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The traditional engineering

Introduction

Traditional engineering depends mainly on the sequential procedure wherein the various tasks involved in the design and manufacturing of something are performed in a pre defined and establish order. This contributes to certain disadvantages wherein there's a loss of versatility in the entire process and this may also lead to severe alterations or even scrap in the later levels of the product development life routine.

Traditionally, the merchandise design has been regarded as a circuit of PDCA (plan-do-check-act). However, the arrival of Concurrent anatomist, which targets working interactively between the various techniques in the merchandise development, is relatively new. It is a relatively recent process which utilizes cross functional assistance to assist in the creation of products which can be cheaper, better and also have a lower time to advertise. It isn't an isolated idea and encompasses almost all the functions like engineering, designing, support, marketing, accounting, and others. Customer satisfaction is a key factor behind this method.

The basic idea for concurrent executive revolves around two principles. The first is that the complete product life circuit needs to be studied under consideration in the original stage of the circuit. This would include functionality, producitibility, assembly, testability, maintenance issues, environmental impact and lastly removal and recycling.

The second theory talks about the concurrency of the many functions. This flexibility is of enormous importance to the success of the procedure given the fact that it allows for error modification and redesigns to be incorporated in the first design phase without having an adverse influence on the costs, attempts and timelines of the job. In effect, this enhances the productivity, the merchandise quality and will be offering significant cost benefits.

In a concurrent engineering process, there is absolutely no freezing of a particular task and so moving back is not really a constraint. It allows design and analysis to take place at exactly the same time and focuses on the collaboration between the teams. The groups are multidisciplinary in strategy and composition and allow the employees overall flexibility to work collaboratively on the many areas of the job through the life span stage of the same.

The need for Concurrent Engineering is especially high in today's world. Businesses must have the ability to react to the changing market needs speedily, effectively and responsively. They need to have the ability to reduce their time to market and adapt to the changing surroundings faster than rivals. Decisions must be produced quickly plus they must be done right the very first time out. Corporations can no longer spend your time repeating duties, which escalates the time it takes to bring services to market. Therefore, concurrent engineering has surfaced as way of having rapid answers to product design and development process.

Concurrent Engineering has many advantages and benefits such as a reduction in the product development time and the time to advertise, reduced design rework, reduced product development cost and advanced integration in the clubs through reliable and effective marketing communications. There are various companies which make use of the Concurrent Executive techniques in the product development life pattern. These firms have shown a significant upsurge in overall quality, 30-40% decrease in job times and costs, and around 60-80% reductions in design changes after release.

However, there also are times and situations wherein concurrent engineering is not preferred. Some of these is often as stated under:

  1. Concurrent engineering techniques aren't favoured in case of simple products or where there is only an incremantal improvement in margin by the application of the strategy.
  2. When utilizing the Concurrent engineering includes major changes in the company culture and also contributes to a substantial administrative and/or communication over head. They are the circumstances where it becomes difficult to implement the process in the groups.

In such instances, unnecessarily and forciably applying these concepts might not exactly yield advantages. Somewhat, it may end up being an unsuccessful way on the part of the management. This emphasises on the fact that it is very necessary to meet certain pre-requisite conditions in order for the concurrent anatomist process to give the desired results. In absence of these, there could be confusions and inefficient product development.

There are a few steps which companies may primarily ingest order to be successful with Concurrent Executive, like

  • Benchmarking: The company should keep a fair check of itself with respect to their best competitors
  • Development of metrics: Proper metrics have to be developed to measure the various variables to see if right course is being taken
  • Identification of Potential Performance Improvements and Focuses on: This would assist in the ongoing improvement and certainty check.
  • Development of a clear Vision into the future environment: This might ensure that actions are taken while remember the long term goals of the organization and to work out how does Concurrent Executive match the picture.
  • Getting top management support: This becomes very important as a great deal depends upon the level of support and self confidence shown by the most notable management for the execution of an activity in a business.
  • Getting cross-functional endorsement: Integrated functionalities and concurrent processing lie at the center of the Concurrent Executive. Unless there is an approval from all the departments and functional units, the probability of success are faint.
  • Developing a clear Technique to attain the envisioned environment: With out a clear formulation of strategy, it is very difficult to achieve the goals.
  • Developing a detailed implementation plan: Success of Concurrent Engineering would also depend upon how clearly the implementation plan is made.

