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Theories of Determination in Business Management

Motivation is the factors that determine the grounds for engagement in a specific behavior with a person or folks. It attached with the start, route, the amount of participation and the sustaining at a particular level of tendencies of the person. The grounds for a specific behavior may include the determinants which can be varying from basic individual needs to higher level of interpersonal needs. Inspiration can be shown through the and dedication of the average person or group to perform a certain task or duties (Joseph 1989).

The employee determination is a crucial factor for each business at a same or sometimes at a higher level with compared to other businesses. It influences the every areas of the business. The basic degree of the motivation is mirrored by the hard working work force. At this time the productivity will be high and hence the cost of labor per device will be reduced. Nevertheless the mere improvements in productivity will never be the solo factor a firm can achieve by motivating its labor force. Stimulated employees are doing to a higher standard level of performance where advantageous impacts over the customer satisfaction and the shareholder value can be gained. The determined employees are less inclined to engage in commercial actions or such other assault actions against the company. The employee issues and grievances may lower. Further the motivated employees works effectively under minimum amount supervision. They'll be enthusiastically learning new things associated with their jobs that would enhance the quality of performance.

Building or creating enthusiastic employee pressure is a hard task where a higher amount of money and effort are absorbed. Moreover the culture, leadership style and the management style have an effect on the employee inspiration. Therefore the motivated employee force is now a competitive source to the company. There are many theories that are designed regarding employee motivation. Various philosophers have offered various models on worker motivation. Their efforts and numerous circumstance studies on this topic show the value of the topic subject to the today's business framework. This assignment will present an introduction of those ideas and the practice of these ideas in the today's business environment with relevant circumstance studies.

Motivation Theories

There are several theories of motivation of varied philosophers such as Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theory, Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory, F. W. Taylor's Scientific Management, etc.

At lower degrees of the Maslow's hierarchy of Needs theory the economic benefits are considered to be the drive factor. At the bigger level of the hierarchy factors such as communal respect, identification, sense of belonging and empowerment are powerful than the financial factor of determination. Accordingly Maslow recommended that the money is a least expensive important factor as a motivator of employees. McGregor has included money in his Theory X category and described it as an unhealthy motivator and in theory Y category he has positioned social acknowledgement and praise suggesting they are strong motivators other than money. This section of the assignment will present explanations of those important theories of desire before understand the functional usage of those theories to generate a motivated workforce (Werther and Davis 1985).

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

This theory made up of two parts; classification of human needs and relating classes to each other. The classes of needs are the following.

The theory clarifies the order of the fulfilling needs as follows.

Person get started from underneath type of the hierarchy and will try to satisfy the very basic physical needs of cravings for food, thirsty, shelter, etc.

When he has satisfied these needs they aren't motivators further. Hence he goes upward of the hierarchy. Then the person would seek for the safety at the job, job security, etc to ensure his success at work area.

Having ensured that he is safe his interest then will search for cultural needs such as belongingness, love, friendships, etc. the individual would look for colleagues to work with, show information, team work, communication, etc.

Then the esteem needs will come forward. This is actually the dependence on being praised, given acceptance or analysis for employment well-done. Individuals normally seek for respect of others while writing the happy and sorrow.

Self-actualization is the way a person perceives himself. It measured by the extent of success and the amount of challenge of work.

There are several problems fastened with this model where as it has higher potential to charm available world such as,

It is not a clear when will be a certain level is recognized as "satisfied"

Individuals may respond differently regarding the same need

Sometimes individual habit reflects the reaction for several need

Model has ignored several conditions such as bearing a low-pay by a worker anticipating future benefits

Some critics argue that this model describe the tendencies of middle-class workers in UK and USA (Forshaw and Korn 2010)

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

This is a content theory of inspiration whereas the main theory is the Maslow' Hierarchy of Needs. Herzberg carried out a study utilizing 200 engineers and accountants. They were asked to memorize the situations when that they thought positive or negative emotions at their job and the reason why there of. According to his findings he shown a two-steps method of understand employee determination and satisfaction which can be called as Hygiene factors and Motivator factors.

There are several factors that can be used to get rid of the unpleasant working conditions at work. These fcators are called a Hygeine factors. These factors can include one or all the next factors.

  • Working conditions
  • Company policies
  • Administration
  • Quality and just how of supervision
  • Eetent of inter-personal relationships
  • Salaries, wages and other financial benefits
  • The job security

The individual's dependence on personal growth can determine the motivaor factors of this person. Motivator factors positively create job satisfaction when they exist. If those factors are effective then the individual's performance would be of above-average. The motivator factors may,

  1. Opportunity for expansion in the job
  2. Entrusted responsibility
  3. Social status
  4. Recognition among others
  5. Challenging work
  6. Sense of achievement

(Stephen 2002)

Herzberg model more identical to the Maslow's theory yet it target specially on the higher levels of the hierarchy of needs. The factors in the low level of the hierarchy are believed as generating dissatisfaction only once they aren't satisfied with.

