Why Delegation Is Not Performed Often Management Essay


Delegating is similar to a powerful wand in the hands of smart managers. Delegating is impressive when used properly but it is a complex someone to practice. Whatever be the leadership function, Delegating is an undisputed leadership style. (Babou 2008)

"Effective delegation can take emotional courage as we allow, to one degree or another, others to make mistakes on our time, money and good name. Effective delegation must be two-way: responsibility given, responsibility received. "

Stephen Covey in First things First

Delegating duties, work, tasks and authority are commonly required in today's world. For example whenever a professor asks his teaching assistants to invigilate a pop quiz for the students of his class, he is placing them accountable for ensuring a even and fair screening conditions for all your students. He's also providing them with the authority to penalize the erring students looking for unfair methods to write the quiz. After the quiz has ended he may ask the coaching assistants to judge the solution scripts of the students, hence ensuring that he has transferred his jobs and work to his assistants, mean while he creates time for himself to get ready for another session of class.

Conceptual Framework

The first guideline of management is delegation. Don't try to do everything yourself because you can't.

Anthea Turner

Delegating is assigning an activity that you currently have in your activity list, for which you are ultimately responsible, and assigning it to other person confidently that he will complete with nominal or no involvement from you. (Babou 2008)

In simple fact, those who acknowledge Peter Drucker's traditional definition of management as "accomplishing jobs through others" demand that effective training managers must first be skillful delegators. (Younger 1997)

Delegation is the procedure of relinquishing decisions and duties to others. (Michael E. Ward 1999)

The Five Privileges of Delegation

The Five Rights of Delegation were determined in Delegation: Ideas and Decision-making Process (National Council, 1995) for Medical Service Administrators (NSA) and personnel nurses (Hansten 1992). We can extrapolate these to a level of generality for the delegation process and identify these as the wide components of delegating.

Right Task

It is important to recognize an appropriate set of activities and goals in accordance with the organizational insurance policies, procedures and criteria. These activities must be within the competencies of the delegatee. Usually tasks, tasks and wok which are time consuming for a person, which could be performed similarly well by someone else leading to the same result can be transferred. As the time kept by the delegator can be placed into use into other more profitable and creative work.

Right Circumstances

The delegator needs to ensure that the resources available are sufficient for the delegatee to perform the activities used in him, failing which the results may not be satisfactory. Determining the opportune second to groom a person for career succession by delegating him tasks of the next level is important.

The pursuing could be circumstances which can demand delegation.

1. When somebody else has more skills than you in a particular area.

2. When a person has contacted you with willingness to help you on a particular project.

3. When someone can form themselves by taking over a challenging activity.

4. When you do not have the time to handle your other duties effectively.

5. When planning will take more time than employing.

Right Person

Managers may turn to assign new and untested employees jobs for which email address details are predictable and the actual risk is lowest. But once a trust marriage has been founded between your delegator and the delegatee, largely in the cases of more experienced and skilled employees, more complex and high-risk work can be delegated.

In Organizations it's important that the right person is delegating the right activity to the right person to be performed on the right person or situation. For example the company's plank has decided to lay down off some employees to lessen cost. Then the CEO may ask his divisional head to carry out the procedure in the section, the divisional brain will ask the lower rung managers to see your choice of the business to the employee.

Right Direction/Communication

Clear, concise explanation of the duty, including its objective, limits and expectations must be communicated while delegating a task. Interacting the expected results, potential problems and the time lines for doing the activities ensures effective delegation of the task.

Right Supervision

Appropriate monitoring, analysis, intervention, as needed, and opinions to get to the delegatee by the delegator ensure that the things move on track.

As significantly as managers are concerned, Delegating allows them to help make the best use of their own time and skills, and it helps team member's development and develops to reach their full probable in the business. Delegation, however, is not only assigning work that falls within the range of employees' job descriptions. Effective delegation requires giving employees the responsibility and authority to take action that is normally part of the job of any manager.

"But because our company has grown so much and in so many different ways, the delegation process places responsibility and specialist on the shoulders of men and women you can view grow watching the way they treat others. "

Vince McMahon

Participative (democratic): Managers delegate authority to their staff, providing them with responsibility to complete the task directed at them in their own way as long as the task is completed; personnel are fully involved in decision making thus creating a sense of belonging in the business. (Zamaros 2008)

Participative delegation can be recognized by the employees as the level to which the firm or their immediate superiors show assurance in them and trust their ability. Thus for a person it's rather a powerful method of empowering the employees. As a result the employee engagement and organizational determination show an appreciable increase.

Decentralization: The magnitude to which power and authority are delegated to lower levels (Zamaros 2008). Delegation helps an organization to increase unhindered. As the organization becomes bigger and much larger it becomes increasingly difficult for the management to do anything that they were used to do.

