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Organisational Theory And Management USED Commerce Essay

An firm is a organized social system consisting of groups of individuals working mutually to meet some agreed-on goals. Organizational theory (OT) is the study of organizations for the benefit of identifying common styles for the purpose of solving problems, increasing efficiency and efficiency, and reaching he needs of stakeholders. Constantly OT can be conceptualized as studying three major subtopics: individual processes, group functions and organizational process. Since organizations consider the field of open public health from free medical center to refugee crisis support teams to research institutions, a knowledge of organizations and exactly how they work, helps open public health professionals to be more effective participants in and market leaders of organizations.

The first evaluate will attempt to perform the huge process of summarizing major principles in organizational theory. The three broad concepts that will be explored include: individual processes, including determination theory, personality theory, and role theory; group steps including employed in groups/communication, authority, and power and effect; and organizational operations, as it relates to organizational composition, and organizational culture.

In the process a basically benefits to choose organizational models may also be provided. Organizational Issues: How well do different units of treatment delivery match one another? For example if the laboratory was contracted out to a laboratory several mls away, the hospital may be limited by the time it requires for medicine to be gathered, transported, analyzed and transported again. This process can also be on a plan, (on the hour or 50 percent hour) which in turn adds the wait time for travelling. An in-house lab staff might be considered, although cost of overhead and staffing would have to be considered because of its cost. What also is the climate in the business, are works overall satisfied, dedicated, feel empowered to deliver excellent care? Has the company build and reinforced a culture of quality?

The second evaluate will keep on, Where is decision-making centralized, and what would be the benefits and cons of diversifying sources of vitality? In light of the patient population needs, what forms of problems are most commonly seen? Standard vs. diversity stresses help guide modes of action. In case a lot of non-acute conditions are offered to a healthcare facility we might want to consider the utilization of an Urgent health care model ancillary to keeping the ER for serious condition. We will believe that severe issues, and staff related issues are not the issue, since resolving them would be self-explanatory. We will consider only changes in organizational structure and design for the sake of relevance to this issue of OT. For example, Queens Hospital consider a new model of care delivery, where the Emergency Department diversifies to a decentralized model of management and gives new settings for care delivery. The brand new process would look something similar to this: Whenever a patient enters a healthcare facility they have emerged immediately by the Triage nurse. The nurse gets the option, after sign up is complete, to 1 of three routes: the nurse can route a patient through the traditional method, to be observed by Emergency room physicians relating to main concern. The nurse can also opt to transfer non-acute patients to urgent care center (an initiative of this hospital or a close center), or to start pre-approved protocols for common conditions, (such as asthma) prior to visitation from the medical professional.

Utilizing this model has a few advantages. By producing the structural complexity, patients can take service initiated and completed at a faster rate. That's not only supply the medical center to see more patients, but it'll improve consumers satisfaction. Also job jobs and duties may raise the motivation of staff by maximizing their control of patient care. Nurses can more effictively utilizie their professional skills and doctors can give attention to patients with conditions or problems that want their skill and training.


Organizational Theory by Kathryn Barzilai

Management and Organisational Behaviour Plus MyLab Access Code by Laurie J. Mullins (Paperback - 27 Apr 2010)

3. 2 Analyse the relationship between management composition and culture and its influence on business performance

Managers are people who guide an organization towards achievement of the business targets (thetimes100, 2010). Management effects the culture of the business. Culture is an intangible group of practises that take their origins from socio, political, religious-norms and worth of the contemporary society. It is the responsibility of management to build up a coherent culture which allows the people of organization to build up their individual and collective abilities. Thus getting the right management framework that would help out with this regard is quite critical.

In the modern business environment when the guidelines for running the business enterprise have been formalized management is in charge of the overall working of the business. The present day business employees the M-form (Multi-divisional form) or U-Form (Unitary form) of management framework with respect to the type of organization. The structure of the company is closely associated with its success (Abe, 1997). By classifying management into these two categories management of modern organizations have been able to give attention to developing a framework that could best meet up with the needs of the organization. Management plays an integral role in inducing the type of organizational culture that could lead to organizational success. Management if effectively utilizes its potential it can cause a culture that would translate into stimulated staff that feel associated with the core values of the organizations. It had been the eyesight of the management of South West Airlines that transformed it into one of the very most successful Low cost airlines of the world. Each member of the organization was appreciated by the business and their views were given important.