Motivator factors are specific to the job itself such as how interesting the work is and how a lot of responsibility whether it assumes. The hygiene factors are considering the factors that are related to the surroundings of the job such as the safe practices working environment and the resources to get the job done designated. These factors assist in or able the employees to execute the job alternatively motivate to do the job with a supplementary effort and interest. Herzberg recognized pay as a Cleanliness factor. Matching to his theory the firms are required to take up the democratic methods to inspire employees. These methods may include one or more of the followings.

Job Enhancement: Employees are given a variety of duties that are in various areas of the business enterprise or fields. However these jobs must not suppose much responsibility if so the motivation to the jobs would less.

Job Enrichment: this assigns the employees with more complex tasks that happen to be fastened with the completion of full work product. The responsibilities will be of more difficult and interesting. And by the end the staff will feel a feeling of achievement.

Employee Empowerment: Here the employees are delegated with an increase of power to make decisions on the areas attached to their jobs. The duty of the decisions made also to be presented by them.

(Musselwhite 2004)

F. W. Taylor's Scientific Management

Taylor has developed several assumptions about the human behavior at the job bottom on observations of the study he completed participating US steelworkers.

Man is a logical economic animal who worried about maximizing his monetary growth.

People respond as individuals and not as organizations.

People can be treated as standardized machines

Taylor simply identified that the drive factor of folks at work is money. He recommended that the pay predicated on the rates produced by an each worker will induce him to create more and more to earn more. Further the employees who do not achieve concentrate on of an daily production should be paid less to be able to induce these to meet daily aim for. Plus the employees who exceed the target creation should be paid more to induce these to keep that production and to encourage others. Accordingly manager's job is to tell the employees what to do and the employees concentrate on is to complete that also to be paid matching to their creation (Tripathi 1991)

When delivering this theory Taylor has ignored that there are many individual dissimilarities which would impact the motivator factors of the employees.

However his methods were highly implemented by the business enterprise world which experienced a higher output and lower device cost. In addition, it gave the beginning kick to the mass production. Workers were miserable with the Taylor's methods since it given them with boring, recurring work that required those to effort greatly to increase the earnings. The employees were cared for as machines and business people redounded employees as the productivity grew. These situations lead many commercial disputes and professional actions by the personnel (Mathis and Jackson 2000).

This model is tightly related with the autocratic leadership style.

Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y

This theory presents two extremes of the patterns of people at work as theory X and theory Y. No individual would be automatically grouped into one category however the whole habits will maintain between your ends of X and Y.

The characteristics of both categories are the following.

  • Theory X Workers
  • Theory Y Workers

Dislike Work and prevent working approximately possible

Who are lackof ambition

Willing to be led by another person than taking risk

Highly seek for security and self-survival

Managers must impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment to achieve the business goals through such employees

Highly considering working and enjoy it

Interested in taking chances and responsibilities

Like to try new things and take challenges

Work is recognized as a source of satisfaction or punishment with respect to the working conditions

The management would face an issue of creating an operating environment that enable these employees to show their creativity and responsibility

Elton Mayo

Mayo suggested that employees are not mere taking into consideration the money and can be better determined giving them the chance to meet the sociable needs of the individuals. This is actually the Human Romance Scholl of thought by which the managers are centered on considering more about the individuals romance aspect understanding the how employees enjoy connections. Mayo's theory based on the extended research carried out in the Hawthorne manufacturer of the American Electric Company in Chicago. From that research Mayo came into final result that employees can be better motivated by;

  • Effective communication among professionals and workers
  • Greater manager participation in employee's working life
  • Working in groups or teams

Accordingly it is suggested that the greater use of team work, high engagement of managers in the worker's working life, and prompted two way communication would be benefiting the companies. The Mayo's theory is more directly jogging with the paternalistic management style.

(www. selfgrowth. com/articles/Definition_Employee_Motivation. html(Accessed on 03/05/2011)

Role of Other Factors

It is highly considered that just how of motivating employees is the financial rewards. However there are many other aspects of the scenario that would be considered by the professionals and professionals to stimulate their subordinates. The factors would be different on the average person basis that may need to put more effort into their work. Such factors may include followings.

Organization Culture

The organizational culture has a primary relationship with the employees' performance and level of motivation. In case the components of the culture match individual's background, values, beliefs, norms and prospects then your employees are automatically inclined to work in the business. If the organization culture is made on the teamwork, encouragement, collaboration, evaluation, then the employees is likely to be motivated to put more initiatives to bring the organizational targets accomplished. More often employees seek for their leader's route and support, and at exactly the same time they look for the collaboration of teammates and co-workers (Werther, Davis, Shwind, Das and Miner 1985).

