Evaluation and RESEARCH STUDY of Factors and Implementation of Organization


Organizational change is a very common idea found among successful companies. To make the business productive it plays a significant role. In the early 1990s due to increased competition in global overall economy, new technologies, extending markets leads to more rapid change. As a result the management techniques had been revived. Normally most people have negative judgment towards change. This is because of their uncertainties of loosing something. They have the incomplete knowledge of change process which will have an effect on their job personal life and workload. To overcome these negativity Oliver Recklies offered the idea that management need to keep in mind those negative side-effects of change in order to achieve the expected positive results. All the employees of the organization should participate for the success of project. The process of change is the nonstop implementation of procedures and set ups to changing exterior conditions. Change is not the exception but a reliable ongoing process. As John Naisbett said that 'a modern culture in which we you live have been moving from old to the new. And we are still in movement experiencing disorder'. The surroundings of the business, even socially and politically is definitely changing.

We are always looking for newer and better ways. The globalization and inter-cultural exchange had made us more susceptible to change than previously. The organizations need to adopt new technologies and management ideas for betterment. The strategic importance on cost trimming and competitive helps it be even more important to be open to change somewhat to withstand it. It is vital to accept the change in any form like practical, structural, functional, or strategic.

It is very difficult to explain change because every firm has different criteria. Each company has different challenges. Also each company has different plans, resources, and culture. The leader of each business has different aim and objectives. To be able to survive in the time of crises each corporation should take up the change without any fear. (Supreet Ahluwalia and Vivek Joshi, 2006)

Factors influences change

There will vary factors which affect organizations change. These factors can be exterior (technology, Government guidelines, communal pressure, cost of fresh material etc) or interior (change leadership, drop in profit, union action etc). in this era of globalization the mostly seen organizational changes are implementation of new technology, mergers and downsizing.

In today's business environment and within its competitive panorama, change management is taking care of to guarantee the business right over the group and within each of computer individual departments is continually embracing change and researching and altering within itself to do the best it are able to, to get to the top, to stay on top.

Change Management is a firm's capability to implement and keep maintaining changes to its strategy, composition and its people that will lead to the firm achieving the business results it seeks. Change management is a way of business improvement for organizations.

Figure 1: Phases of change

If group is not in a continuous phase of change management and regularly assessing and altering then business may be at best average within its industry. For a few organizations this means they may be going backwards and finally bankrupt. Only those companies may survive which can adjust to changes.

This change management model follows all other change management models and theories. Every group can be summed up to be a combination of these three elements which includes the structure, the people and the strategy. Any change in virtually any area of an organization will have an effect on at least one or many of these elements.

Figure 2: Three elements for change

The composition is the systems are process with physical resources that support the tactical objectives of the organization. Change management specialists will review complete and properly structured management operating-system (MOS).

The people involved in this technique are stakeholders, resourced people, and management team. Everyone involved n this technique should be well informed and centered on the right things. They must communicate with each other.

Figure 3: people entail in change management

The strategy is the technique for achieving the prospective of the organizations existence. Change management strategy provides the highway map used for directing firm from where it is now to where you want it to visit.

The Skill of Change Management

Managing change in the workplace while guaranteeing the businesses strategy is on the right path. This can be achieved by the support of folks and structure elements towards attaining the organizations corporate and business strategy.

Phases of Change

Organizational change involves worries of reduction inherent in this process, and this reduction is mostly noticed by employees. The Kubler Ross Grief Model addresses the mental issues associated with change. The four emotional states experienced throughout the change process may be expressed by employees in behaviours that are hurdles to the procedure of change. This model consists of four stages given below:


The first psychological condition during change is denial. This is actually the stage where employees don't believe that this is happening to them. They have certain worries and these worries should be resolved during this period. This fear can be reduced by taking them in self confidence. Fear and mistrust need to be replaced by acceptance.