Organizations reduce layers of management and delegate more responsibilities to its employees (McShane 2007). Failing of professionals to delegate can bring about stunting the growth of an organization. Decentralization is the result of delegation giving power to the lower rung employees. The subconscious empowerment of the employees will increase significantly, while freeing the professionals from the mundane and routine tasks permitting them to concentrate on new initiatives.

A particular project can be delegated to a person or a group of individuals. One difference between individual and group delegation is that each behavior is normally much easier to control and monitor. One alternative to delegating the task and giving totally to a subordinate is for a administrator to participate in the process as a group member. The downside of this approach is the fact it may send the group an unintended meaning of a lack of trust. Employees may feel that the manager is not there to contribute, but to be sure of the quality of their work. (Camp 2005)

Review of Literature

Delegation is the process by which the director assigns responsibilities and goals to subordinates and vests in them formal power to make job related decisions, take appropriate action for accomplishing their tasks, initiate action on others and make use of the sources of the organization. Delegation thus enables a director to assign a part of his work his subordinates and copy them corresponding power to perform responsibilities and release their obligations. (Agarwal 2007)

The process of delegation involves determining the results expected from a position, assigning tasks to the positioning, delegating expert for achieving these responsibilities, and holding the person in that position responsible for the accomplishment of the responsibilities. (Harold Koontz 2007)

Why Delegation is not performed often?

According to (Harold Koontz 2007), the failing in effective delegation occurs not because professionals do not understand the nature and ideas of delegation but because they are incapable or unwilling to use them. Lots of the reasons for managerial failure lie in the frame of mind towards delegation. The behaviour which make a difference delegation are receptiveness, willingness to let go, willingness to let others make faults, willingness to trust subordinates and, willingness to establish and use wide-ranging controls.


An underlying attribute of managers who'll delegate authority is a willingness to provide other people's ideas an opportunity. Decision making always will involve some discretion, and a subordinate's decision is improbable to be the one an excellent could have made. The director who is aware of how to delegate will need to have at the least the "NIH (not invented here) factor" and should never only be able to welcome the ideas of others but also to help others and also to compliment them on the ingenuity.

Willingness to let go

A manager who will effectively delegate expert must be eager release a the right to make decisions to subordinates. A major fault of some managers who move up the professional ladder - or the pioneer who has generated a big business from a little beginning of, say, a storage machine shop - is that they want to continue steadily to make decisions for the positions they have left.

Managers will improve their efforts to the company if they focus on tasks that contribute most to the firm's aims and assign subordinates other tasks, even though they could complete them better themselves.

Willingness to let others make mistakes

Although no administrator would take a seat idle and let his subordinate make a mistake that may endanger the company or the subordinate's position in the business, continual looking into the subordinate to ensure that no problems are made will make true delegation impossible.

Willingness to trust subordinates

Superiors haven't any alternative to trusting their subordinates, for delegation suggests a trustful attitude between them. This trust is tricky to find. All too often, bosses distrust their subordinates because they do not wish to let go, are threatened by subordinates' successes, do not delegate wisely, or don not know how to set up controls to ensure proper use of expert.

Willingness to establish and use wide-ranging controls

Since superiors cannot delegate responsibility for performance, they should not delegate authority unless they are willing to find means of getting opinions, that is, of ensuring themselves that the specialist is being used to aid enterprise or division goals and ideas. More often than not, reluctance to delegate and to trust subordinates originates from the superior's inadequate planning and understandable fear of loss of control.

Delegating Expert or Overcoming Weak Delegation (SP Robbins 2009), (Harold Koontz 2007)

Clarify the Assignment

Define projects and grant sufficient specialist in the light of the results expected. Provision for clear information on what is being delegated, the results expected, and the timelines or performance goals have to be set straight.

Specify the delegatee's range of discretion

Select the most capable and motivated person in the light of the job to be done. Specify the variables of constraints so the person knows, in no uncertain conditions, the range of his discretion.

Allow the delegatee to participate

Allowing the employees to take part in determining what's delegated, how much specialist is required to complete the job, and the requirements by which they'll be judged, increases employee's motivation, satisfaction, and accountability for performance. Also decentralization shouldn't lead to insulation and a free flow of information between superior and subordinate, furnishing the subordinate with the information needed to make the decisions and to interpret properly the power delegated.

Inform others that delegation has occurred

Delegation should not happen in vacuum. Not merely will you and the delegate need to find out specifically what has been delegated and exactly how much specialist has been awarded, but anyone else who may be afflicted by the delegation work must also be informed.

Establish reviews controls

Controls must be relatively extensive and be made to show deviations from ideas, alternatively than interfering with usual actions of subordinates. The establishment of controls to monitor the delegatee and the employees reporting to this person's progress boost the possibility that inefficiencies will be recognized early and the task will be completed on time and to the desired specifications.