Relationship with Leaders

The authority style can be significantly influence the desire of employees. The qualities of the first choice will determine the magnitude to that your e employees are added to the organization. If the leader is unfair, do not provide clear instructions, and negatively look at the things then the employees will lose their want to work hard to perform the goals. The organization's leaders must talk to its employees openly so the employees are clear about things that they must do.

(Source: http://tutor2u. net. business/people/motivation, (Accessed on 01/05/2011)

Management Style

The organizational culture, the problem and the goals and personality of the subordinates will determine the best style of a manager. The characteristics of the manager's style would be of no match the changes in the organization and the cultural changes associated with that change. As an example in at night authoritarian design of the managers was appreciated with the bureaucratic organizations, but today the interest is more centered on participative or empowered professionals who admire the democratic guidelines of management. Lots of the management ideas are supporting the that type of management styles such as Total Quality Management, Management by Aim, worker empowerment, self-managed work groups, etc. A comprehensive overview of the management styles and their contribution to encouraged work force will be presented below.

Management Style

Participative Management


Share information with employees and participate them in the decision making process

Employees are entrusted with the duty of jogging their own departments and determine the appropriate plans and procedures

Contribution to Motivated EMPLOYEES:

Not appropriate to modified by every organizations and at every levels

This is a treatment to the poor morale and low output that gain the results soon to the organization

Redistributed vitality will improve the willingness to work

If the culture facilitates and when the employees are proficient enough then your participation will bring about effective decisions and productive operations.

Giving the employees acceptance because they are important as the mangers and the stakeholders will gratify their esteem needs.

Theory X and Theory Y


These theories are based on several assumptions.

It clarifies two extremes of the engagement and utilizing efforts and energy to perform responsibilities by the employees

Theory X clarifies the negative side of the performance and theory Y symbolizes the positive part of the performance

Contribution to Motivated EMPLOYEES:

Considering the indegent performance as the full total fault of the employee by Theory X and therefore employees are motivated by the extrinsic rewards such as money, promotion, appraises, etc.

The low productivity is recognized as the fault of the management.

Theory Z


It represents the good characteristics of the both Japanese management and the Western management styles.

The theory has mixed those top features of the management at every level of the organizations.

The characteristics of this theory included long-term job, less specialized career course, group decision making, informal control, etc.

Concerns the all degrees of needs of the employees.

Concerning the worker well-being satisfies the physical and security needs of the employees.

Contribution to Motivated Work Force:

Team work and group decision making satisfy the sociable needs

Encouragement to take risks and duties will satisfy the bigger degree of needs such as self-esteem and self-actualization

Management By Walking Around


Managers can collect whenever you can information about the policies, procedures, employee matters, and other work related information

Manager can maintain proper relationship with employees so that he would be considered as a counselor or consultant by the employees

Contribution to Motivated EMPLOYEES:

Leaving decision making responsibility with the employees will achieve the quickest response time

Close romance with administrator will allow employees to provide their suggestions, complaints and grievances as soon as they occur

Self-Managed Work Teams


This is a derivation of the employee empowerment

Contribution to Motivated Work Force: The clubs will comprise of about 10-15 employees who require minimum supervision

Delegates the specialist to select simple work related aspects such as how to spend money, what work to undertaken, etc

Total Quality Management


The all functions of the management are included to achieve a high quality product

Quality is the duty of all employees and teamwork

Contribution to Motivated EMPLOYEES:

The client satisfaction is highly recognized

Recognition is given from CEO to lower level employees to keep quality

Shared commitment to achieve the organizational objectives

Encourages employees to develop, learn and participate in the business operations actively

Encourages the carrying on change and adaptation to the changing environment

Management by objective


Employees are participated in the establishing goals and objectives

Overall organizational targets are changed into employee objectives

Steps are arranging goals, participative decision making, implementing plans and performance feedback

High involvement of the employees in decision making and goal setting related with their jobs

Contribution to Motivated Work Force:

Managers are empowered to put into action, control their plans and performance. This motivate the professionals to work hard for the company

Periodical overview of the employees' performance gives the employees a feeling of completion and can let them really know what the areas to be upgraded more are. This may induce them to take more work to attain the goals established using their participation

Employee Empowerment


The organization constructions are change and your choice making is lapsed with the lowest levels of the organization

The objectives of the empowerment is to speed up the decision making and presenting answers to problems regarding the business operations, give employees the chance to grow, and also to lower organizational cost to managers by assigning them to several other projects

