web promotions, utmost account is inculcated for the brand appearance to be attractive and pervading the right meaning.
Recall requires repetition: Chevrolet in India implemented continued marketing ways of achieve the supreme recall senses in the intellects of the consumers through repeated transmitting via messages and e-advertisements or reminders through progressive style such as online sponsorships, events, tournaments, rewards etc. , to produce an imagery of the brand in the subconscious mind of focus on consumers. To perform a high of mind recall, Chevrolet has implemented immense endeavour to be recapitulated, reiterated time and again - to impact entirely in consumer intellects to the amount that the brand commitment inspires consumer to forgo his own desires in interest of the brand.
The recall bonus: Reminders through regular e-promotions, publicities have created a solid fortification for the Chevrolet brand in India to dominate its other competition, to achieve the vertex in market talk about through intelligent masterminding, hosts of hallmarks and recurring online broadcasts with consequent online market studies and positive marketing promotions - fetching an extra extra and dividend in the long run. Chevrolet in India goes to such great amount to embolden and energize their existing as well as prospective customers by treating them with emails, e-greetings, e-cards, gifts and plants at very special moments of life such as birthdays, weddings, marriage anniversaries, and everything the delightful happenings that produce the occasion ever more memorable. This makes Chevrolet truly global, distinctive and exceptional.
Thus the international brand Chevrolet implements dynamic online strategies to encourage brand loyalties amidst their varied classes of consumers with assorted choices in India. Strategizing brand equity of Chevrolet in India has proven to be an essential factor to gauge market dominance, and consumer appreciation and devotion equating with the charisma and worth the brand endorses. According to Aaker (1992, p 17) brand equity can be assessed under five sizes, namely, Brand Devotion, Brand Cognizance, Brand Quality, Brand Relationship and Brand Belongings. India as an emerging country, its people aspires and is influenced by the successful epitome of capitalism exhibited by america of America. Standard Motors is esteemed to be the titan brand upholding all the worth and virtues of American capitalism and experiencing changeover under the visionary leadership of the vibrant and charismatic US Leader Mr. Barack Obama - to revitalize, reincarnate and reinstate it to its hallowed glory. This identified quality creates a "halo result" to enhance life-time relationship of the consumer with the brand despite its advanced pricing thus distributing the goodwill for the brand through person to person advocacy, boosting the brand equity, hence increasing cash flow appreciation and increased earnings generation of the company in India. Further, since they are exclusive in mother nature, their advertising also needs to be unique and limited by a few of the affluent and exclusivity mindful segment. This requirements that the advertising events be prepared and performed minutely to keep up an aura of exclusivity which is achieved through "Invitation Only Marketing" strategies implemented by Chevrolet for its prospective customers. Quite simply, it can be seen as the highest degree of service offered to make the customer have the differentiation in products as well as service. Hence, it needs a strategic plan for the marketing event to be always a success which evolves a thought where consumers are indulged to think of a product as being in scarcity due to the high demand and therefore inspires them to desire to own the product. This brand alliance inspires among directly networked online consumers to invest in an authenticated quality and name, and also motivates them to talk about information amidst their close associates which not only elevates the value but also curtails expenses on additional adverts and publicity campaigns.
Firms have realized the value of the right tools for promoting their happenings and their products to the market segment and note that it needs to be simple. Bohdanowicz and Clamp (1994) remember that for the future specific niche market industry, the efficiency both the short-term and long-term marketing programs increases with the use of IT and without it marketing becomes product-cantered (pp 151, 152). Since any founded brands as well as luxury items, relies on customer loyalty which depends on recommendations and invitation-only notion, inefficiency in using IT can hamper the initiatives of marketing.
Here, it is to be observed that although the two types of customer bottom in the industry form the major section, the small percent of networking activists can be viewed as to promote the products at a faster rate by the use of Information Technology and additional, this small but important customer base called "Initiators" have the potential to trigger sales as they are found to become more active users of IT along with being the patrons for several exclusive products (Hardie, n. d. ). Also, this section, because they are called initiators, holds true to the name and can be tapped and relied to start the further sales and also appeals to a more devoted customer foundation. Here, it should be noted a tightly networked customer bottom can be easy to reach and support than appealing to a non-communicating customer platform. However, it is to be noted that there surely is the risk of losing from competition if the service disappoint the strongly knit group. This might mean losing from a huge mass at onetime. Hence, there has to be a continuous effort to market web branding of products to the market segment.