Resistances to change

The second emotional state is amount of resistance to the change process. Amount of resistance is natural reaction to change. Eric B. Dent and Susan Galloway Goldberg (1999) discuss their research on the roots of this notion and the common idea that professionals must conquer this level of resistance or are doomed to inability. Kurt Lewin, the mid-twentieth-century communal psychologist, introduced the word "resistance to improve" as a systems principle affecting professionals and employees evenly. As we realize that folks of any group are generally resistant to change. Corresponding to Scott & Jaffe 'resistance is a stage that ends as individuals start to separate from days gone by & are more confident of their capabilities. They play their role by their involvement to reduce level of resistance to change'. For example, competition might pressure a business to arrange work around procedures to improve functioning efficiencies. Functional departments involved in these processes would be put together. Employees might not see a dependence on this change. The reason why for change must be fully explained so that employees realize why it is necessary to embrace the change. Chew (1990) studied the situation of Machinists' Mutiny. In his research he uncovered that scheduled to poor planning and implementation the change is halted due to employee resistance. This information also contains expert ideas that firm should take up so they may have better execution of change

Once people are convinced that change is necessary, its time to move forward with execution and consolidation of change. The reaction to resistance is vital. Forcing compliance may increase resistance. Those damaged by the change probably know a lot about what must put into practice something new, and their input is important to the change process. The degree to which employees will support your brand-new initiatives depends upon how many of these recommendations are being used.


The third mental state came across is exploration. employees will search new roles if they are incapable to stop the changes. In such a stage both individual role as well as the group role are defined. it's important that unresolved conditions that continue to surface be attended to during this level. One should be equipped for the negative reaction of the worker. Those individuals should be warned at the first indication of falling back again to old behaviours. This negative response can be changed to the positive if trust can be created among groups.


The final mental state is commitment to the change initiative. Mutual commitment is established for the change work. Obstructions have been removed and the target is on successful implementation of the changes.

Models of the change process

After years of failed change work, researchers say that knowledge of the change process is crucial. To thrive we need to know successful change during and before the change process. A couple of five most popular types of the change process(Lewin's three-step change model, Kotter's eight-step plan, Harris's five-phase model, Fullan's change themes placed, and Greiner's six-phase process). However in this survey we will discuss only two of these.

Lewin's Three-Step Change Model

Change will involve a collection of organizational operations that occurs over time. Lewin (1951) advises this three step process. These steps mostly involve reducing the forces acting to keep carefully the firm in its current condition.




Figure 4: Three step model


This is the first rung on the ladder which is accomplished by launching new information that points out failure in today's state. Crises often arouse unfreezing. This turmoil can be anticipated to upsurge in staff, demographic shifts, and an urgent strike. This isn't necessary that during unfreezing turmoil always arise. For identifying problem creating areas in organizations financial data, local climate analysis and enrollment projections can be used.


Once the organization is unfrozen, it can be modified by moving. This task generally requires the change in framework, development of new specifications, attitudes, and behaviors. Some changes may be modest and require a few users.


The final step is refreezing that involves stabilizing the change. In this task mainly the changes in organizations plan, organizational culture, or changes in organizational composition often accomplishes.

Kotter's Eight-Step Model

John Kotter (1996) of Harvard College or university developed a more detailed procedure for managing change that was based on Lewin's three-step change model. the steps involved in this model receive below.

Establish a sense of urgency: Unfreeze the organization by building a convincing reason behind change

Create the guiding coalition: Generate a cross-functional, cross-level group of men and women with enough capacity to lead the change.

Develop a perspective and strategy: Create a vision and strategic plan to guide the change process

Communicate the change eyesight: Create and implement a communication strategy that consistently communicates the new eyesight and tactical plan

Empower broad-based action: Eliminate barriers to change, and use goal elements of change to change the organization. Encourage risk taking and creative problem handling.

Generate short-term wins: Plan for and create short-term "wins" or advancements. Recognize and pay back people who donate to the wins

Consolidate benefits and produce: The guiding coalition uses credibility from short-term wins to generate more change. Additional people are brought into the change process as change cascades throughout the business. Attempts are made to reinvigorate the change process.

