Ziziphus Mauritiana: Chemical Composition and Uses

  • Biological source :

It contain fresh leaf remove of Ziziphus mauritiana.

  • Taxonomical classification :


Fig 4 : Ziziphus mauritiana leaf

Kingdom : Plant

Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae

Phylum : Tracheophyta

Subphylum : Euphyllophytina

Division : Magnoliophyta

Subdivision : Angiosprm

Class : Magnoliopsida

Subclass : Rosidae

Order : Rosales

Family : Rhamnaceae

Tribe : Paliureae

Genus : Ziziphus

Species : Mauritiana[42]

Vernacular Names :

Languages Vernacular Names

Arabic - Beri, Bor, Nabbak El Fil, Nabbak-El-Fil, Nobig, Sidr

English - Aprin, Baer, Baher, Bahir, Ber, Beri, Bor, Chinee Apple,

Indian Plum, Indian-Cherry, Indian-Plum, Jujube, Ma-Tan,

Malay-Jujube, Mangustine, Manzana (Apple), Manzanas,

Manzanita, Perita Haitiana, Phutsa, Ponsigne, Putrea, Sour

Jujube, Tao, Tao Nhuc, Widara, Yunnan Jujube, Yunnan

Tamil - Elandhai

Hindi - Ber

Sanskrit - Ajapriya, Badara, Karkandhu

Gujarati - Bordi[43]

  • Synonyms :
  • Rhamnus jujube
  • Ziziphus jujube
  • Ziziphus sororia
  • Manasa arborea
  • Ziziphus trinervia
  • Ziziphus orthocantha
  • Ziziphus rotundata
  • Ziziphus abyssinicus
  • Sarcomphalus mauritianus[44].
  • Growth and syndication :

Ziziphus mauritiana, is present usually in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is mainly present in India and is currently observed in tropical locations like Africa, Afghanistan, China, Malaysia, Australia and in around Pacific locations. The place form dense stands which is invasive in some areas like Fiji and Australia. These days it an environmental weed in Northern Australia causing problems. It really is develops very fastly with a medium life time, that can easily are as long as 10-40 ft. extra tall. The vegetable is also known as Ziziphus mauritiana Narkeli kul, Ber, Boroi, Dongs, Bor, Beri [45].

  • Macroscopic character types :
  • Ziziphus mauritiana is a thorny and evergreen shrub. Bark dark grey colour or dull black color, irregularly fissured. It grows up as a concise shrub of 3-4 m extra tall in severe climatic conditions
  • Leaves are changing, alternative, in 2 rows, oblong elliptic in shape, 2. 5-6 x 1. 5-5 cm, curved tip or somewhat notched base; remarkably wavy-toothed on corners, shiny green no hairs at the very top; dense, whitish, tender hairs underneath.
  • Inflorescence of the plant is axillary cymes, 1-2 cm long, with 7-20 blossoms of 2-3mm; peduncles are 2- 3 mm long; greenish colour-yellow color, indistinctly fragrant; pedicels are 3-8 mm long; calyx with 5 deltoid lobes, hairy outer, glabrous interior; petals are 5 and are subspathulate, concave, reflexed.
  • Fruit is a drupe and globose to ovoid form, develops 6 x 4 cm in cultivation, usually much smaller when untamed; fruit pores and skin is clean or rough, glossy, thin but tougher, yellowish color to reddish color or blackish colour; flesh white, crisp, juicy, sub acid style to sweet tastes, becoming mealy in fully ripe fruits.
  • Seed is a tuberculate and irregularly furrowed rock with 1-2 elliptic dark brown kernels sssof 6 mm long. The name 'Ziziphus' is often erroneously written as Zizyphus [46].
  • Microscopic characters of leaf :
  • In Z. mauritiana, the abaxial leaf surface was characteristically densely pubescent, with numerous stomata assemble in the interveinal locations, whereas the adaxial surface was glabrous, with comparatively few, sunken stomata.
  • Leaf hairiness, hypostomatous circulation and sunken stomata are characteristic features of species that exist in droughtvulnerable regions. Transverse areas from fresh leaf lamina materials showed that both Ziziphus types have characteristic C3 anatomy, with a good amount of mucilaginous material exclusively localized in the adaxial epidermal cells which stained intensely with the mucopolysaccharide stain, alcianblue.
  • The mucilagecell contents also indicates a high polysaccharide content throughout the cell. When stained with the PAS/toluidine blueO combo for light microscopy, there was no discernible nucleus, vacuole or cellular organelles in the epidermal mucilage cells, but with numerous starch grains and nuclei clearly noticeable in the mesophyll parenchyma.
  • Mucilage, stated in Golgi, accumulates primarily between your plasmalemma and the cell wall membrane, and after long term mucilage deposition, the rest of the cytoplasm becomes compressed up against the external periclinal cell wall membrane and degenerates[47].


Fig 5 : Micriscopy of leaf of Z. mauritiana

  • Chemical Constituents :
  • Plant contains crude protein, excess fat, fiber, ash, calcium mineral, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine, Sulphur.
  • They also contain ceryl alcohol and the alkaloids, protopine and berberine, quercetin, kaempferol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, lanosterol, diosgenin.
  • The leaves contain flavonoids, tannins, oses and holosides, mucilages, sterol, triterpenoids, cardiotonic glucosides, and leucoanthocyanes.
  • Plant also contain Necessary protein, Fat, Fiber, Glucose, Reducing Sugar, Non-Reducing Sugars, Ash, Calcium mineral, Phosphorus, Flat iron, Carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Citric Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Fluoride, Pectin. The fresh fruits also contain some malic and oxalic acid and quercetin. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, Sugar, Fiber.
  • Major characteristic constituents aretriterpenes and triterpene saponins, including alphitolic, betulinic, maslinic, oleanolic, ursolic, 3-O-trans-alphitolic, 3-O-cis-p-alphitolic, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic, 3-O-trans-pcoumarylalphitolicacids; and zizyphus saponins I, II, III, jujuboside B, spinosin and swertisin[48].
  • Uses :
  1. Traditional uses :
  • The fruits of untamed trees are believed cooling down, anodyne, astringent, stomachic, stypic & tonic. The kernels are reported to truly have a sedative effect & for rest from abxominal pain in being pregnant. They are also given as antidote to aconite - poisoning and used in poultices & other program for wounds. The seeds are being used as antidiarrhoeal.
  • Leaves are ingested with catechu as astringent. It really is regarded as diaphoretic and are recommended for typhoid in children. Also, they are used as poultices. In soar throat, a leaf decoction is used as gargle.
  • Paste of leaves and twigs are put on abcess, comes and curbuncls to market suppuration and stangury.
  • Bark may also be used in india for tanning purposes. A decoction of bark is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. It is also used as astringent in gingivitis. Juice of bark is purgative and externally put on gout & rheumatism.
  • Decoction of main is effective in fever & powder of root is utilized for old wounds an ulcers[49].
  1. Scientifically proven uses :
  • Antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous components of leaves has been examined on hyperglycaemia induced by oral administration of glucose in rabbits.
  • Anti carcinogenic activity of leaf draw out has been examined. Extract has demonstrated significant action on cancer tumor cells.
  • Anti ulcer activity likewise have been assessed by using anti ulcer models in rats.
  • Survey of literature reveals that plant has been reported for antiteroidogenic, antianxyiolytic, sedative and hypnotic.
  • Also it offers antimicrobial and radioprotection[50].

Division of pharmacology, RIPER, ATP. Site 32

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