Posted at 04.10.2018
Bangladesh is a developing country of South Asia. It gained freedom in 1971 from Pakistan after nine month long conflict. Bangladesh has a parliamentary democracy, where the president is the head of the state. But the Prime Minister, as the top of the government, forms the case and performs the daily affairs of their state. The main aim of the war of freedom was the monetary and social independence. It really is still stay a dream as a result of political instability and insufficient long-term planning and execution. Now the country is crisscrossed by various problems such as over populace, widespread terrorism, political crisis, bureaucratic corruption, economic recession, serious common poverty, and an increasing danger of environmental pollution. It really is true that all this problems are interrelated and inter based mostly in a few ways. The population problem is the major which influences the other problems. Politics instability creates pub for taking necessary steps to provide justice and guideline of laws. In addition, about 40 percent of total human population is suffering from serious poverty. The financial growth is leaner in comparison to the other producing countries. The other major obstacle to progress is the corruption which directly affects the image of the united states to the rest of the world and also to the investment. It leads the country to administrative weakness and poor governance. The environmental pollution including air, water and land pollution leads the country to increasing floods and cyclone. Only 17 percent of the total land is forest and the ratio is going down day by day. Due to over inhabitants, Dhaka, the administrative centre city is currently one of the highest polluted cities on the planet. For last few years, Bangladesh is known as to be most vulnerable to climate change. It'll have an impact on food and agriculture, normal water and human being health. It is believed that a lot of people are going to be climate refugee because of growing sea level.
It holds true that, there are some progresses also. Inside the recent years, there are some accomplishments in many regions of economic and communal development such as macroeconomic balance, growth in exports and in remittances, upsurge in enrolment in key education, advancements in female's education, and reductions in newborn and maternal mortality rate, improvement in women's empowerment and involvement in economic activities etc. The development of Bangladesh in essence requires democracy and good governance. Only sovereignty was received but rule of law, good governance continues to be a long way off. A corrupt syndicate created a vicious pattern of exploitation so that as axis of violent politics & poor governance. But good governance is the precondition for any financial development & stableness.
The democratization process has reawakened the aspirations of the people of Bangladesh. Following a creation of the parliamentary form of authorities in 1991, Bangladesh has began the journey to democracy. Folks are now wishing to see good governance flourishing everywhere in the state organs and corporations. However, the path of democracy seems to face both challenges and opportunities. Even though lots of factors seem to positively help the gradual and steady development of democracy, there are strong depressing elements that also present threats to achieve lasting development.
The primary target of this paper is to recognize the problems and potential customers of promoting good governance in Bangladesh and also to that end, it presupposes to respond to a number of questions. What's the idea of good governance? Is good governance is essential for sociable development and politics cohesiveness? What exactly are the characteristics and features of practice of governance here? What is the root of the problems of good governance towards ecological development? In what ways, the inconsistency between the political use of the term and its genuine execution can be minimized?
This newspaper is a demonstration of the idea of governance, good governance, components of good governance, good governance in Bangladesh and Role of different actors in guaranteeing good governance in Bangladesh. The paper is dependant on secondary information, which include recent publications, journals, catalogs, and research records. Relevant literature in addition has collected through Internet surfing around.
Structurally, the newspaper has been divided into five sections. The technique and theoretical construct have been reviewed in the second section. The 3rd section is dedicated to the conceptual examination of good governance. Section four is designed to focus on the critical evaluation of good governance in our country where in fact the constraints and opportunities are reviewed. Some suggestions and directions necessary for furthering requirement are posted in section five.
The idea of "governance" is currently most used term in the study of society and development. Now the idea is being used generally in developing countries to accomplish sustainable development management. There are various explanations of governance and good governance.
"Governance" means: the process of decision-making and the procedure where decisions are carried out (or not integrated). Governance can be used in a number of contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, countrywide governance -and local governance. " (http://www. unescap. org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance. asp)
According to V. K. Chopra, good governance is "a system of governance that can unambiguously identify the basic principles of the society where principles are economic, political and socio-cultural issues including human rights, and follow these values through an accountable and honest administration. " (Chopra, V. K. , "The mirage of good governance", Towards good governance, eds; chopra, S. K. , Konark web publishers Pvt. ltd. Delhi-110092, p. 32, 1997. )
The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the business of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) discovered some aspects of good governance. (Ibid, p. 3) A few of these are:
1. The campaign of democracy and available pluralistic societies;
2. The Building up of transparent, accountable, efficient and effective countrywide and municipality;
3. The promotion of value for individuals right;
4. The reinforcement of rule of legislations, including good and accessible legal and judicial systems;
5. The promotion of independent mass media and the dissemination of information;
6. Anti-corruption initiatives; and
7. Efforts to lessen excessive military expenditure.
There is not a complete and widespread recognized explanation of good governance. In general, good governance means such a perfect regulating system that is expected for politics, social, economic, ethnical and human development of a land. This system functions circumstances most efficiently to accomplish self-reliance, communal justice and sustainable development.
