Posted at 10.17.2018
Romanticism as a tendency in art work and books of England emerged in the 90th of XVIII century. Romanticism in Great britain took shape earlier than in other EUROPEAN countries, it acquired its vibrant specificity and individualism. Its most glowing staff were William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, Thomas Moore, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walter Scott, John Keats and others, who have left a rich traditions in the books of Britain and added to the entire world literature.
Romanticism is one of the very most controversial trends in European books, in the books Romanticism is mostly grasped not only as a formal literary craze, but as a certain viewpoint, which is through this viewpoint that we try to explain Romanticism.
One of the top features of Romanticism in Great britain was its wonderful lyric poetry, especially lyric poetry, where the personality of the poet was brightly expressed in whatever he wrote. English poets framed their observations and views in parables, fantastic visions, cosmic symbolism. Sublime things and thoughts were understood by them not only as something exclusive, but that might be present in the simplest things, in everyday life.
One of the characteristics of intimate literature was a special focus on the spiritual world of man, but, in contrast to the sentimental literature, Romantics were interested not in an typical man, but "the exceptional man in the exceptional circumstances". Loving hero is experiencing violent thoughts, is trying for perfection, dreams of a perfect. Romantic hero enjoys and sometimes idealizes the Middle Ages time, "pristine nature", in powerful kinds of which he perceives reflection of his strong and conflicting thoughts.
When characterizing the relation of romantic writers and poets to the world, it is important to point aspiration to the ideal, human being impulses and feelings, the belief that not reasoning and knowledge but intuition and imagination could disclose all the mysteries of life. Nonetheless it is aspiration to the ideal, sometimes illusory or unattainable, that lead to rejection of day-to-day life which did not meet that ideal. Therefore, the passionate heroes possessed an "internal duality", obligated to live in two disparate worlds of the ideal and actuality, sometimes coming in protest not only from the bone of certainty, but also against the divine world order. Here arrived the so-called "romantic irony" of a guy with regards to an established fact, that the common man took critically. In general, the idea is often coupled with irony, this is the peculiarity of British literature by any means periods of its development.
English Romantics were especially thinking about social problems, as to the modern bourgeois world they compared the old, pre-bourgeois relationships, they glorified nature and simple, natural thoughts. Bright rep of English Romanticism is Byron, who, corresponding to critics, "clothed in a boring hopeless romanticism and selfishness. " His works are filled with pathos of have difficulty and protest against the modern world, glorifying liberty and individualism.
Understanding of mother nature and its own image in the works of the Romantics
In the late XVIII - early on XIX century the understanding of dynamics has changed. To begin with, it was associated with changes in life viewpoint and world view of romantics, who then described all the phenomena from another point of view, not the same as the middle ages and enlightenment views. The change in the "philosophy of the world nature" and in knowledge of nature had effects on the intimate image of the landscape: Romantics view the world nature as a simple principle of characteristics, as "weak, vacillating, the least comprehensible & most inexplicable part of nature". With this knowledge of characteristics, the image of dynamics and landscape appeared as dual: the type itself and also the spirit that filled it and "governed" it. Some critics dispute that the difference of the passionate interpretation of the type was in the actual fact that romanticism "tried to carry balance of the world of genuine ideas with the world of tangible and visible things, eradicating their opposition". (Abrams, 1975)
These questions are very important, because the type of charming poetry has kept not only the visual value of imaginative manifestation of its viewpoint, but and yes it reflected a truly serious ideas and experiences, great human emotions.
It is important to stress the actual fact that relating to Romantics, mother nature in general and everything its parts have specific features of the human heart and soul. Though it is important to state that such personalization and conception of dynamics as subordinate to the "world soul" is very important peculiarity of charming literature, because it reflects the condition of man's romantic relationship to the world.
