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Types Of Flexibility For Mobile Computing Computer Technology Essay

The development in last 20 years in the field of telecommunication and the integration of telecommunication with internet has guaranteed pervasive processing infrastructure. These pervasive systems allow users to access their information on the internet regardless of their location. In addition, the advancement in devices miniaturization increases the number of lightweight devices hook up to the internet like mobile phone, laptops, palmtops world wide web catalogs, PDAs, etc. In these scenarios we can consider different kinds of mobility. Individual mobility, Terminal freedom, Mobile usage of resources. їЅCustomer mobility requires providing users with a uniform view of these preferred working environmentsїЅ user personal preferences and subscribed servicesїЅself-employed of these current positions in the networkїЅ. [1] їЅTerminal range of motion allows devices to transparently move and connect to different things of connectionїЅ. [1] їЅMobile access is an growing issue that involves the dynamic adaptation of mobile-aware resources and services that mobile users and terminals can automatically retrieve no matter their current locationїЅ. [1]

Having considered the above types of flexibility, mobile computing needs an advanced infrastructure which should dynamically track and relocate mobile users and grant coordination between mobile entities. The infrastructure should also provide proper security level predicated on cryptographic mechanisms and tools. Based on the given research paper three traveling with a laptop services have been suggested: user electronic environment (UVE), mobile digital terminal (MVT), and online source of information management (VRM).

їЅUVE provides users with a uniform view with their working surroundings independent of current locations and specific terminals. MVT extends traditional terminal range of motion by preserving the terminal execution express for restoration at new locations, including active procedures and subscribed services. VRM permits mobile users and terminals to keep up access to resources and services by automatically requalifying the bindings and moving specific resources or services to permit weight balancing and replicationїЅ. [1]


SOMA means Secure and Open Mobile Agent. SOMA is a service infrastructure for expanding and putting into action MA-based internet applications. SOMA consist of 4 layers. As shown in physique 1:

Figure 1: http://www-lia. deis. unibo. it/Software/MA/Images/Mobile1. jpg

The upper most layer is made for mobility support which gives UVE (User Virtual Environment), MVT(Mobile Virtual Terminal), VRM(Virtual Resource Management). Another layer provides naming, security, migration, interoperability, persistence, communication and Quality of Service. The other two layers are a JVM (JAVA Virtual Machine) and a heterogeneous distributed system.

SOMA is basically a JAVA centered mobile agent which includes been made to supply the requirements of mobility, scalability, dynamicity, security and openness which will be the typical issues in the internet cases. The two main goals to build up SOMA were interoperability and security. Using one side, SOMA is based on thorough security model and offer a good selection of mechanisms and tools to build up and enforce true security regulations with flexibility. On the other hand, SOMA can communicate and connect to different the different parts of applications which were created with different development languages and programs. Aside from interoperability and security features, SOMA is automatically and dynamically workable and configurable and it offers the positioning abstraction to attain scalability in a global scenario.

The ability to move of the cellular devices has introduced new security difficulties like mobile can be hacked by the execution of harmful environment, may be cloned illegally to cause DoS (denial of service), or may be denial for roaming. These issues have been overcome in SOMA implementation as SOMA permits to protect both: agents result from destructive hosts and hosts from harmful agents. During the design and execution of SOMA, amount of challenges were faced to provide interoperability like SOMA request as server of COBRA, SOMA as COBRA clients, interoperability between COBRA components and SOMA, etc Alternatively, SOMA is a bit slow because of its extra security mechanisms, it involves different tools and techniques to provide more security rendering it slow as compare to other mobile providers but off course it is more secure than other mobile brokers. As the name suggest secure and open mobile agent, its openness has created some more issues to it specifically for e-commerce applications so there is a need to boost it as nothing is perfect.