Reward effective delegation and successful assumption of authority

Managers should be ever-watchful for the means of pleasing both effective delegation and successful assumption of expert. Although many of the rewards will be financial, the granting of better discretion and prestige-both in confirmed position and by campaign to an increased position - is often even more of an incentive.

Empirical Research and Generalization

"No person will make a great business who would like to do it all himself or get all the credit. "

Andrew Carnegie

Mr. X is an LIC Agent in Jamshedpur; he also does indeed a lot of are a financial consultant and tax planner. Proprietor of X Advertising Firm, Mr. X will advertising work for all the local newspapers and some billboard advertising as well. He works all times in the week but takes an off in the second 1 / 2 of Sunday, unless something very urgent turns up or a new business opportunity knocks on the entranceway. A standard week for Mr. X means around seventy hours of work.

Mr. X got a very difficult start to life as he lost his dad at a very young age, and graduated as a bachelor in research. Mr. X possessed to face all the struggles himself without any help of any sort; but he takes take great pride in in being called a self made man.

With his resilience and effort he got himself a job of stores official. He was very dedicated and scrupulous at his job and demanded efficiency. As a minimal rung employee he was a secured asset to the company. He lost his first job when he learned one done by his immediate supervisor and helped bring it to the foreground; the supervisor did not take the criticism very kindly and prepared the lands for his exit.

Not to be maintained down, he found other avenues of getting his breads and butter. He started as a little time representative of Uditvani, an area Hindi magazine, in the advertising sales force. His individual brilliance and extravert aspect started to get him business. He also noticed a chance in selling insurance policies as an LIC Agent. It did not take him enough time to settle down in his new role and he started to do well. In fact his performance was so good that he broke all kind of sales data at the Jamshedpur branch of LIC. Individuals were astounded by the turnaround in the fortunes of the son, from being unemployed to becoming the agent of the year in LIC, from residing in a rented house to his own house, from generating a scooter to owning a Maruti 800 car; the changes were just astounding. People tried out to do the careers that he was doing to emulate his success, but somehow cannot reach the peaks scaled by Mr. X.

But through the years Mr. X's sales have flattened, refusing to expand. Mr. X still prefers to work by itself. He does not feel bogged down even by carrying out some of the menial tasks that may be done by employed staff. He wishes to do everything by himself, and will take pride in the actual fact that his work is perfect and he guarantees customer satisfaction. Also he's not sure if the staff would be as adept as him, it also bothers him that if his customers is discovered his business reaches risk.

Meanwhile a new breed of LIC Agents and advertising companies, have began to gain ground. They may have multiple office buildings with results of full time dedicated staff doing work for them. Today Mr. X is no longer the topmost agent in LIC but the average performer to them.

Findings of the analysis and Generalization

"The best executive is the one who have sense enough to pick good men to do what he desires done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they actually it. "

Theodore Roosevelt

One thing that plainly stands out is the fact as business develops it becomes impossible for just one person to handle all the obligations and carry out the regular work. LIC Agents who were ready to hand out responsibilities by participating staff could actually expand and grow at a very quick pace, while Mr. X was unwilling to delegate. As a result Mr. X's business halted growing after attaining a certain level. Therefore a risk taking ability is necessary for a supervisor to be able to delegate work effectively and efficiently.

The large amount of time spent at the job by Mr. X may have easily been decrease by employing visitors to do mundane duties such as data entry, filing paper work, depositing rates for the client's procedures etc. Mr. X could have used the kept time to take care of new clients, get more business, increase his networking and look for means of bettering customer satisfaction. Delegating work saves time for a manager which they can spend money on more creative and ground breaking work to watch out at opportunities for expanding the firm's business. Also with the changing face of technology Mr. X is finding it hard to maintain with the speed of the changes in the techniques of accomplishing his task. A lot of developing for advertisements is now done on new complex software, CRM databases are being used to store customer information, and use of emails and online repayments of premiums are created. Mr. X could really do well with the aid of experts in these areas, and concentrate on his core competencies.

Mr. X is a perfectionist and therefore wants certain careers to be dealt with in a certain way only. It is true that if he delegates his work then there's a potential for the quality of the task to decrease, as the new staff will never be as experienced and skilled as him. But on the time period the amount of work done by his subordinates will improve. Taking a look at the bigger picture than at details is more important for a manager to achieve the goals of the organization.

In any setting which requires team work the results can be obtained effectively and successfully by the procedure of delegation. A phenomenon like this would need a certain level of trust among the associates.