History

Concurrent Anatomist has been known by various names through the years and across locations. It really is known as the iterative development method (or Integrated Product Development, IPD) as it permits the correction and alteration in the look and other techniques through iterations. Ongoing feedback mechanism is utilized to discover any discrepancy or fault in the model. The rationale behind it is that the earlier the mistakes are revealed, the lesser work, time and cost is incurred to correct them. The term "Simultaneous Engineering" has been used since the ten years of 1990s. It was based on the idea that the life span cycle of the new product must fit in with the pre-existing product program lifecycles.

It is at the Dec 1988 report 'The Role of Concurrent Anatomist in Weapons System Acquisition' by the Institute for Protection Evaluation (IDA) that the term Concurrent Anatomist was defined. This is an approach that was systematic in dynamics and centered on the built in, concurrent design of products and their related operations. This approach is supposed to cause the creators, from the outset, to consider all components of the merchandise life circuit from conception through removal, including quality, cost, schedule, and customer requirements.

Need for Integrating Design with Other functions:

In early on designs and product development, there was a section of labour among people who specialized in a variety of functions. There was little chance of interaction between the various departmants and functionalities which often lead to confusions and certain discrepancies between your work done. This at times led to customer dissatisfaction. With a growing level of competition, the role of new making process and the need to reduce development lead time, concurrent executive has become popular. These justifications are mentioned below.

  1. Increased Competition: This is quoted as one justification for the growing level of popularity of concurrent anatomist. With the increase in competition, there is certainly all the more a dependence on competitive advantages and key competencies at company levels to ensure getting together with competition. Concurrent Executive gives the businesses a cost benefit apart from guaranteeing quality and efficiency in processes.
  2. New Development Methods: Together with the introduction of technology, there are various new production methods which come into service. This makes it important to transfer and share the data about this new service to the many functions and departments. That is necessary because this would ultimately have an impact on the causing product design. This knowledge showing would ensure that the various people involved in the product development are at the same platform when information about these procedures can be involved. Therefore, the problem where new creation processes are used will often be an important area for making certain design engineers work carefully with production engineers. Concurrent Executive can contribute its little bit here.
  3. Lead Time: Shorter lead time or the time to market is a competitive benefits to the organizations. Reduction in the business lead time would reduce the length of the development process and would help bring the merchandise to the marketplace sooner. This would also decrease the inventory keeping time and would therefore assist in cost reduction (or cost gain). By applying the concurrent executive process, the business can perform this advantage within the firms employing the original methods (sequential process).

Process

Concurrent engineeringis a workflow that depends on parallel handling by performing multiple tasks together instead of executing the various responsibilities in sequence as has been the original workflow. Concurrent executive is not just related to anatomist processes but rather targets the designed and concurrent design of product and the related procedures. This requires the clear identification and description of all the tasks and functions associated with the design, making, support and other functions by the creators.

The builders need to consider the many elements of the product life pattern end to end, differing from the first level i. e. conception of the merchandise to the last level i. e. removal of the product. The various elements which shall be considered will include almost parameters that have a direct effect on the development of something and the associated procedures, such as quality, cost, arranging and user requirement. It is worthwhile noticing that this is encompasses more than just the manufacturing and design of something. It does not apply only to domains of anatomist but is also trusted in the pharmaceutical, coloring, food or trainer industries.

Concurrent Engineering is not limited to the merchandise or goods. Even services can use concurrent anatomist for improvement in efficiency and decrease in total time to market. Although this might not lead to decrease in volume of employees or the task to be done, the adoption of concurrent executive would lead to a faster lead time. Inside the services sector, the concurrent executive concept applies to insurance sector, banking sector and others.

The difference between your conventional product design methodology (sometimes also known as the waterfall model) and the concurrent product design way (sometimes also called the simultaneous executive approach) has been discussed below by making use of a diagram. It really is this deviation from the typical and traditional waterfall model (which utilizes and targets a pre defined sequence of processes and jobs) to the iterative and built in development method of concurrent engineering, which is accountable for the huge success of this model. Inside the waterfall model, to begin with, all requirements are gathered in order to facilitate clear explanation of the condition at hand. That is both a period consuming and work consuming activity. Unless and before data gathering is done (which alone is a tiresome task given the level of uncertainty associated with it and the dynamic nature of the information requirement), one can't proceed to another level. This interdependency wastes a lot of time.

