The Examination Of Translation Errors

Translation is one of the means that people use to other dialects betterbecause there are a lot of languages spoken nowadays. Since there are so many cultures and ideas distributed in this world, Indonesians need to learn other languages and one of these is English. To become in a position to exchange ideas with people far away, Indonesians have to be experienced in spoken and written English. However the most Indonesian people do not speak English. That is why they need to learn British from the basic. For themtranslation is a required skill. One of the problems in translation is that sometimes a translator cannot transfer communications well (CITATION HERE). But because Indonesians insufficient translation skills, the writer discovered that some works of translation don't have the same note as the original writer wants to inform to the target language.

Translating a phrase can be challenging, . It will tell the context that the initial language wants to share with and it must be of the same interpretation. According to Nida, "translation is the duplication in a concentrate on words of the closest natural exact carbon copy of the source language subject matter" (Nida, 1982, 208). If translators cannot translate the emails accurately, the viewers will have difficulty in understanding the communications.

To understanding the announcements accurately, the translation skill must be educated and mastered. According to Gabrielatos (1998), translation has an extended history in English Language Teaching. Many professors use translation techniques to deliver their teaching materials. Translation is most frequently used as a convenient shortcut when educating vocabulary, by giving 'equivalents' in the learners' mother tongues. The other reason is that a lot of written multimedia, such as literature, modules, novels, publications are translated into English terminology. Translation skill is a simple skill in English. To be able to understand English texts well, a person needs to have the ability to translate or even master the translation skill. Translation skill is also important for someone who works together with Tv set or movie production.

Translation work concentrates in the area of education, especially in higher education. In the Faculty of Letters, students learn the translation skills; they have to take translation school. The Faculty of Letters offers two degrees of translation course. In the basic translation course, students understand how to translate British readings or paragraphs to Indonesian. Inside the more advanced class, students learn to translate Indonesian paragraphs or articles into English

Unfortunately, many students cannot master the translation skill well. Because of such problems, the writer can be involved that the task of translation would be observed by the other British learners. They still have to learn that the fact of translation is to translate the phrase thoroughly, not by way of a word. By witnessing the consequence of translation above, the students still face an ambiguity of Indonesian phrase, phrase, and phrase.

In this research, the writer wishes to research whether college student translations are appropriate or not and also to find out the most frequent problems in their translation. FIELD FROM THE STUDY

This study is in the field of Linguistics


In doing his research, the writer intends to look at the error research in translation. He is interested in analyzing the grammatical mistakes in students' translations. However, spelling mistakes which do not have an impact on the content and the grammar of the written text are dismissed.


In this review, the study problem is content and grammatical mistakes in translation. This research will address the next research questions:

What translation error occurs in the students' translation?

What type of content and grammatical problems appear in the translation?

What is the most prominent problems in translation?


The objectives of the study are as follows:

To investigate the type of translation mistakes in students' translation.

To find type of content and grammatical mistakes arise in the translation.

To compare the dominating translation mistake, whether grammatical or content mistakes happen in translation.


The writer hope that this research can donate to the conversation of content and grammatical errors in translation. The consequence of this analysis will ideally help British learners to boost their translation skill. If they are aware of the most typical blunders in translation, they'll be in a position to avoid such mistakes. In addition, this study provides suggestions and suggestions that learners and educators can put into practice.


a. Translation problem : cannot deliver this is correctly

b. Content error : failed to show ideas from the initial text

c. Grammatical problem : going out from the rule of a grammar in context



2. 1 Translation

Scholars define translation in various ways. Some define the term translation based on the essence and the process of translation. Relating to Catford, this is of translation is the replacement unit of textual material in one terminology by equivalent material in another terms (Catford, 1965). In Catford's classification, the goal of translation research is to convey an intended interpretation of a materials in the source Words (SL) into target Vocabulary (TL). So, the meaning in SL should be equivalent your in TL.

Savory (1968) shows that "Translation is manufactured possibly by an exact carbon copy of thought that is behind it different verbal manifestation. " This means that the essence of translation is situated on the equivalent thought. This means that the primary ideas in the foundation language will be the same as those in the target language.

Nida and Taber explain this is of translation by concentrating it on the process of translation. They say that "Translating involves reproducing in the receptor terms the closest natural equivalent of source language communication, first in conditions of interpretation and subsequently in terms of style" (1982). Their meaning is the entire one. They say that in the TL, this is and the style (composition or grammar) must be as natural as is feasible, so the result of the translation will not appear to be a translation work.

In those explanations, there are three similar ideas. Firstly, there is a process of moving from one dialect into another words. The second some may be that this is needs to be retained. The final, the translator must hold the closest equal idea in the prospective language.

2. 2 Common Problems in Translation

Newmark (1988) and Barnet & Stubbs (1980) classify the mistakes found in translation into the following:

Different sense

In this category the translation is totally different from the original text in terms of linguistic sense of meaning, whether it is in the term or phrase level. Within this category, the translation is a misstatement of truth. (Newmark, 1988)

Less precise or less accurate

There is little or nothing perfect on the works of translation but it must cover what into a genuine meaning of your sentence entirely. That is why this category relates to the detail or accuracy and reliability of the initial text interpretation.