Mintzberg recommended a topology of five different configurations of management composition whose various mixtures could be used to manage an organization. These five components include The operation core, the strategic apex, the center lines, the techno framework and support staff ( Bedrouni et. al. , 2009 ). With regards to the what component plays the main element part in the procedures of the business there may be wide variety of coordination mechanism that may run the business. When the proper apex holds the main element, management part that it is able to perform direct supervision of in the staff which is much more control of the business.

As mentioned before every organization has got its own type of culture that is created because of this of several factors. A culture builds over a number of each and it is not easy to identify. According to Harrison culture can be grouped into four different kinds. These four types include Electricity, Role, Process/achievement and Person/Support Civilizations (Harrison, 1986).

In a business power culture hails from a single source. This sort of culture stems in times where there are less techniques involved and customers of the organization put a lot of faith within a person that is at the centre of the net (Naouman, 2001 ). In the modern organizations where people are given lot of importance specific culture could be best suited to describe them. In this kind of culture a great deal of focus is given to the individuals so that their passions are better offered. The challenge with this kind of culture is the fact such individuals cannot be handled easily as firm is too worried about appeasing them. Inside the role culture the emphasis is on the jobs and the culture is associated with content rather than people who are on them. Finally the task achievement culture encourages much more disciplined management style where accomplishment of the targets is of paramount importance.

For successful business functions execution it's important that company that are working their operations overseas are fully alert to the type of cultures that exist in the other countries. E. g. in China people in the very best management position are generally the elderly who are generally respected because of the age. A fresh manager coming from USA needs to be familiar with the social norms of China in any other case he mind up end of upsetting older Chinese representatives and it could create an air of mistrust in the business.

Therefore success of business is directly associated with the induction of your culture that enhances the probable of the company employees and makes them feel sensible towards their company. An organization depending on its industry type must understand that what management style would be best suiting it. Because of non-tangible of culture it is paid less attention to by the senior professionals and later it might give rise to a lot of un-foreseen complication resulting in inability of organizations.


Abe, E. , (1997)The Development of Modern Business in Japan The Business Background Review, Vol. 71. , No. 2, pg299-308

Harrison, R. ( 1986 ) Understanding your organizations culture Harrison & Affiliates Inc. , C. A. Berkley rintegration of mergers and acquisitions Research Convention on the changing roles of management accounting as a control system

The times 100(2010) Management composition and organisation [Online][Seen on 15th November 2010]url:http://www. thetimes100. co. uk/theory/theory--management-structure-organisation--264. php

3. 3 Write about different motivational theories and their program and performance within the workplace

There are a variety of opinions as to what motivates workers. Essentially the most iconic held theories are mentioned below and have been developed during the last hundred years or so. Unfortunately these theories do not absolutely all reach the same conclusions.

Motivation is the stimulus that can either be conscious or unconscious which acts as an incentive for achievement of goal ( Borkowski, 2010). The drive to achieve a goal is dependant on psychological or communal factors. The building block for determination includes expectation, behavior, goals plus some form of opinions ( Srivastava, 2005 ). What this means is an specific may have a number of needs and expectation that could be driven with a person must gain higher position in an organization or to gain some kind of financial benefit. There are many amount of motivational theories. Based on what has been stated in the books motivational ideas have been labeled into two types by Borkowski (2010). These two groupings are based on content and process.

Content theories or the necessity ideas identify various factors that motivate people. It's the individual prefer to satisfy internal needs that motivates them. It attempts to look at the behaviour from the perspective of individual employed in an organization. It is helpful for professionals who want to understand the behaviour of their employees.

The process theory talks about the behavior itself that is produced by the average person. It views that how behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and how it could be ceased (Borkowski, 2010). Motivational ideas have gained significant importance as the co-relation between worker attitude towards his work and its own impact on the quality of work has been analyzed. Motivation is not merely about giving speeches but it is about ensuring higher level of staff satisfaction in the work role they are in. There are a variety of motivation ideas that are in the literature. Two important motivational ideas considered are the following.

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory

It is one of the very most popular theories that are explained about motivation. Corresponding to this theory individuals needs are placed in a hierarchical form ( Koontz & Weihrich, 2006 ). These needs are ascending from the cheapest to the highest. According to Maslow when one set of needs is satisfied at a certain level it forget about becomes a motivational factor and person moves on to another level. The many levels beginning with bottom level up as recommended in the shape are physiological needs, Security or safeness needs, acceptance needs, Esteem needs and Need for self actualization. This theory helps the business in better understanding the needs of its employees. The business are made aware that if indeed they want to satisfy the needs of their employees they have to offer an environment where their individual needs are satisfied on various levels. The categorization of needs into different levels helped in better understanding of how drive works in the business.