With the exclusive products sold to the market segment, the prices is also placed high and even though this is limited to a small segment, keeps growing due to the increasing range of brand conscious portion with their increasing earnings and individuality needs. This also requires ground breaking means of marketing to all prospective segments which necessitates the cause for an exclusivity which is accentuated by the pattern of by-invitation-only online marketing strategy. Additionally it is observed that there is an online existence for these companies and the exclusive customers for the exclusive products usually are invited or more often seek to be asked to special and exclusive marketing situations for these brands. Further, it is observed that interpersonal networking has added to the success of this by-invitation-only marketing theory. It is seen that Gmail is the first someone to test online marketing for a few of its VIP customers (Cornes, 2007).
Source: Advertising Age group, Digital Marketing Truth Reserve 2007, eMarketer Feb. '07 projections against IAB/PriceWaterhouseCoopers data that the last completely measured time was 2005.
[Immediately extracted from: Akehurst, G. E-Marketing Planning and Strategies [online] Viewed 04 Feb 2010 Available from: ]
[Immediately extracted from: Akehurst, G. E-Marketing Planning and Strategies [online] Viewed 04 Feb 2010 Available from: ]
In internet marketing due to its global existence since price cannot be a constraint in marketing these goods, it could be seen as a way to introduce new products based on the opinions from the clients. That is also a good way to retain in business and progress. Special online advertisements of situations such as fashion weeks, charity shows, are also a craze on the list of affluent. Further, it is noticed that companies use the services of a third-party advertising agent or Public Relations (PR) agent to manage also, a Push-Pull strategy is being followed for marketing of luxury goods (Hines & Bruce, 2007, p 146). However, with the use of Information Technology, the internet (WWW) and the intranet have enabled a 'pull' process to the distribution of data as opposed to the 'push' process (Yeoman, Robertson, 2004, p 99). Another online marketing strategy for luxury goods is sample sales that are also by invitation only. As Sherman observes, the net can be an important tool for such marketing and there are a number of online programs that arrange invitation only sales where usually the regular membership is free and customers can ask for to be invited (2008). Thus through internet marketing the prime focal points are the aspects of offering exclusive products, improved customer service, mixture of marketing strategies both rigorous and intensive online presence, use of successful tools for communication and push-pull strategies, sorted out monitoring and responses system between others.
Pay per click is an intelligently designed advertising tool where web-hosts are sponsored by the advertisers each and every time the web-visitors go through the adverts - thus promoted generally by the internet search engine overtures, as in the case of Google's AdWords Select, AOL Search and so many more.
It is sometimes seemingly useful than the SEO campaigns because of its operational simpleness since also the websites do not need to be customized with no specialized expertise and far faster in use.
However the drawbacks are noticeable in generalization of positioning and hence minimizing of existent importance, sometimes rampant competition can make the whole affair highly expensive and further if not effectively determined the visitor worth the whole process can also present as utter damage.
To emphasize this marketing campaign it is imperative to evaluate visitor price on dividing the profit by the visitor volumes for the specified time frame.
Further collection of appropriate key phrases, relevant and useful information, and lastly regular insight and monitoring is absolutely essential in such instances.
The best good thing about PPC is the fact that it can reach gigantic amount of targeted prospects in little time.
The web marketing lifecycle thus conclusively commences with creating an online profile of the business globally advertised by using a skilfully and strategically designed website. Then marketing strategies are farmed, developed and focused in order to build a web campaign with the help of search engine optimization such that the most popular keywords are recognized to impart repeated visibility of the website and hence the organization to any online users. Then branding and additional marketing is pursued through mixed social media systems and pay per click activities further popularizes the eyesight and objective of the business through frequent web users who exchange information, ideas, media and views through the web. E-mail marketing and web-to-mobile connection can further commercialize the complete process and impart it as an exclusive affair thus boosting the profits on return on a steady growth. Further to maintain this efficiency one must have a customized report formulation, regular recognition of the greatest sales leads, evaluation screening and tweaking of the most popular pages, positive change of potential customers, sustenance and perpetuation of devoted consumers, online offers sponsorships campaigns and tournaments, regular checking of site-conversion site-performance and market-return, insightful information with comparative commercial analysis and cleverness for even more improvement at every periods of development. Hence such unconventional attractive, 'larger than life' custom made innovative, avant-garde at exactly the same time common and eternal by touching hearts of an incredible number of consumers from every strolls of life is the true success magic formula of the global branding and web marketing.