The Mossi Ethnic Group In Burkina Fasso History Essay

The Mossi will be the most predominant ethnic group in Burkina Fasso, West Africa. Their society is believed between 6 to 7 million about 40 per cent of the population. Mossi are also the second-largest cultural group in Cote d'Ivoire numbering about 3 million. Until 1984, Burkina Faso, indicating "Land of Incorruptible People" was known as Upper Volta. Several Mossi people stay in Ghana, Togo and Benin. The Mossi are central in the history of West Africa dating back again to the 11th century. Mossi kingdoms were examples of the oldest and steady polities of Western Africa. Mossi got historical links both to the north-to Mali and Songhai; also to the South-to the Middle Volta States of Mamprussi and Dagomba. Mossi tradition stated descent from warrior communities that migrated to the modern-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that has spanned almost 1, 000 years. That they had strong allegiance to the sacred king, Moro Naba whose capital is situated at Ouagadougou. Mossi terms called Moore has several dialects that are greatly spoken in Western Africa.

The Mossi take up the central region of Burkina Faso as their homeland. They live mostly in the Volta River Basin where they make subsistence living from agriculture in an arid land cultivating maize, millet, sorghum, peanuts and indigo. Mossi established a solid foothold in the bend of the Niger River from where they resisted Islamic incursion led by the Mandinka and Songhai Muslims. Some resided in the north on the Sahelian desert steppes and additional south on the tree-field savannas and forestland. The variety of the vegetation inspired their practice of agriculture and pastoralism. Variation has been made between "Northern Mossi" of the Niger Bend and the "Southern Mossi" of the White Volta basin. The later lived on the environs of Say, on the Niger River in the 12th and 13th generations. In the 14th century, "Northern Mossi" moved to the confines of Mali Empire, from where they invaded Timbuktu. The "Southern Mossi" transferred to the Volta basin. "Northern Mossi" was defeated by the rising Songhai Empire in the next fifty percent of the 15th century. Subsequently, both divisions of the Mossi became reunited and consolidated the Mossi kingdoms.

Mossi kingdoms have a standard descent. Oral traditions conceptualize the hyperlink between your various Mossi kingdoms in conditions of the descent of the founders of the dynasties from Na Gbewa. Inside the reports, three sons of Na Gbewa, particularly Tusugu, Sitobu and Nmantambu, and Yanenga, a child were revered. Tusugu, the older son is considered as the ancestor of the rulers of Mamprussi and Sitobu; and Nmantambu as ancestors of Dagomba and Nanumba. Both Dagomba and Nanumba are regarded as the 'junior' of Mamprussi. Yanenga's matrimony for an elephant hunter, Riale produced a kid called Wedraogo (the stallion) who's regarded as the ancestor of the rulers of Wagadugu and Yatenga. Both Wagadugu and Yatenga are thought to be 'grandchildren' of Mamprussi. Wedraogo founded a fresh dynasty and established tenkodogo in 1120, south-east of Wagadugu that is still regarded as the cradle of the powerful Mossi Empire. Mossi terms is Moore which is one of the Gur group, one of the largest African languages within the Niger Congo dialect family. They speak more specifically Lobi-Dogon, Grusi, Gurma and Mole-Dagbane.

The founders of the Mossi kingdoms come to the basin of the Volta as conquerors. They were known as the nakomse, 'possessors of politics electric power. ' They proven their politics overlordship through military services prowess on the autochthonous tegbisi, 'the owners of the land, ' from whom they gathered tributes. The energy of the first Mossi was predicated on the ownership of horses and mastery of cavalry warfare. Mossi world is still inspired by the difference between those who have got nam, political expert, and the ones who have tengasobundo, ritual control over the land. This armed service attributes allowed the Mossi to dominate the whole region. Mossi faith has three basic characteristics: the perception in all-powerful creator, Wende; the fertility spirits of the rain and the earth; and the ancestors, who affect the lives of their ancestors. The fertility spirits are worshipped through pet sacrifices. Each household has a shrine dedicated to its ancestors that are honoured on a yearly basis through the harvest celebration.