In this respect we have to discuss the elements of good governance for better understanding.
The US Development Program (UNDP- "Governance and Sustainable Human Development, 1977) has discovered five basic principles of good governance, that are the following:
1. Legitimacy and tone of voice - all men and women should have a speech in decision-making either directly or through legitimate intermediate corporations that stand for their intent.
2. Path - market leaders and the general public have a broad and long-term point of view on good governance and human being development, a long with a sense of what's needed for such development.
3. Performance - Companies and processes try to serve all stakeholders and organization produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources.
4. Accountability - decision-makers in federal, the private sector and civil contemporary society organizations are accountable to the general public.
5. Fairness - All women and men have opportunities to improve of maintain their wellbeing and legal shape work should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on individual rights.
D. Bandyopadhyay ("Administration decentralization and good governance", Towards Good Governance, eds; chopa, S. K. , Konark web publishers Pvt. ltd. Delhi-110092, p. 32, 1997), recognized some of the main components of 'good governance, like:
1. Accountability - both financial and politics;
2. Transparency both financial and political;
3. Access to information;
4. Participation in decision making and execution;
6. Successful delivery system of services and goods;
7. Enforcement of guideline of laws supplanting the guideline of whims and caprices of rulers whether stipendiary or elected;
8. Customer/ resident satisfaction; and
9. An overall caring and humane atmosphere promoting an equalitarian and equities public and monetary order.
In the article, Road Map to Good Governance in Bangladesh, Syed Ahsanul Alam used nine conditions of good governance to determine whether a country qualifies to obtain good governance. These are,
1. Indie and Non Partisan Election Commission
2. Separate Judiciary and the Rule of Law
3. Independent Advertising and Independence of Speech
4. Independent Anti-Corruption Commission
5. BUYING the People
6. Separate and Effective Parliament
7. Independent People Rights Commission
8. Separate Ombudsman System
9. Investment Friendly Federal.
(http://bangladeshwatchdog. blogspot. com/2007/02/road-map-to-good-governance-in. html)
He proposes these nine components to be referred as the Nine I's of good governance or Nine 'I' model of good governance. In the absence of this Nine I's good will be a very good cry. Mr. Alam examines the Nine I's of Good governance the following:
Independent Election Commission payment: Individual and Non Partisan Election Percentage is a precondition free of charge & fair elections. The good elections can make responsible leadership. This can give the land a representative parliament, where individuals of their state can take part in the decision making process.
Every resident and the organs of the government will be follow the law. Rule of laws and 3rd party judiciary system is essential for promote calmness and human rights. Moreover,
it really helps to make authorities departments accountable to the other person and to individuals.
For expanding countries, like Bangladesh, freedom of peace is crucial to market good governance. The self-employed multimedia can play a vital role to build awareness among peoples about their protection under the law and tasks. This freedom can also ensure the accountability of the general public institutions and insurance policies. The more peoples get access to information, a lot more their protection under the law will be anchored.
Good governance also means combating corruptions as it damages economic growth, foreign investment to the producing countries. So, it is a must to fight corruption. Indie anti-corruption fee can play role to prevent problem from the all industries of a nations.
Good governance requires that administration to purchase people to protect their welfare. This consists of invest in health care, nutrition, housing, education, and poverty elevation etc. In general, a positive economical environment is necessary to serve the country effectively and successfully. The other components are mentioned earlier in this review.
According to the UN Economic and Social Commission payment for Asia and the Pacific, Good governance has eight major characteristics. Those are: Participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and successful, equitable and inclusive and practices the guideline of legislations. The commission figured out these issues as following:
Figure 1: Characteristics of good governance
Elements of good governance: Bangladesh point of view:
It is important to discuss these characteristics and elements to learn how flexible today's situation of Bangladesh for promoting good governance.