Misuse of phrases

To translate the expression to a precise phrase must be selected into several categories, if the order of your word is exact or not. With this category, the translation misuse of phrases such as 'more and more' for 'progressively more, 'above all' for 'especially ; 'job' for 'work'; 'acquired well' for 'recovered' and too much familiar phrasal verbs ('get away of', 'get rid of') (Newmark, 1988).

Misuse of formal or standard register

The translation mistakes are in the amount of formality, generality, and psychological tone of any text. For example, 'decease' for 'fatality' (Barnett & Stubbs, 1980)

Less coherent

The consequence of the translation does not fit in standard phrases and varieties. For instance in a narrative, it offers formulaic starting ('Once upon a time") and a formulaic close ('they all resided happily ever after').

Less cohesive

In this category, the translation error relates to the relationship between sentences. The most common forms these be mindful connectives denoting addition ('however', 'on the contrary'), consequence ('therefore', 'as a result'), and other connectives. (Barnett & Stubbs, 1980)


Sometimes, the translation adds additional information which does not exist in the initial words. (Barnett & Stubbs, 1980)

8. Remaining out

In this category, the translation misses the ideas of the original texts. (Barnett & Stubbs, 1980)

2. 3 Grammatical Errors

Richard (1971) shows that "ultralingual problems are those which reflect the general characteristics of guideline learning, such as faulty generalizations, in complete program of rules, and failing to learn conditions under guidelines apply. " This can happen when the subject is going out from the rule of your grammar in framework.

According to Richards, translation mistakes can be classified the following:

Errors in the Production of Verbs Groups

In this circumstance, the translation mistakes are related to the production of verb such as gerunds, infinitives, participles (present/ past), mistakes in the use of verbs forms after modals, and the development of contracts of verbs with subject. The examples are as follows

Errors in the creation of tense forms

He is speaks French.

He didn't asks me.

Errors in the creation of verb forms

I enjoy to work.

Did you go to shopping?

Errors in the use of verb forms after modals

She cannot will go.

We must worked hard.

Errors in the creation of contracts of verbs with subjects

She go to college everyday.

They strolls to the marketplace.

2. 3. 2 Mistakes in the Circulation of Verb Groups

Errors in the distribution of verb communities are classified in to the inversion of verb and subject in direct or reported statements, the misuse of present or earlier participles, and the misuse of subject matter or things. The illustrations are as follows:

Errors in the inversion of verb and subject matter in direct or reported claims:

He said that acquired he performed hard.

She asked me whether was she hungry.

The misuse of present or earlier participles

The country was obtaining by Colombus.

I am enthusiastic about that.

The misuse of subject matter or objects

Kate is my friend. He is a teacher.

Eric is a health care provider. I wish to marry her.

2. 3. 3 Miscellaneous Errors

Miscellaneous mistakes are categorized into problems in the use of pronouns, mistakes in the adverbs, problems in the utilization of adjectives, errors in the use of 'too' or 'so', problems in the position of words, mistakes in the utilization of plural, and mistakes in the utilization of conjunctions. The cases are the following:

Errors in the use of pronouns

Ann fulfilled I at the museum.

She walked between Eni and he.

Errors in the use of adverbs

She sings beautiful.

He ran fastly.

Errors in the utilization of adjectives

I found a kindly man.

She is a wonderfully woman.

Errors in the use of 'too' or 'so'

I am so lazy to stay at home.

I am too exhausted that I cannot work

Errors in the position of words

She swims often in Tretes.

He is a real good architect.

Errors in the use of plural

Tina bought a watches.

There are two dog in his house.

Errors in the use of conjunctions

Though he's poor, but he's very diligent.

Is a lemon lovely but sour?



This chapter contains the method of the analysis. It consists of methodological approach, way to obtain data, data collection, and data evaluation.

In performing this research, the article writer uses quantative method. He uses quantative because the info will maintain numerical form such as statistics, and percentages. He analyzes sentences, and then he explains and explores the mistakes and put them in the desk in form of percentage.

3. 1 Material

The sources of data because of this study will be the students' assignments of translation course in the Faculty of Characters' Soegijapranata Catholic University. The article writer only investigates twenty five tasks to limit the number of data.

3. 2 Procedure

The writer gathers students' tasks and randomizes the 25 of students' projects then analyse the blunders happen the most. The faults can be found in the students' assignments, figuring out red stripe left by the lecturer. By doing this research, the copy writer used three steps. In the first place, in order to comprehend the meaning of the sentences, the article writer reads the Indonesian phrases all together. After that, he reads the sentence by sentence and likened those sentences with the related English sentences little by little and carefully. Furthermore, he focuses on the errors. He underlines the Indonesian part and the matching English problem in vivid type.

There are some steps in the evaluation. Firstly, the writer reads the Indonesian and the British sentence by phrase to know whether the content has already been the same or not. If he finds out the content mistakes, he categorised it based on the type of content error pursuing Newmark (1988) and Barnett & Stubbs' classifications (1980).

Table 1: Content error

No. sentence

Indonesian text

English text



After he finishes identifying the content error, he identifies the grammatical error and classifies it into the kind of grammatical error following Richards' categories (1974).

Table 2: Grammatical error

No. sentence

Indonesian text

English text



For the last part, he handles the dominating translation problem which occurred in the translation category. He makes three desks, they are consists of content mistake, grammatical error, and types of content and grammatical mistake and their frequencies.

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