Contribution to Motivated EMPLOYEES:

Employees will be trained to take high tasks and make more accurate, effective decisions quickly

A sense of belongingness of the work they are engaged in will create within the employees

They think that the business is their own one and work hard to realize day-to-day work successfully

www. ehow. com/about 5387352 definition-employee-motivation. html, (Seen on 02/05/2011)

The professionals are obliged to select the suitable style for managing their subordinates and work which is suitable for them, their subordinated personalities and general characteristics, the section they are designated with and generally to the whole organizational setting and its own culture. Management style highly correlated with the level of performance of the employees and results of the operations under their control. Professionals must be delegated with the specific amount of authority and then their role becomes a mother nature of a head. Then he must use appropriate control traits to encourage and steer their subordinates to attain the departmental/organizational objectives or outcome (Mathis and Jackson 2000).

Reward System

A properly designed compensation system must be there in the business by which the employees can attain such benefits. Employees will need to have the confidence that they can be rewarded with established performance criteria of the work. Further the rewards must be pretty distributed so that the employees can evidently identified that there is no any discrepancy over them. In the event the rewards derive from the performance analysis treatment then all operations may transparent and the employees must obviously observe that the evaluations are put on regularly and pretty (Joseph 1989)

Job Title

The job name will give the respective employee an idea about his role within the company, the level to which he is able to contribute the accomplishment of organizational goals. Once the employees are aware about their importance to the business they may be automatically motivated to work hard to make their job effective (Deming 1986)

Monetary Benefits

Whether the amount of money is being derecognized as a good motivator it offers shown to be more effective in practice. Choosing the right remuneration offer for the employees is a challenge for nowadays. Several ways are used to stimulate employees over their work such as;

  • Time-rate pay
  • Peace-rate pay
  • Performance related pay
  • Shares and show options
  • Bonuses
  • Commissions
  • Pension

There are several aspects of money to be an important motivator such as;

Pay really helps to satisfy a great many other needs of person such as esteem needs, protection needs, etc

It is an important cost to the company

It helps to attract capable employees

It really helps to sustain skilled and experienced employees

It is put through various legislations such as National Minimum Wage

(Cherrington 1994)

Motivation in Practice - Circumstance Examples

The Tesco Plc

The UK large merchant, Tesco Plc has provided its large workforce to join the company as prospective shareholders. Staff is enabled to be always a part of the Tesco's gain share allocation based on their performance. The amount of shares assigned to each employee depends upon the number of days worked in an each period.

The Section of Education

The UK Departmental Education Sector is in the view that the teachers' pay must be associated with their performance. In 2002 the English federal introduces a performance centered bonus scheme to give rise to the teacher's pay and also to retain the existing staff and to attract new personnel to the teaching sector.

Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

The NDA has utilised many theoretical perspectives of the staff motivation to stimulate its employees. The 'NDA Way' demonstrates several phenomena which is dependant on the fulfillment of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as follows.

  • Always acting securely and responsibly
  • Building skill and teams
  • Challenging themselves
  • Learning from experience
  • Being wide open and transparent
  • Confronting problems
  • Delivering whet they promised

The NDA put in place the strategies like job enrichment, job enhancement, and job rotation, empowerment to effectively influence the employees' desire to handle the organizational objectives effectively and efficiently. Its target was to ensure that the employees are acquiring a range of skills and skills making the task is more interesting and challenging. Further the business introduced the overall flexibility into the labor force.

The NDA involved with wide range of projects that happen to be each task is of a unique concern. Hence the expert required people with flexible visitors to work in teams and happy to learn continually and to take responsibility. Their team work and human relationships were based on the Mayo's Human being Relations University of inspiration. The NDA build romantic relationships on the win-win basis. The staff encouraged to build necessary skills and competencies to modify all of the the work engaged by the power. The employees are delegated with Personal Development blueprints with SMART goals and provide the road to professional development as well.


Motivation is essential factor of the success of the business these days. There are various ideas have been offered by various philosophers regarding the determination of employees. Management, authority, and organizational culture are key determinants one of the factors affecting employee desire. Every job has the probability of drive or demotivation the worker. Motivation impacts the every aspects of the business and strongly influences the amount of productivity.

Whether some philosophers have considered money as a minimal motivator it includes a high impact of person's life and therefore still it is valid as motivator. The reward system, job name, periodical performance reviews can even be regarded as motivators.

Many organizations have designed the teachings of theories like Mayo, McGregor to make a motivated employee force. A motivated employee force would advantage the company by lowering the machine cost, high production, retaining quality, etc. the determination is simply the task harder to perform the organizational goals effectively and proficiently by its workforce. Only a enthusiastic workforce can bring the business to an effective position in the today's active competitive market environment.

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