Participation of people in decision making process is an integral thing of good governance. Contribution could be either immediate or through institutions or associates. The civil population has an influential involvement in decision making in Bangladesh. But the political culture is not good enough to support this positive affect. The media play bias role sometime because of their own interests. Involvement should be educated and organized. But the role of civil population and corporations are either challenging or overlooked by the insurance plan makers.
Rule of law
Rule of legislation is a precondition of good governance. To ensure good governance in status a fair and impartial legal framework is essential. Additionally, it calls for cover of human privileges. Impartial enforcement of laws and regulations requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible administrative system. However the situation is much less easy as we can easily see in Bangladesh. The Berlin-based international anti-corruption firm, Transparency International (TI) released its gross annual Corruption Conception Index (CPI) for 2008 on Sept 2008. The index provides global rank of countries in terms of political and administrative corruption. It demonstrated that Bangladesh have scored 2. 1 items in a scale of 0-10, and has continued to be placed low - 10th from below, which is 147th among 180 countries. Bangladesh was earlier placed at the very bottom level of the list for the fifth successive year from 2001-2005. In 2006 Bangladesh was placed in no 3, and this past year 7th. (http://www. ti-bangladesh. org/Annunal_Report_2008f. pdf)
Transparency is the best way to take decisions and to enforce them within rules and regulations. To promote transparency in decision making process, it's important to make the information available and accessible to the people who will be damaged by such decisions and their enforcement. It also requires that enough information should be provided in easily understandable varieties and media. The issue with Bangladesh is the fact most of the peoples are illiterate and do not get access to information. Poverty is the primary cause of illiteracy and ignorance. They don't have clear idea about general population service. The federal government officials are not interested to market rural peoples with sociable services like education, health, sanitation, and other social services. It is because of insufficient transparency in public sector.
Reasonable timeframe is essential to serve good governance to its themes. All processes and steps should maintain proper time to provide proper management. The execution of projects in Bangladesh is very slow-moving in comparison with other growing countries. For instance, Japan's future development assistance to Bangladesh reaches risk as the federal government has failed poor implementation of Japanese-funded projects. The slow execution of tasks is also slowing down the disbursement of Japanese lending options focused on development projects in Bangladesh. Japan International Assistance Firm (JICA), the development arm of the world's second major economy, examined that japan authorities could disburse only 30 % of its focus on to invest 12 billion yen (around US$ 130 million) to put into practice the ongoing JICA-funded project. "Japan is currently worried about how exactly the government would meet up with the rest of the 70 % of the target in next 90 days, " said Mayumi Endoh, older representative of JICA. (http://www. thefinancialexpress-bd. com/2010/01/02/88410. html)
There are several stars in a given world. Good governance requires negotiation of the several interests of those actors in society to reach a wide agreement in society on what is in the best interest of the complete community and how this can be fulfilled. It also requires a wide and long-term point of view for sustainable human development. A knowledge of the social and public contexts of an society can only just provide such consensus. In the case of Bangladesh, the gap between the rich and poor is too big and it impacts the harmony of the social agreements. Economic condition hampers the connection between the classes in the culture. It is stated that the urban citizens are eating the almost all of the facilities provided by the federal government where rural people are deprived of basic needs such as clear water, proper sanitation, infrastructural facilities, and quality education and so forth. This deprivation results an imbalance in world. We can compare the literacy rate between rural and metropolitan human population to justify the realities. The Literacy Evaluation Review (LAS) 2008, conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Information (BBS), exhibited that the rural people remain lagging behind in education than the urban people. Only 46. 4 % adult rural populace (15 years and above) is literate, 10. 3 per cent less than the metropolitan literacy rate of 56. 7 per cent. The LAS 2008 revealed that the richest people are the most literate than other wealth-level group in the world. Total 76 per cent of the richest are literate in the country accompanied by 64 % of the abundant, 51 per cent of the middle class, 39 per cent of the poor and 28 per cent poorest.
(http://www. thefinancialexpress-bd. com/2009/01/03/54947. html)
Equity and inclusiveness
A society's wellness depends on ensuring that all its associates should feel their presence in the culture. Particularly the most vulnerable, should have prospects to boost their condition. This concept is much more likely related with the concept of agreement between the stars of the culture. It depends upon the socio-economic culture of any country.