Among the Mossi, Political development, especially the progression of ruling aristocracies and centralization of vitality predated the advent of Islam in Savannah zone of Western Africa. When Islam was presented into the North Sudan, virtually all the states, except Mossi used as the royal cult. Indeed, the political institutions of the Mossi were linked to their religion. This was partly why Mossi rulers resisted Islam, although areas of Mossi culture high light Muslim impact. Thus, the Mossi were less damaged by the improvement of Islam in the Sudan before and after A. D. 100. Two visible Mossi kingdoms were Wagadugu founded in about 1050 and Yatenga founded around 1170 A. D.

Other kingdoms included Mamprussi, Dagoma and Gurma. These kingdoms protected area of the basin of top of the Volta in the centre of the Niger Bend north of modern Ghana. It's significant to notice that Mossi was bounded by powerful says that followed Islam. The Tekrur, the Madingo and the Bambara in the western world, the Dja, the Songhai in the centre, and the Hausa and the Kanuri were in the east. Yet, Mossi resisted Islam and prevented its expansion southeastwards. In effect, Mossi had no direct links with North Africa unlike other says that possessed accepted Islam. Indeed, following the reign of Mansa Suleiman of Mali (1341-60), Mossi kingdom of Yatenga, the pagan neighbor of Mali to the south invaded the empire and conquered Timbuktu around 1400 A. D. Mossi also attacked Benga in the lacustrine area upriver from Timbuktu. Between 1464 and 1492, Mossi struggled with Songhai in the control of the Niger Bend. By the early 1480s, Mossi sacked the desert town of Walata but were repulsed. Sunni Ali, the ruler of Songhai subsequently invaded the capital of any Mossi ruler, Nasiri capturing slaves and booty. Before the end of the 15th hundred years, Songhai could curb the expansionist drive of Mossi to dominate the center Niger. Sunni Ali's successor, Askia Muhammad (1493-1528), filled with religious zeal after his famous pilgrimage to Mecca, launched a jihad up against the Mossi in 1498-9 in which Nasiri was again invaded. Askia Muhammad defeated the Mossi but failed to Islamise them. Songhai plan against Mossi prolonged in the middle-16th hundred years which end the Mossi menace to Songhai control of the Niger Flex. Inside the nineteenth century, the expansionist tendencies of the Jihadist areas of Gwandu and Masina spared Mossi site. Before in the first two decades of the 16th century, Askia Muhammad Toure experienced launched an unsuccessful jihad from the Mossi. In 1744-5, Opoku Ware the king of Ashante invaded the southern Mossi kingdoms. The battle between your Asante musketeers and Dagomba cavalrymen finished in stalemate. To be able to prevent another invasion, Dagomba accepted Ashante overlordship.

Mossi overall economy was agrarian. The commoners involved in the cultivation of yam, cereal, legume and indigo. Some employed in cattle breeding. Through the French rule, the cultivation of silk cotton was created. Commoners paid tribute to the neighborhood town chiefs from the surpluses. Mossi kingdoms enjoyed little commercial importance. The kingdoms place in the interstice of the two great trading sites: Dyula or Juula to the West and Hausa to the east. On top of that, the kingdoms were faraway from the major ports of the Western world African trade, especially those on the Guinea Coast south and the Sahara to the north. With the 18th century, Mossi rulers pursued hobbies in the development of trade and prompted Muslim merchants to stay in their territories. The existence of Muslim merchants opened programs of business and communication between Mossi and her neighbours which concluded the isolation that got dominated the early stages of Mossi history.