Maslow theory though quite daring has been criticized as a simplistic division of individual needs. Based on the critics such as Douglas T Hall and Khalil Nougaim ( Koontz & Weihrich, 2006). The needs the main concern of needs may vary at the very top with regards to the individual.

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Maslow Model (Source: Koontz & Weihrich, 2006 )

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

Herzberg's two factor theory is dependant on the actual research that was completed by Herzberg. For creating his theory he asked lots of employees to recall the instances when they felt encouraged towards their work and the changing times when they felt frustrated. Predicated on what he observed Herzberg suggested that when certain factors can be found in the task environment they lead to desire of workers and this absence causes dissatisfaction of employees towards their work (Davies, 2007). The satisfaction is closely related to the surroundings where employees will work. Therefore management should supply the environment where employees feel satisfied with their work. This may include safe working condition, fair salary and benefits. The criticism of Herzberg theory is the fact motivational factor can be relevant. An individual factor can be motivational for some and may cause job dissatisfaction for other people ( Borkowski, 2010 ) e. g. for a few a certain salary amount might be adequate to inspire them while some could see the same amount as far less and it could adversely impact their motivational level.

The finally, all that great motivation theories does not include same point. Therefore, there is absolutely no single theory that provides the answers to all of the increased questions about desire. What desire is and exactly how it influences a person behaviour varies from specific to individual


Borkowski, N. , (2010 ) Organizational Behavior in Health Care Jones & Bartlett Learning

Srivastava, S. , K. ( 2005 ) Organizational Behaviour and Management Sarup & Sons

Koontz, H. , Weihrich, H. , (2006 ) Basics Of Management Tata McGraw-Hill

Borkowski, N. , (2010 ) Organizational Habit in HEALTHCARE Jones & Bartlett Learning

Davies, S. , J. ( 2007 ) Security Guidance and Management: THE IDEA and Practice of Asset Protection Butterworth-Heinemann

3. 4 Measure the impact of technology on a given organization

Communication technology has involved positive and negative effects on organizational communication, which is communication between people in the same corporation. Organizations you participate in use organizational communication to determine communication habits and systems.

Communication technology, like email and teleconferences, makes organizational communication easy to get at. Using these methods of digital communication can help to make distance a non-factor in organizational communication. And yes it can help you better gather data around the place of work, allowing her to make more knowledgeable decisions, such as how much of a increase you have earned. Technology also creates a far more connected workplace. Electronic communication, like online forums, provides you a spot to complain about work. Managers can buy constructive criticism from your issues and make changes in order to improve the workplace.

In days gone by design and of computer system and products weren't sensitive enough to make use of of ordinary users. They were complicated and could only be taken care of by the expert users. Punch credit cards were given into system that required complicated handling of data. With improvement in both computer hardware and software's duties became simpler and hardware devices became better to manipulate. The top frame computers that required expensive cooling systems, which occupied large office space were replaced by desktops that can now perform the same time with many times increased efficiency in a short span of the time. The paradigm switch in the development of modern technology can be attributed to the introduction of microprocessor. Microprocessor is a tiny intelligent device that needs inputs procedures those produces outputs with a speed that cannot be comprehended by a typical person.

Another account is that could be increased convenience of organizational communication can complicate the limitations between your work life and home life. Be wary of how you use communication technology. For example, it might not be a good idea to simply accept friend demands from managers on social networking websites in order to avoid crossing limitations. Also impact of electronic communication on organizational communication depends upon how management implements the technology in the workplace. For example, email becomes beneficial when used to program a company reaching.

On the other side, hackers are increasing hazards to the network security. they can breach in to the scientific systems to get information about the individuals that they aren't supposed to get. The employees are anticipated to execute their process with more impressive range of reliability. This causes increase in stress level in the task place as failing to complete the duty in an correct manner could threaten the job of a worker. Software's are creation of several months, many years of individual hard work. With the increase in piracy a person might not get rewarded for his efforts. Not everyone contains the right to gain access to the info that is out there in firm system. Unauthorized usage of the organizational resources could result hierarchical standard protocol getting violated and it might pose a challenge to the self-discipline of the business.

Therefore technology has already established a positive impact on the organizational infrastructure in lots of ways. Still it includes caused certain challenges that contain to be handled in the present day business environment.

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