Followed by this is actually the design phase wherein based on the requirements, the look of the merchandise is to be agreed upon. The condition here's that in the absence of an option to go again and make changes to the design phase, sometimes, it becomes difficult to implement the look and subsequently the look may need to be heavily transformed or even scrapped. The Concurrent Engineering is better in this case as being cyclic, all the areas of the merchandise life cycle has already been taken into consideration, thus allowing the design to take a more evolutionary methodology.

Then there are the implementation, verification and maintenance stages. Many of these suffer from similar problems as a result of inflexibility mixed up in process. Concurrent Engineering overcomes several problems through the treat it utilizes. The cyclicity allows parallel handling and therefore offers flexibility to the machine as has been shown in the body below. The various functions like planning, requirement gathering, examination & design, implementation, testing and analysis are done all together and hence the name "simultaneous engineering".

The implementation of concurrent anatomist requires the combo of people, technology and business methods. It relies on cross-functional working and teamwork as opposed to the traditional bureaucratic and hierarchical organizations. Collaboration rather than specific effort is standard, and distributed information is the main element to success. The role of the first choice is to supply the basic groundwork and support for change, somewhat than to share with the other team members how to proceed. Training tackled at getting people to work together in teams takes on an important role in the successful execution of Concurrent Executive.

The Concurrent executive process mainly focuses on three aspects, viz. people, process and technology. Folks are given a wider say, a sense of gratification and possession of these work in the entire design process considering the collaborative nature of simultaneous anatomist. The success of concurrent anatomist depends to a vast amount on the efficiency and the efficiency of the organizational groups formed. The three basic characteristics which a CE team will need to have been enumerated as under:

  1. Ability to deal with inherent uncertainities associated with innovation
  2. A wide range of competencies varying from manufacturing to design to sales to financing
  3. Presence of professional knowledge worker

The teams developed are Cross-functional team. The team is produced to work on a specific task, and stays together throughout the development of the product. The smaller teams include 5 - 20 people and make use of an efficient specialized communication. For the execution of larger assignments, a network of groups is made (a total of 100 to 1000 people). Much larger projects are sliced up into smaller jobs and procedures are taken to ensure the integration of distinct pieces into a system solution. Presence of Liaison Employees facilitates timely and proper copy of information within the team. Aside from this, job rotation is also an inevitable component of the procedure. The associates are assigned temporarily or permanently outside of their accustomed functional area of expertise. This ensures the integration of varied knowledge bases without making significant structural changes to the organization.

There are certain product design methods in Concurrent Anatomist:

  1. Design for Creation (DFM): Herein, constraints are enforced by performance and operation and therefore, the making information content of a product design is reduced. This handles minimizing the total number of parts. Minimize the total quantity of parts, simplifying the look of the other areas also to promote standardization.
  2. Design for Quality: Treatment is taken to minimize the impact of variance i. e. tolerance is improved upon.
  3. Design for Cost: It's important to have a powerful analysis of product and/or project costs based on the knowledge of the many cost items involved.
  4. Design for Assembly (DFA) - DFA is aimed at minimizing the cost incurred to put together the merchandise components.
  5. Design for Safety - The artist must develop the behavior of constantly analyzing the design for safety, considering not only the look itself however the personnel involved in fabricating the merchandise, using the task, and in retaining and repairing the merchandise or system as well as the end user or buyer. Developing the production operations as well as the maintenance and operating procedures early through the design process will assist in revealing safe practices problems at the same time when corrective action can be studied at lowest cost.
  6. Design for Dependability - To ensure successful performance over confirmed selection of conditional range, specific environment.

Apart from all these, the technology and tools also play an important role in the success of the Concurrent Executive. Integrated Computer Research is employed for modelling the steps necessary for the development of the manufactured product.

Although the Concurrent Engineering Strategy will not necessarily decrease the amount of manpower necessary for a project, it does significantly reduce lead times and therefore time to market. This has been illustrated in the diagram shown as under: The better the cooperation between your various phases, shorter is the time to market and higher is the efficiency.