All the MA(Mobile Agent) criteria seem to be a promising programs for utilizing and producing applications in distributed, heterogeneous and open environments like the web. MA's try to overcome most of the limits of the conventional Customer/Server model as a result of basic features they have, such as autonomy and versatility and can easily incorporate with the internet to increase accessibility of applications. Most of the program areas, like e-commerce, network management, traveling with a laptop and information retrieval can take advantage of the use of the mobile agent technology. There's been a lot of work done in this field. Like many mobile applications have been developed like we studies SOMA, there are some other request as well like SeMoA, Aglets, fraglets, etc. There are a few advantages which all the mobile realtors try to provide: Dynamic version, flexibility, tolerance to network errors/faults, parallel handling, etc. Dynamic version is the adaptation of different host environments. Tolerance to network faults means capability of mobile agent to use without an active connection between server and client. Flexibility methods to only source must be updated whilst changing an action of the agent. Comparing SOMA with other mobile real estate agents, SOMA provides more security and openness as its name says.

If we discuss SeMoA (Secure Mobile Agent) it offers its own limitations, such as SeMoA is not so strong against a huge number of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks like storage area exhaustion. Alternatively SOMA has been designed taking into account security as a primary property because SOMA shields both: agents come from destructive hosts and hosts from harmful realtors. Another problem with SeMoA is that we now have many classes in the main deal that synchronize on the thing of category itself. As local classes are shared and the presence of local classes is global so any agent that gain access to them and acquires a lock on such class things blocks other threads to gain access to them. On the other hand if we compare SOMA with fraglets which is very small computer program which includes been made to serve as part of active network rather than a mobile agent. Fraglets have the ability to execute the codes on the path the travel by such as routers or hubs.

Part 2:


Pervasive computing is a dream of personal processing where future living conditions are saturated with non-intrusive, perfectly operating services available for the user. To fully understand this goal these services are to adapt to the present situation of the surroundings, alongside the inexpensive/social situation of the user. Systems that use data about the express of either its system, users or the surroundings to stay in their behavior are called context-aware systems. Noticing context-awareness has unveiled problems on different level: First, defining a context. Second, how and what can be fine-tuned when the context changes and where in fact the context adaptation and definition originates from? Third, identify different contexts from sensor. Fourth, what sort of framework can be symbolized and processed. But before that we have to understand this is of context. The most cited meaning of context by Dey is: їЅFramework is any information that can be used to characterize the problem of your entity. An entity is a person, place, or thing that is considered highly relevant to the connections between a individual and an application, including the individual and applications themselvesїЅ. [1]


Unique Identifiers:

The system can recognize different type of contexts and conditions in real life. Uniqueness permit the reuse of this information without conflicting between identifiers. For instance, If an individual is worries so accelerometer may be used to detect the quickness of an individual.


Validation should be allowed for an information taken by the sensor before accomplishing any action with it. For example, if the accelerometer implies that the speed of customer is fast (i. e. he/she is in the automobile) this will not mean that he/she is driving, this information should be validated before executing any action. For instance consider the problem that easily am traveling I cannot answer the phone calls so reject the decision and send a note saying I am going to call you later. But easily am in the automobile but I am not driving than I can answer the calls so the information from the accelerometer has to be validated before rejecting the phone calls.

Uncertainty and imperfect information:

As the vast majority of the framework information of real life is taken from the sensors, the information can be imperfect and uncertain. If we include reasoning doubt of the conclusions should follow the reasoning.

Simplicity, reuse, and expandability:

A system should source only as expressive representation as necessary to maintain the domains knowledge. A straightforward representation endorse reuse and expandability. Straightforwardness, versatility and expandability are among the requirements of framework representation.


Generality of framework representation means the capability to support all types of framework information. In my estimation, generality of an context representation is mainly explained by its conceptual structure. Nevertheless, the quality of an representation dialect which is utilized to generate the context information also vary its ability to create framework information at different levels of complexity.



WAP (cordless request protocol) is a protocol to offer mobile data services. WAP is an available international standard that allows users to gain access to global information instantly through any cordless device mobile phone, PDA, etc. WAP is normally recognized by all operating systems. Browsers that uses WAP are called micro-browser. The rate of transfer of data continues to be very lower than the normal modem. On the other hand, I-mode is an entire mobile online sites that includes a large range of internet criteria such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, information headlines, etc. This information is provided to an individual by particular services from mobile carriers who bill them for these services. As the speed of transfer of the data is leaner than the average modem, i-mode is not good enough for high res images and videos, it is actually sufficient for simple images and email messages.