Mossi experienced a centralised administrative system and appreciated profound politics unity. The sociable and political composition in Mossi was headed by the sacred king who dished up as the leader of an conquering aristocracy, the Nakomse. The sacred ruler served as the principle priest who was in close communion along with his ancestors. The supreme king of the Mossi known as the Moro-Naba, "a symbol of the sun, " possessed the nam, "power" or "the power of God" which granted him the right of life and loss of life over-all his content. He held religious powers and gets the duty to start the every year rites dedicated to the ancestors so that his subject matter could have bumper harvest, multiply and live gladly. The Mossi constitution has no provision for deposing the king. Mossi tradition promises that only 1 of the kings was ever deposed, and that he abdicated the throne scheduled to People from france invasion. Another custom, however, states that certain sovereign, Karfo (c. 1800) was forced to commit suicide by his Ouidi-naba, Key Minister. Moro-Naba was elected by mature dignitaries of the judge. Power resided with the Moro-Naba, who offered multiple functions as the commander of the army, supreme judge and the general collector of fees and tributes. The empire contains kingdoms divided into provinces that were further subdivided into fiefdoms composed of villages. The centralization of electric power promoted internal security, tranquility and conserved the empire from anarchy and devastation by invaders.

The king was aided by Ministers called the Naba who were palace advisers and provincial administrators. Four of the provincial governors discharged important functions at the administrative centre. One dished up as the Prime Minister and administrator of palace slaves and eunuchs. The next one was in charge of the cavalry. The 3rd one handled the infantry and the fourth one was in charge of the royal tombs. Despite the fact that lots of the provincial governors were of slave descent Mossi acquired a strong army for interior security and exterior defence. The kingdoms of Mossi repulsed the invading armies of Mali, Songhai and Arma. The Mossi are still being ruled by the old dynasties that survived till today.

The Mossi first face with the Europeans was through the journeys of Heinrich Barth, J. Dupuis, and Edward Bowdich. However, the first Western, G. A. Krause did not enter into Mossi until 1888. When Louis G. Binger arrived six months later, the Mossi shut down their territory to Europeans due to suspicion. By 1894, Ferguson, a British isles mulatto, arrived Ouagadougou, the Mossi capital and agreed upon a treaty with the Mossi king. The treaty placed the Mossi region under British protection. But in September 1896, the France denied the English Treaty with the Mossi, conquered and guaranteed the control of the territory.

Mossi Empire was well organised that the People from france conserved the indigenous politics system throughout the colonial period. By so doing, the Mossi indigenous politics system was adapted to suit the French colonialism and modern administration. Through this process, the Mossi perpetuate the guideline of an ancient dynasty in modern Africa. It has influenced the Mossi to learn active assignments in modern politics. The Mossi remain held to their traditional faith, especially the practice of traditional ancestor worship, fertility rituals and pubescent circumcision which permit the oldest son to reside individually from the family. Mossi proceeds to practice that provide wives position only after their first child. The Christians among them are predominantly metropolitan top notch who are Catholics. Islam is extensively practiced among the commoners and ruling school.

During the colonial period, the Mossi of Upper Volta migrated southwards to the cocoa plantations and docks of the Ivory Coastline (Cote d'Ivoire) and the Yellow metal Coast. Their migration was targeted at posting in the increasing wages, and also to get away from from the specialist colonial officers and local rulers to the freedom of the town. In addition they migrated to Cote d'Ivoire in order to make money to pay the French colonial fees. They performed as farmers in the South to be able to remit cash back to their young families in the north. They were equally stock traders and served in the French army as soldiers. The populace of the Mossi in Cote d'Ivoire soared as commercial and agricultural opportunities exited on their behalf in the cities and small towns.

Dr. Joseph Conombo offered as Minister of the inside in the Mendas-France federal government of 1953. He was on his way to the United States as a member of the French US delegations when his authorities was defeated. Also, the past due Moro Naba Sagha was the chief executive of the United Democratic Get together of top of the Volta. Like the majority of Western world African countries, Burkina Faso acquired independence from the French in 1960. After the reign of the first elected Leader, Ouezzin Coulibaly; Maurice Yameogo, a Mossi emerged to electricity.

Rasheed Olaniyi

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