Basic Steps as identified through various studies

  • Compare themselves with their best competitors (i. e. Standard)
  • Develop metrics
  • Identify potential performance improvements and goals - Analyze the marketplace and know your visitors.
  • Develop a definite vision of the future environment
  • Get a solid dedication to from senior management.
  • Get cross-functional endorsement
  • Develop an obvious technique to attain the envisioned environment
  • Get top management support
  • Get cross-functional endorsement
  • Develop an in depth implementation plan
  • Collectively work on all elements of project.
  • Reduce costs and time to advertise.
  • Complete duties in parallel.

Advantages

The practice of following concurrent engineering has numerous advantages such as:

  • Helps in shortening the merchandise development lead time
  • Reducing product development costs associated with obtaining a product to market
  • Improved Communication
  • Increased efficiency and performance
  • Higher stability in the merchandise development process.
  • Reduced defect rates.
  • Increased performance in transferring technology
  • Improved quality of producing end products
  • Increased setting in a highly competitive world market
  • Increased correctness in predicting and achieving project plans, schedules, timelines, and budgets
  • Employees require less time learning how to create new or much better products
  • Competitive Benefit and Increased Performances
  • Lower implementation hazards.
  • Faster reaction time in giving an answer to the swiftly changing market.
  • Lower product and process design and development costs.
  • Improved inventory control, scheduling and customer relations.

It achieves this by various methods including but not limited by:

  1. Reducing the number of redesigns - done by regarding support groups right away - thus minimizing the total number of iterations. Reduction is total cycle time assist in reducing the overall product cost.
  2. As much work that you can do concurrently is performed so rather than carrying it out sequentially. For this function teams from different functions are brought together.

The use of Concurrent Engineering has resulted in cost savings and benefits that can be divided into three key areas:

  1. Cost Related Savings - Processing and Production Costs, Labor costs, Development and Structure Costs
  2. Quality Related Cost savings - Defects and Nonconformance, Inspection, Productability and Testability
  3. Time Related Personal savings - Development Time, Pattern Time, Lead time etc.

Another benefit of Concurrent Engineering is the fact that, while knowledge is being developed about the look of the merchandise, additional knowledge is being received about the other areas of its life-cycle. As the design progresses, the manufacturing expert will learn more about how to manufacture the product, and the product packaging expert will learn about how to package deal it, etc. This build up of knowledge can help in speeding the product through the development process and obtain it out to the client quicker.

These aren't only benefits that your company activities, but ultimately the finish users or customers also enjoy the benefits insurance agencies an excellent product which works with their needs and perhaps, costs them less to purchase. Therefore, concurrent anatomist produces a profitable company and a satisfied consumer.

Limitations

Concurrent Engineering is not a magic pill for a company's problems and it's really not simply a way to boost performance. It's a business strategy that addresses important company resources. The major goal this business strategy is designed to attain is advanced product development performance. It really is a long-term strategy, and it ought to be considered only by organizations happy to constitute front investments and then hang on several years for long-term benefits as it includes major organizational and ethnical change.

Some limitations:

  • unwillingness to institutionalize Concurrent Engineering
  • maintenance of traditional functional reward systems
  • maintenance of traditional reporting lines
  • no training in teamwork
  • unrealistic schedules
  • no changes in associations with vendors
  • a focus on computerization alternatively than process improvement

Examples on program of the process

We have protected lots of examples on software of Concurrent Anatomist.

An exemplory case of the use of Concurrent Engineering are available in General Electric's Airplane Engines Division's strategy for the introduction of the engine for the new F/A-18E/F. It used several collocated, multi-functional design and development clubs to merge the look and developing process. The clubs achieved 20% to 60% reductions in design and procurement circuit times through the full-scale component tests which preceded full engine tests. Problems surfaced before and were dealt with more proficiently than they might have been with the traditional development process. Routine times in the design and fabrication of some components have lowered from around 22 weeks to 3 weeks.

Another example concerns Boeing's Ballistic Systems Department where Concurrent Anatomist was used in 1988 to develop a mobile launcher for the MX missile and could reduce design time by 40% and cost by 10% in building the prototype.

Polaroid Corp. 's Captiva instant camera is also the result of a Concurrent Engineering approach, consequently which Polaroid was able to make literally a huge selection of working prototypes. Throughout the process, development was treated by cross-functional clubs.