WAP uses Cordless Markup Vocabulary (WML) for communication. while on the other hand i-Mode runs on the different kind of HTML to create compact HTML (c-HTML).

Capabilities of Devices

WAP devices have to have a specific WAP web browser while i-Mode helping devices need to be able to screen data from c-HTML. WAP competent devices show only textual information while i-Mode supporting devices shows multimedia images. WAP gives navigation among layered selections while i-Mode gives navigation via hyperlinks.


WAP employs a unique terms called WML (Wireless Markup Terminology) for connections between a particular protocol translation device called a Gateway of WAP (GW) and home elevators the web. The GW communicates between HTML and WML, enables way to obtain WAP content to a WAP helping device. iMode obeys a dissimilar method of allow users to gain access to IP-based services via their portable device. i-MODE is uses packet data transmitting technology, a machine employing this technology is constantly online. The transfer of the data makes use of the CDMA (Code Department Multiple Gain access to).


One of the most main difference that appears, are obviously the dissimilar graphic capabilities. While it is right that i-MODE only allows simple graphics, that is a lot more than WAP.


Another main dissimilarity is the capability to be always-on in i-MODE. As consumer aren't charged for how long they provide online, it doesn't seem more suitable, but also less costly than have to pay for the time they spent online. As it isn't needed that dial-up before using the a number of services predicated on IP, E-mail has become an Text (Short Subject matter Service).

Part 3:


In CCA the InfoStations system is an infrastructural system concept offering "many time, many-where" access to cellular data services sustaining the portable communication process. This concept enables a variety of classes of lightweight devices to communicate with the other person and with a large quantity of servers. Intelligent real estate agents functioning in the lightweight device user's website (Personal Assistants-PAs) and the InfoStations help to accomplish a contextualized and customized environment for the system users. System operation is offered as a couple of versatile mobile services. To aid the personalization of these services, the User Agent Account (UAProf) and Composite Capabilities/Preference Profile (CC/PP) terms are produced to allow the

Personal Assistants share capability and preference information (CPI) about both the gain access to device and the user as well. This makes certain that the offered services are adapted to match the device functions, cordless network constraints and an individual as well.

Behavior of infoStation:

Because of the fact that nature of the connection is defused, it's important for intelligent agencies to work throughout the architecture. Being truly a PA (Personal Helper), the agent may function automatically in order to convince any customer service needs they encounter, while in or out of connection with other real estate agents which will work on InfoStation Centre or the InfoStation. The service consultations may be divided between different InfoStations, the personal associate can make something call while within the scope of your InfoStation, and then go out of the coverage area. During this time when the user goes out from InfoStation coverage, the non-public helper functions automatically adopt the features of the service till the user has completed the task. "The InfoStations stores the Discovery, Demonstration and Rendering Self-Service module, which is used to establish connections to mobile devices which go into within range. Also housed is a cache of lately accessed user and service profiles, as well as a repository of available services". [4]


Behavior of infoStation Centre:

The InfoStation Centre stands at the centre of the system, which handles the development and upgrading of items/objects throughout the machine. From InfoStation Centre which operates as a central point, service revisions can be distributed across the whole system. All of the infoStations are linked with the InfoStation centre which acts as a server of these infoStations. InfoStation centre is aware of all the devices linked to the infoStations but it communicates with infoStations only, it generally does not communicate directly to the devices connected to the infoStations. For instance a mobile device needs to communicate with the other mobile device linked with different InfoStation then your device will send a demand to its InfoStation then the InfoStation send this get to InfoStation Centre and then InfoStation centre sends the get to the InfoStation to that your receiver device is linked with.


Bob[ Alice :: . 0 ] | Alice [ Bob: ( hello ). 0 ] - -> Alice [ hello --> hello ]


Bob[Alice::. 0] | Alice[Bob: (hi there). 0 ]


Bob[Alice::. 0 ] |Alice[Bob: (hi there). 0 ] |IS1[in IS4. out. 0] |IS4[0 ]|IS4[in IS2. away. 0 ]

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