Thus, the so this means of "nature" in the XVIII and XIX centuries was entirely different. What's the something else, something new that distinguishes a romantic view of characteristics from its premises? Scientific books stresses such characteristics of views and behaviour towards mother nature in intimate works:
the deep romanticism subjectivity, the subjectivity of character, precise, individual attitude to the subject matter of nature;
projection of feelings of the copy writer on nature and vice versa;
the recognition of the hypersensitive subject with dynamics;
the animation of mother nature by subjective emotions of the poet;
passionate romantic relationship of man to characteristics. (Moore J, 2010)
Subjectivity of aspect is a broader strategy than the organic and natural view of Romantics on nature, as this idea unites a wide range of affectionate poets. In British and in German books subjectivity of characteristics is expressed more explicitly than other literatures.
Example of words of Byron, who very often expressed his like to nature, points to the actual fact that the subjective romance with nature is very important feature of Romanticism.
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
There is world, where none of them intrudes,
By the profound sea, and music in its roar:
I love not man the less, but Nature more.
(Byron G. G. , "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage")
The main aspect in the passionate view on the nature is its "subjectivity", the related correlation of the poet's spirits with the natural world. It is a subjective interpretation of mother nature that is extensively used by Romantic poets, and such features as variety of moral epithets, love, and relationship of items with personal - they are decreasing examples of this poetic personality. "Nature knows, is in love with, suffers and dreams, such as a man, and alongside the man". (Moore, 2010)
Thus, the Romanticism is seen as a a feeling of unity between man and mother nature, but this isn't always portrayed in the pantheistic forms, and may be associated with different ideological positions. Furthermore, this unity can action in the varieties of dualistic break up, when nature embodies serenity and harmony, and is also against sufferings and disharmony of individuals relationship. Passionate experience of relationship between your hero and character is inherent to all or any romantics, though it could be shown in another way by different intimate poets. On the main one palm, in their writings dominate the image of surroundings, which demonstrates their seek out beauty, for picturesque images. On the other, they pay more focus on the point out of the real human soul and his emotions, and so the image of mother nature is a projection of the status of the heart, and the poet becomes from the information of characteristics to information of feelings, blending them and showing romance between them. Thus, the declaration of the relationship of character with the interior world of man can be an important practice in works of loving poets. (Perkins, 1994)
It is the hour when from the boughs
The nightingale's high take note is read;
It is the hour when addicts' vows
Seem sweet atlanta divorce attorneys whispered expression;
And gentle winds, and waters near,
Make music to the lonesome ear.
Each bloom the dews have casually wet,
And in the sky the stars are attained,
And on the influx is deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hue,
And in the heaven that clear obscure,
So softly dark, and darkly 100 % pure.
Which employs the decline of day,
As twilight melts under the moon away.
(Byron G. , "Parisina" (st. 1)
It is important to note that for loving poets character was an expression of religious life, where they saw the mirror representation of either their own heart and soul, or the ideal life that constituted the object of the dreams. Therefore, in their works aspect is endowed with more deep meaning, than this is of words.
Animation, humanization of mother nature in perception, imagination was one of the favorite motifs of poets. In contrast to the useless to world, which kills a living spirit in the pursuit of profit, career, electric power, the type comes alive, filled with the spiritual life of people. In this case they usually know the dimensions and wild aspect, untouched by man, which gives slumber, forgetfulness and tranquility. Sometimes the opposition of population and nature took the form of your antithesis of town and country, and then under the type was supposed idyllic countryside, substantially not the same as a stressed and noisy city. As opposed to the false and empty culture, in characteristics everything is simple, genuine and harmonious.
An exemplory case of the poetic chanting of characteristics were the works of lyrical poet John Keats, who composed on the high topics of love, beauty and fine art art. In his poem "Autumn" (1820) Keats gone completely from the mythological imagery, creating an image of fall - the time of a miserable farewell to days gone by before the tough winter. Scenery in the poem is associated with the image of a simple man - a peasant who lives in a perpetual work.