Study 1

Developing CE model for Shipment Industry: Tribon Solutions

The design and structure of a ship involves a high degree of concurrent engineering. To focus on such needs companies like Tribon Alternatives develops, marketplaces and supports CAD/CAM/CIM software alternatives, with the mission of increasing overall efficiency in the maritime industry. Tribon uses a Product Information Model (PIM), which is the central repository and solo source of information for designers, organizers, administrators of materials, manufacturing personnel, and others focusing on design and construction. Tribon began work on its API in 1995. Two different paths were considered at this time: Either to publish immediately the libraries utilized by Tribon, or even to create a wrapper together with existing code.

The first approach would make all our features available to an individual, but users would need to use the same development environment as Tribon Solutions, change compiler variants when Tribon Solutions did so, etc. This would have been a pricey and sophisticated solution, only usable by the greatest shipyards on the planet, those that acquired their own large IT and development departments.

The second strategy was preferable, so long as a tool could be found or developed that protected most of the given conditions. Tribon already experienced a geometry macro words that was developed in-house, but to increase it to the desired level of features could have been costly to apply and maintain. The rest of the option was to discover a third party solution that fulfilled the API's needs.

During analysis of options, Python was found out quite early when a member of the development team read about Python in a computer journal. After some preliminary experimentation there were really no other contenders. Python acquired it all. It was a beautiful programming language that was extensible, embeddable, platform independent, and acquired no license cost.

When it arrived to include Python into the Tribon software, They found the integration to be rather easy and problem-free, and it was achieved with very little effort. The consequence of this merger between Tribon and Python was named Tribon Vitesse, and the first version of Python used was 1. 2.

Today Tribon Alternatives has customers which have, by utilizing the power of Tribon Vitesse, had the opportunity to lessen design time of certain complex ship buildings from four weeks to two days, while enhancing overall quality. This enormous decrease in design time has been possible by automating more of the look, computations, information search, and result checking.

Study 2

Concurrent Design Center: Western Space Agency

European Space Organization (ESA) also uses Concurrent Anatomist for Integrated and faster product development. The Concurrent Engineering approach used by ESA is based on the following key elements:

  • The system engineering process
  • A multidisciplinary, product focused team
  • An information syndication and control environment
  • Supporting tools and facilities.

TheConcurrent Design Facility(CDF) is theEuropean Space Agencymain analysis center for futurespace missionsand professional review. Located atESTEC, ESA's specialized middle inthe Netherlands, it's been operational since early on 2000.

As suggested by its name, the CDF usesconcurrent engineeringmethodology to perform effective, fast and cheap space mission studies. Equipped with high tech network of computer systems, media devices and software tools, the CDF allow team of experts to execute design studies during working consultations.

Activities:

The CDF is principally responsible for performing the assessment studies of future missions for theEuropean Space Company. These evaluation studies are phase 0 or pre-phase A studies where the needs are identified and Mission Evaluation is performed. Stage 0 allows the following:

  • Identification and characterisation of the intended mission.
  • Expression in terms of needs, expected performance and dependability and basic safety goals.
  • Assessment of operating constraints, in particular in regards to the physical and functional environment.
  • Identification of possible system ideas, with emphasis on the amount of technology and any critical aspect.
  • Preliminary analysis of task management data (organisation, costs, schedules).

In addition, the CDF often perform reviews of commercial agreements initiated byESA.

The spacecraft design is based on mathematical models, which utilize custom software and connected spreadsheets. By this implies, a consistent set of design guidelines can be identified and exchanged throughout the analysis, and any changes which might have an impact on other disciplines can immediately be recognized and collectively assessed. In this manner, lots of design iterations can be carried out, and different design options may easily be analysed and likened.

CDF activities are conducted in consultations: plenary conferences in which staff of all space anatomist domains participate, from the first phases (necessity research) to the end of the look (costing). Even those disciplines that were traditionally involved at a later level of the process receive the opportunity to participate right from the start and also to identify trends that might later invalidate the design.

Facility:

The CDF design room has been designed and prepared with all the relevant hardware and software tools, with the aim of creating a highly effective communication and data interchange environment among team members.