Anchor new methods in the culture: Reinforce the changes by highlighting links between new actions and operations and organizational success. Develop solutions to ensure management development and succession.

Types of Change

Change can be categorized into four categories, structural change, cost change, process change, and cultural change.

Structural change occurs when there is an alteration to the business's organizational composition. This reorganization may occur scheduled to a merger. For example, an organization that is intent on increasing its advancement may reorganize its traditional efficient structure into a far more flexible matrix composition that uses small, self-managed teams. Or, an organization that is expanding into new market segments may choose a divisional framework where different geographic locations operate nearly independently of one another.

Cost changes are the ones that occur when an organization attempts to reduce costs to be able to improve efficiency or performance. Major alterations may be produced to departments to cut costs; reducing finances, laying off employees in redundant positions, and getting rid of nonessential activities may all be considered a consequence of cost change.

Process changes are put in place to improve efficiency or success of organizational types of procedures. This may occur in production configurations; there could be changes to how a product is created, assembled, packaged, or transported. Or, in a service organization, there could be changes to the types of procedures used to perform work; new computer systems may create the need to change how paperwork is completed, or a fresh manager may change the process used to take care of customer issues.

Cultural changes are the least tangible of all types of change, however they could possibly be the most challenging. An organization's culture is its distributed set of assumptions, ideals, and values. A prototypical culture is the very bureaucratic, top-down style in which stableness and standard processes are respected. When this organization tries to look at a more participative, involved style, this requires a switch in many organizational activities. Generally, manager-employee relations are altered with a big change in culture.


Management must have a number of steps for the correct execution of change. The first step in putting into action change involves people of higher management and professionals. For instance, within an organization new computer system is usually to be installed in every its areas. Then they major personal aren't only top management but also lower-level managers who supervise the employees for the use of the new technology. Another group of key people would be engaged in a cost-cutting change. If the company is minimizing its operating budget in a specific division, the managers of that department and also recruiting personnel should be engaged. The human source department is involved if there is change to employees policies or in which demotions, transfers.

After key workers have been identified and properly engaged, the second part of applying change is to build up an idea for effective change. The program should help to define the obligations of the main element people included. Also placed short-term and long-term targets for the changes. Because change can be unstable, the plan also needs to be adaptable enough to accommodate new occurrences.

The third step in applying change is to aid the plan. This calls for the management. This key step consists of facilitating employees to accept the change. The organization should supply the basic support to the employees like training, pay back system etc. if group does not provide this type of support there are opportunity for the inability of the plan

Change process is the final step of booming change implementation. Connecting with the staff about the change and its importance will be very helpful through out the procedure. As we realize that change can create fear in employees also to relax them increased communication can help a great deal. Professionals should carefully listen to all their question and their advises to defeat their fear. Creating opportunities for employee responses, such as having meetings or having an open-door management coverage may aid change more efficiently. (Wendy H. Mason, 2003)

Abrahamson (2000) gave the view of "Change without Pain". The primary theme in this specific article was change must happen, but change will not will have to be troubling to the organization. The author thinks companies "should intersperse major change initiatives among carefully paced cycles of smaller, organic change, using operations. The author telephone calls this "tinkering and kludging. By inserting small changes between large changes, companies can control change through dynamic stability. Dynamic balance is an activity of continual but relatively small change work that require the reconfiguration of existing methods and business models rather than create new ones" The goal of dynamic steadiness is to create a change that can be sustained long lasting, not just in the short term. To achieve active stability the top and small changes must be achieved at the right time, at the right speed and the organization must "tinker and kludge". "Tinkering" is taking a current process and making small changes to it. That is done at a low cost to the company and the email address details are often extremely swift. "Kludging", on the other hands, is tinkering but on a larger scale. "Kludging" talks about outside resources for increased parts or procedures and talks about the unused resources within the business. Many companies don't realize they may have resources not being used because the operations using the resources are to decrease to fully utilize the capacity of the source of information.