Delegation will not come effortlessly to a person and will depend on the personality, ethnic environment, environment and the upbringing of the average person. It is a skill that should be developed on the period of time as so when the situation allows. People need to be receptive to the change in the earth around them, to be able to effectively delegate their responsibilities.

Implication of Group work

It is not essential that an person or an entity accountable for a task that pertains to his or its role would be a specialist for accomplishing that task. It really is then desired that the task be delegated to an expert who could perform it more effectively and produce effective results. In the globalized world we see this phenomenon more often than not. Companies turn to outsource incidental work to their core areas of business, permitting them to concentrate on their core regions of strength. In addition, it grows a work life balance where the time saved could be utilized for private use (like more time with family, a chance to pursue one's interests) thus invigorating the employees for the jobs ahead.

Delegation may be hampered in organizations where transferring of responsibilities and risk taking aren't urged. This attitude could make the organizations less cost effective and prone to traditional ways of working which might no longer be relevant in the rapidly changing world. An organization must assimilate the change in its daily working strategy to endure and beat the competition.

Team building may be accomplished by delegation as it offers the employees a sense of owned by the organization and they perceive that the business trusts their talents. Hence the employees feel empowered when autonomy is given in the delegation process. A positive atmosphere and identification with the task is developed when challenging and complicated tasks receive to the employees in accordance with their roles. Also the person in the group gets a feeling of accomplishment and an opportunity to grow and obtain identification. Intuitively we can say that would lead to a greater job satisfaction and so upsurge in work efficiency. For the business delegation can be a very positive end result as it could prepare a group of individuals by boosting their skills and competencies to meet up with the challenging needs that the business may face in the foreseeable future. It also develops leaders for future years by delegation of decision making, participative management strengthening the overall leadership characteristics of the organization.

Contribution to OB

The personality and mother nature of an individual are the moderating variables to the amount or the amount of delegation that individual is preparing to make. A person with an increase of risk taking capacity is more likely to achieve success at delegating work. An factor of trust and assurance must be shown in the delegatee for delegation that occurs. People willing to reduce the amount of expectation in relation with the competencies of their subordinates will have the purpose of delegation.

Individuals who are frightened to forget about electric power and position of authority will find it more difficult to assign jobs. They may feel threatened by the fact that the delegate may outperform them or steal their thunder.

Managers should be able to evaluate the complexity of the duty at hand, identify the resources capable of executing that job, and have a definite intend to have check tips with effective opinions process. Hence we see that there is a cognitive dimension to delegation, prior thinking and planning are needed before delegation.

While it is good that the plan has been produced and the task has been delegated, success of the task depends upon how much encouraged the employees are? A part of the responsibility of motivating the employees falls onto the manager. He will need to have the where withal to encourage and inspire team members, ability to forget about ability and control, have effective communication channels and sense of team building. They are the psychological aspects that are essential in achieving true delegation.

From a group perspective it is generally desired that the duties are delegated to prepare the work force for job succession, instilling a feeling of empowerment in the employees, team development, leadership building, organizing the employees to meet future challenging and sophisticated problems, reduce decentralization i. e. too much reliance on one or several individuals, are more productive,

Some questions which will follow regarding delegation are:

Is delegation always beneficial? We've seen from the books review and the research study that delegation is a desired behavior, but is this always the situation? Any kind of negatives for delegation in specific adjustments or how tasks are assigned?

What kind of work should be delegated? The general proven fact that has been generated through this article is the fact that more routine responsibilities should be delegated. While these jobs may be mundane for the manager, they might be challenging for the subordinates. Should managers delegate only regular tasks or give creative and challenging assignments to their subordinates?

When should delegation take place i. e. under what circumstances or situations it is attractive or undesirable to delegate? We have to make an effort to identify the situational factors for the same.

Does delegation of work actually increase the competencies of the subordinates and make them for a job succession?

What impact does culture, personality and upbringing have on delegation? Is delegation as a skill a natural gift or is it a skill that can be developed over a period?

Mostly in the report we have seen and talked about top-down delegation but can bottom-up delegation occur? Can the subordinates delegate certain aspects of their jobs with their superiors in particular situations?


Having done an in depth investigation of delegation as a behavior we can establish delegation as given below.

Delegating is the procedure of transferring an activity from the group of activities, responsibilities and, power applicable to your role, in a particular setting, to a person or a group of individuals, recognized by you as competent enough to handle that task, in times if you want improve that activity and wish to focus your energies on some other work; with the assumption that the duty will be completed by see your face successfully up to your targets and in the process give him or them the autonomy to choose the way he or they would like to perform the task.

We have observed the positive impact that delegation can have on the framework of the business, and the way of thinking of the individual. Productivity and efficiency visit a rise in organizations resorting to delegation, however knowledge and understanding of the delegatee are important, a lack of which should limit and limit the level of delegation.

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