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to fill and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;
To flex with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the primary
(Keats J. "To Autumn", inside the Norton Anthology of English Literature, 2005)
The contradiction between the dream and the truth the intimate poet Keats portrayed as a contradiction between the desired ideal of beauty and bourgeois prose. Keats's admiration for the wonder was not, however, fled from life, from the issues of simple fact. In his poetry, he demonstrated the reality of life, the fact of certainty, he poeticized the beauty that was hidden in life under the cover of some unpleasant things.
But when the melancholy fit shall fall
Sudden from heaven like a weeping cloud,
That fosters the droop-headed bouquets all,
And hides the renewable hill in an April shroud;
Then glut thy sorrow on a morning increased,
Or on the rainbow of the sodium sand-wave,
Or on the prosperity of globЁd peonies;
Or if thy mistress some rich anger shows,
Emprison her gentle side, and let her rave,
And feed deep, deep after her peerless sight.
(Keats J. , "Ode on Melancholy", The Norton Anthology of English Books, 2005 )
Another prominent rep of Romantic literature in Britain was Lord George Gordon Byron. Byron was focused on the educational ideals and aesthetics of classicism, but he was an enchanting poet. In his work the acceptance of the basic rigor and clarity was combined with image of the complicated and ambiguous thoughts, painted in a gloomy ambiance, but also with irony.
The moon is up, yet it is not night;
Sunset divides the sky with her; a sea
Of glory streams across the Alpine level
Of blue Friuli's mountains; Heaven is free
From clouds, but of all colours seems to be.
(Byron G. "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", A Romaunt, Canto IV, XXVII)
In the charming poems we start to see the strong desire to image smart and distinct contrasts, also in the image of characteristics. Romantics often sought to portray a violent dynamics, and Byron seemed liked the the current presence of danger, a surprise for him was symbolic of the great, though often fatal passions.
Roll on, thou profound and dark blue ocean-roll!
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain;
Man marks the earth with ruin-his control
Stops with the shoreline;-upon the watery plain
The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain
(Byron G. "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", Canto II, CLXXIX)
Aspiration to an excellent and admiration of the perfect beauty of the nature are available in the beautiful poems of Percy Shelley. The character of pictures of dynamics by Shelley organically derives from his philosophical views, predicated on the knowledge of the annals of idea from traditional times, from truly encyclopedic knowledge. Shelley sometimes animates the type, gives it consciousness and characteristics of highest creation - he signs and symptoms a hymn to the "Soul of Dynamics", by declaring the complete Universe as its temple. The impact of the materialist: it were ideas of Enlightenment and the Renaissance that performed a decisive role in the advancement of philosophical views of Shelley.
In "Ode to the Western Blowing wind" (1819) the symbolic image of the Western Wind is the idea of renewal of life: the western world wind damages everything old in its route and helps to create new. The lyrical hero-champion is one with the mighty electricity of the Western Wind.
O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,
Thou, from whose unseen occurrence the leaves dead
Are influenced, like spirits from an enchanter fleeing,
Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red
Wild Soul, which art moving all over;
Destroyer and Preserver; hear, O hear!
(Shelley P. B. , "Ode To The Western Wind", I)
Shelley shows the powerful power of the wind flow magically, talking about its role as "destroyer and preserver", by powerful natural metaphors the poet expresses his ideas about the energy and great aftereffect of the type.
Thus, we can easily see that the Romantic poets often proved the type as free, powerful and beautiful world that is different from the human. Especially romantic poets liked to portray the sea in this sense, its boundless opportunity and majestic ability, the wind, which has unlimited vitality and flexibility, and the mountains using their grandeur and sublime beauty. In cases like this, the independence and the energy of natural elements have a figurative meaning, associated with free and powerful individuals spirit.
Romanticism is characterized by a sense of unity between man and characteristics. Consequently, the most of all in the romantic views of characteristics is "subjectivity", the matching relationship of the poet's feeling with the natural world. The loving perception of mother nature is not merely individual attitude of the subject to the exterior world, but the nature really helps to express the frame of mind of individual to the cultural conditions of his life. In the conception and evaluation of the nature is expressed the partnership of the given individual to the public life, to this is of human presence.