This case study was predicated on an organization called Trail Processing which produces wire crane components. This research was done by Chew(1990). The company was a mid-sized company set up to run high volume jobs on manual equipment. But with today's economy and competition, Path determined the best money was at low volume careers. The Chief executive of Trail decided to generate new technology to displace the old machines. He explored the new machines and decided to bring in eight flexible creation skin cells which would replace twenty-eight old six-spindle screw machines. Since this was new technology and training would be needed an idea was organized to set up teams, one for every cell, and the company would stage in the new machines. Each team would be trained and they would develop and run their own cell. Once one cell was on-line a fresh cell team would start up until all eight cells were on-line. The first five clubs went through the process fine, but at team six the company possessed a problem. Team six consisted of men who was simply at the business a long time. The team went to the leader and informed him they refused to switch to the new machines. They felt the old machines were running fine and the new machines didn't show the expected advancements, so they wanted to continue focusing on three six-spindle screw machines. At this time the president had to see whether he wanted to keep going with the job or adjust it to keep a few of the old machines. Some management workers felt that if the new cells were heading to work, a clean rest had to be created from the old machines. Others experienced that because the productivity gains were not being seen yet by the new cells, the probability of keeping the old machines for a short time might be a good idea. The situation ends without a decision being made by the company. Four experts in businesses management give their opinions on the problem. Only one from the four said the company should continue on with the initial plan and if the customers of team six leave the company then it's the price to be paid for improvement. The other three are quick to point out the president made a wrong assumption in the planning. He assumed that by bringing in new technology productivity would improve. That is an incorrect assumption because technology is merely as effective as the business and the way the company works. Among the experts highlights "truly focusing on how the complete system plays together, and not just employing the latest strategy, means bridging the space between the emotional and the complex. The president didn't note that by bringing in new technology it could change the culture of the shop floor. Men who possessed years of experience on the old machines and were in seniority would be at the same level or lower than the younger more computer literate employees. This would be a huge culture change for the employees. A lot of the experts suggested slowing down the rest of the cell startups and specifically handling the concerns of the men on team six. If team six's concerns are not addressed there may be more issues with all of those other teams. This information proved a good picture of what sort of company has to start major changes, especially ones impacting the culture of the business. The expert viewpoints enhanced this article and I'd highly recommend this article since it is an exemplory case of a case that is played out in companies around.


Today change is the required of success and a way of undertaking your business. Every

Organization or firms should under go change with the passage of time otherwise will make it through. This change along its success also brings concern with employees to emerge from their comfort areas to uncomfortable zone. this leads to resistance to improve. How effectively and effectively the most notable management and authority within the business address these issues and how well are they put together to take care of the resistance will decide the faith of the organization and its own success in implementing change. The need for good communication system and the role it takes on in make change process smooth and less painful can't be undermined.


Following are some recommendations.

Managers should enhance their interpersonal and communication skills so that they could help their employees overcome the discomfort associated with change.

Tell people the truth and give as much information as possible. Keep giving information at the earliest opportunity.

Give them time for you to digest the news headlines.

Give them a chance to vent there could be anger because this is normal reaction.

Listen to personnel and their concerns don't interrupt them to allow them to reduce their dread.



Abrahamson, E. (2000). "Change Without Pain. " Harvard Business Review, 75-79.

Chew, W. (1990). "THE SITUATION of the Machinists' Mutiny. " Harvard Business Review, 4-8. )

Dent, Eric B. , and Susan Galloway Goldberg. "Challenging 'Resistance to Change. '" Journal of Applied Behavioral Research (March 1999): 25.

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business University Press

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in sociable science. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Oliver Recklies "Managing Change - Explanation und Phases in Change Operations" www. themanager. org/strategy/change_phases. htm. (seen on 12 of November)

Supreet Ahluwalia and Vivek Joshi (2008)managing Change in an Business. http://www. indianmba. com/Faculty_Column/FC707/fc707. html (utilized on 13 of November)

Wendy H. Mason (2003) "ManagingChange"www. referenceforbusiness. com (utilized on 12 of November)

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