The CDF service contains:

  • an selection of design channels, each focused on a specific technological discipline
  • data and software servers, providing on-line access to design data and tools
  • a multimedia wall membrane filled with three large projector displays (One of these been aSMART Boardfor free side drawing)
  • video-conferencing equipment that permits concurrent anatomist to be carried out in a sent out manner
  • Concurrent Design ModelCDF-IDMwhich will be changed soon by theOpen Concurrent Design Server

Open Concurrent Design In the CDF and Avenue Ahead:

ESA's Concurrent Design Service (CDF) has efficiently demonstrated the capability to use Space System Concurrent Executive to beat the communication gaps between your "artist" (who produces design information) and the "individual" (who utilizes the design information) enhancing the in-house capability to perform feasibility studies in an exceedingly effective and interdisciplinary manner. Many prospect missions took advantage of the new capacities proposed by the CDF, lowering the pre-Phase A (primary design) study length from almost a year to some weeks while increasing design quality. It has been in part because of the use of the CDF-IDM, the involved design model. The Start Concurrent Design Server (OCDS) is another technology of the CDF design model.

The CDF-IDM was built on an experimental basis and employs spreadsheet technology, both as data storage space and as executive tool. The OCDS on the other hands makes use of a Service Oriented Structures (SOA) using web services, a centralised repository and many customer tools such as the OCDS Study Director (OSM) and OCDS enabled spreadsheets.

The growing interest of ESA lovers, Industry and Academia in the ESA CDF core IDM, standardised data representation and exchange, and common design methodologies is one of the reasons that has encouraged the creation of the Open up Concurrent Design Server. For this function an ECSS Working Group was produced responsible for making a Techie Memorandum (TM) which identifies the recommendations for model centered data exchange for the first phases of executive and design. The ECSS-TM-10-25 "System Anatomist - Anatomist Design Model Data Exchange" TM supplies the basis for:

  • Creating a consistent group of Concurrent Design (Compact disc) facilities across European Space Community.
  • Allowing semantically steady data exchange between Compact disc facilities.
  • Enabling and encouraging joint real-time design activities by collaborating Compact disc facilities.

The OCDS is the merchandise execution of the ECSS-TM-10-25 and provides the inspiration of an Concurrent, Collaborative and Distributed Executive for the area Industry, using Start Criteria and information models. The OCDS starts up the opportunity to employ Concurrent Anatomist in the later phases of the area task lifecycle.

Graphical Representation of the OCDS Building Blocks

References:

  1. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Concurrent_engineering
  2. http://www. mne. psu. edu/lamancusa/html/conceng. htm
  3. http://www. johnstark. com/fwcce. html
  4. http://best. berkeley. edu/~pps/pps/concurrent. html
  5. http://www. stsci. edu/~rdouglas/publications/thesis/section2_4_3. html
  6. Concurrent Engineering Groups: Preston G Smith
  7. Managing Complex System Development Projects: Prof Steven D Eppinger
  8. Concurrent Executive: Vukica Jovanovic
  9. Engineering and technology management tools and applications by B. S. Dhillon
  10. http://www. esa. int/esaMI/CDF/SEMQOF1P4HD_0. html
  11. http://www. aster-ingenierie. com/?id=tw_concurrent
  12. Concurrent anatomist for unique products, Source:Assembly Automation; Level: 15;Issue: 1; 1995
  13. Teamworking and concurrent anatomist - successful story, Source:World Class Design to Production; Size: 2;Issue: 3; 1995
  14. Concurrent executive: an evaluation between teh aerospace and development business, J. E. Tookey, P. A. Bowen, C. Hardcastle, M. D. Murray, Source:Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology; Size: 3Issue: 1; 2005
  15. Concurrent engineering, Martin Jarvis, Source:Work Study; Volume level: 48Issue: 3; 1999
  16. Concurrent Engineering Battleground, Gregg Tong, Brian Fitzgerald, Source:World Class Design to Manufacture; Size: 1Issue: 3; 1994
  17. Putting Concurrent Executive into Practice, Graeme Holmes, Source:World Class Design to Manufacture; Volume level: 1Issue: 5; 1994
  18. Problems in concurrent new product development: an in-depth comparative analysis of three companies, Badr Haque, Source:Integrated Processing Systems; Amount: 14Issue: 3; 2003
  19. Organizing for concurrent engineering: an integration mechanism framework, Victor Paashuis, Harry Boer, Source:Included Manufacturing Systems; Volume level: 8Issue: 2; 1997
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