Effectiveness and efficiency
The more General public administration will be useful, the greater good governance will be provided. The public institutions should provide services with effectiveness and efficiency. This is a basic requirement of good governance. Your choice making process have to meet the needs of culture while making the best use of resources. The idea of efficiency in the framework of good governance also protects the sustainable use of natural resources. Corruption and bureaucratic complexity are great obstacles to help make the public procedures effective and effective in Bangladesh. Another reason behind the indegent management system is political instability. The long-term jobs are being hampered by the politics instability in Bangladesh.
Accountability is a key responsibility of good governance. It is determined by the transparency and the guideline of law. Not merely governmental organizations but also the private sector and civil contemporary society must be responsible to the public and their institutional stakeholders. Accountability provides better service and stops corruption in organizations. That is why a business or an organization should be accountable to those who'll be affected by its decisions or activities. The problems with poor governance in Bangladesh are almost interrelated and interdependent. The politics culture and socio-economic point of view of this country is not and only accountable supervision and general public services. The federal government in Bangladesh is accountable to its things through the nationwide parliament, for occasion. But in reality, parliament remains inactive all the year round. It is seen that the majority always want to dominate the other politics parties. Plus the opposition parties are not getting involved with constructive criticism. Private sector is pretty much accountable nevertheless they make an effort to get benefit for the political problems. Civil society and the mass media are now a lot more strong and they have impact on your choice making procedure for the government. But it is common that this ability is often used for the interest of some communities somewhat than for the normal citizens.
According to the World Bank, Bangladesh is now aware of its overall governance environment. (http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/EXTSAREGTOPPRISECDEV/0, , contentMDK:20584870~menuPK:496677~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:496671, 00. html)
The bank finds out some initiatives like, improving core governance systems in regions of open public procurement, financial management, fiscal reporting, and watchdog institutions. Several public supervision reforms have been implemented over the years. They include improvement of your promotion insurance plan training insurance policy for Federal government employees; and creation of your Career Planning and Training Wing in the Ministry of Establishment. the Government issued new annual budget guidelines yo improve open public financial management, over a pilot basis, which contained components of more proper budgeting procedures, better fiscal self-control, and better coordination of recurrent and capital costs. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT also released a thorough Open public Financial Management Action Plan. A strategic development plan is approved to increase revenue collection, developing a more effective organizational composition uniformly and equitably.
The World Bank's Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) for fiscal yr 2006-09 goals three designs:
1. Key Governance: The strategy wishes to improve accountability and transparency by building up 'center' governance corporations including General public Accounts Committee, Bangladesh Loan company, Public Service Percentage, Securities and Exchange Payment (SEC) etc. This 'main' governance requires better transparency in federal government and free access to information by individuals.
2. Investment friendly environment through sectoral governance reforms: The CAS targets reducing administrative obstacles by streamlining regulatory operations, facilitating infrastructure services through commercial zones, and building capacity of federal agencies including the Board of Investment and Export Control Zone Authority.
3. Empowering the indegent: This program will maintain governance reforms and investments in public areas services like health, education, sanitation etc. These initiatives are also part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This initiatives target at the empowerment of poor through contribution.
Md. Awal Hossain Mollah, in the article "Good Governance in Bangladesh: Role of Parliament" recognizes some major problems for ensuring good governance in Bangladesh. They are:
b) Inefficiency of Bureaucracy
c) Political interference in administration
e) Improper and non-observance of the guideline of law
f) Incorrect use of resources
Furthermore, over populace and limited resources, high illiteracy rate, severe poverty are some more obstacles to get proper management in public services and governance.
Good governance can be assured only by the productive participation of all the organs of the culture. Let see the role of key celebrities of the united states to create better governance:
Role of Parliament to promote good governance: Within a democratic system, parliament is the main element indicate ensure good governance. The accountability of the exec power is ensured by the parliament. In Bangladesh, the role of parliament is most important. The parliament exercises its power to control over the federal government. The ministers along with the perfect minister are responsible to the parliament for their actions. This accountability ensures the transparency of the government. Moreover, the opposition gatherings can criticize the actions of the federal government and may take part in your choice making process. That is why, in a democratic system, parliament can play a significant role to increase the quality of governance. Parliamentary debates are strong way to justify a conclusion whether it is good for the nation or not. These debates help administration to purify their planning and actions. That is also a opportunity for the oppositions expressing their opinions towards your choice. Parliamentary committee system is the very best tool of parliamentary oversight. Based on the suggestion of 9th international Anti-corruption meeting (IACC) 10-15, October, 1999, Durban, South Africa, the parliamentary committee should be steadily make committee conference more open and transparent. The committee should elect strong chairs who is able to build consensus across get together lines and oversight Committee should be chaired by opposition users.
Role of the civil society: Civil contemporary society is a strong actor in neuro-scientific democracy. Democratic system requires role of its celebrities to provide the facilities to the people. The civil culture can play prominent role to ensure proper management system of the public services. The organizations and the multimedia are part of civil population plus they have influence on public plan as they can encourage peoples to support or to oppose a general public decision. But it is a subject of great regret that the civil population in Bangladesh is divided for own interest. The neutrality of press is essential to supply the peoples with the information. Political culture of Bangladesh is not and only the factor. However, an alteration is being took place over years. Individuals are actually more mindful about their rights and responsibilities.
Role of Private Sector: The private sector can play a more energetic role for friendly governance. Commercial physiques and business homes can place clear and enforceable guidelines against corruption. Business house management can focus on business ethics to ensure nominal standards of the business. The positive environment running a business and economy can attract foreign investment. The private organizations likewise have affect on major reforms of the government. They can share their opinion to promote good governance.
Role of Institutions: Establishment can guide the modern culture and the power of the state toward getting good governance. Because of this, existing corporations should be strengthened by regulations and should be more independent. Political visit destroys the independence of the corporations like the Individual Privileges Commissions, Anti-Corruption Commission payment, Law commission, Mass media and Press Commission payment.
Role of Press: The development in the number of private electric and print media retailers in Bangladesh has increased. This is because not just the quantity of information available but also for the quality of media. Media is now a strong actor in Bangladeshi cultural and economic culture. The multimedia can prevent corruption by naming and shaming the individuals and organizations. Even in developing countries, where corruption is accepted as a necessary evil, naming and shaming tactic has been effective lately. The press is strong enough to generate outrage one of the people and can use the power to control and eradicate problem and maladministration. There is of course chance to utilize the power in wrong way. However, it is proven that the role and electric power of marketing in the world is vital for creating good governance.
In the dialogue above, I have tried to focus on the problems and potential customers of good governance in Bangladesh. After the study I have some advice to defeat the challenges in order to promote good governance in Bangladesh.
First, almost all of the issues of the country are derived from the populace problem. Because of over population and limited resources, it is actually difficult to provide residents with the basic needs. So, the federal government should take necessary steps to control the growth rate.
Second, democracy is the must once and for all governance. Bangladesh is in the practice in democracy. But to achieve the benefit of democracy it is essential to practice democracy in all organs of their state like institutions, politics get-togethers, NGOs, private sector etc. The institutions should be unbiased in order to promote better services to the public.
Third, strong local government system is essential for Bangladesh as the majority of the people are influenced by the machine. The control of the central authorities hampers the actions of the local organs. Resources syndication will be proper and justified and people will get chance to participate in decision making process.
Forth, red tapism of bureaucracy is a major block to gain good governance. It reduces the efficiency of administration officials. To remove the block the rules of process should be simplified and one stop service should be presented. The peoples should have opportunity to get services with time.
Fifth, Political disturbance in supervision should be withdrawn immediately as it triggers sufferings to the citizen to possess easy access to services. It also causes corruption and destroys impartial administrative system. To recover the problem, mass media and the civil contemporary society can play a vital role. A legal construction can also be launched as a cure of it.
Sixth, good governance requires a first and easy accessible service system. E-governance can be an important step for better and quick service. Although for the poor financial condition of the country is a barrier to the E-governance, authorities should ask co-operation from development associates and organizations.
Seventh, finally a politics commitment is necessary for good governance. Regulations is insufficient to make all the matter authorities aware of the existing situation. Political people are the most powerful and they possess the more opportunity to create understanding among the whole nation.
Bangladesh is a recently independent country. The time is not sufficient for better democratic system. Although some progress can be found in past, but the process is very slow-moving. In the circumstances, the trust of good governance needs have difficulty of all organs of the state of hawaii including political get-togethers, civil society, media, NGOs. Awareness among the list of citizen is required as they must have strong demand once and for all governance. Bangladesh needs development in economy. The democracy should be institutionalized. The government should have satisfied basic requirements of individuals. All these initiatives will be supported and inspired if the effort to promote good governance is accelerate up