Every four years, the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) begins its famous tournament-"FIFA World Cup". This wearing event brings 32 football teams and thousands of people around the world to remain competitive and remember this great event collectively on a host country. To be always a memorable host of the stimulating program, given country has to prepare a variety of facilities including engineering of soccer stadium. In 2010 2010, those responsibilities were organised by Africans who were responsible as a host of World Glass 2010. (game plan. )
According to "South Africa's successful request for hosting the earth Glass" (South African stadium job), account was consequently put in into the engineering of new stadiums and improving the existed stadiums, amounting to R12 billion ($1. 48 billion) (the economist. ). Because of being the first African country authorised to arrange the World Cup tournament, they attempted to make over its image to the people around the world. As the result, infrastructure development program premiered by South Africa's administration which program was comprised several jobs including to make five new basketball stadium and renovate five existed arenas.
One of the five " new world " Cup stadiums situated in Durban, the 2nd most significant city in Southern African, is Moses Manbhida stadium. As the part of 2010 World Glass program, the Municipality of Durban embarked the job making "Moses Mabhida" stadium in 2005 and completed on time in 2009 2009. Within the view of federal and designers, this project was given credit as a substantial success of Durban city demonstrating African's features. However, some stakeholders argued that this project delivered very seriously failure. As the result of such disagreement, this article will critically discuss why could Mosses Mabhida stadium be defined as "project" and then assess this project success or failing. Lastly, possible advice to improve its result will be provided.
To get started with assessment whether Moses Manbhida stadium has proper character types being "a project", it is important to give the definition of project. According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), project might be thought as "a short-term endeavour undertaken to build unique product or service". Similarly, the British Standard Institute gives explanation that "a distinctive group of co-ordinated activities, with certain starting and completing points, carried out by an individual or organisation to meet specific objectives with defined schedule, cost and performance variables" (as cited in Smith, 2008, p 2). As the effect, it might conclude that the key characteristics of project are having limited working period and resources, being unique, having particular goals and integrating many functions.
As above meanings, Moses Manbhida stadium could be thought as construction project. This is mainly because it is uniqueness and having specific target that had been "the-art landmark sports activities facility with excellent amenities, and a ecological recreational and multi-disciplinary sporting location" ("Mosesmabhidastadium" n. d. , 2011) as well as being a part of the first world basketball tournament in Africa continent. In term of uniqueness, this structure has been honored as a winner in design competition from many organisations due to its "iconic design creating unmistakeable silhouette on the Durban skyline"("FIFAworldcup. durban. gov. za" n. d. , 2010). Corresponding to its notion inspiring by the South African flag in order to signify the unity of different nations, this may be accomplished by building the 350 metres long and 105 metres high span arch possessing the roof structure of the stadium and the top of this arch is above the pitch by 106m (civilprojectonline). This structure contributes the advanced of novelty on executive and designing that possessed never made before in South Africa. It, consequently, is admired as landmark of Durban city being equivalent with Eifel Tower in France and London Vision in britain. Furthermore, this task was tied to time, which must complete before the tournament beginning, and finance allocated by FIFA. In order to study its characteristics intensely to ensure being truly a project, the further evidences could be summarised in stand 1.
Table 1: Facts confirming Moses Manbhida stadium is project.
According to the job fundamental by Maylor (2010), Moses Manbhida stadium could be showed as "job" as follows;
Defining start -complete time and limiting resources
Moses Manbhida stadium was obviously set to get started on and complete in March 2006 and November 2009, respectively. In addition, limited financial learning resource also allocated by FIFA and South Africa federal government. This, therefore, could demonstrate that this activity was not finite and have exact working agenda.
Moses Manbhida stadium could be appreciated as unique structure in South Africa because of its remarkable design and complexness of engineering. This might be described by the major arch composition which is high around 106 metres above the ground using as way deliver visitors to the very best of stadium experiencing with breathtaking panorama view of city and Indian sea which hadn't performed before in South Africa. (fifaworldcup. durban)
Having specific mission
The particular shoot for this construction was to create a multipurpose stadium web host a wide range of sports such as FIFA World Glass and cultural activities in order to broaden opportunity being one of preferred vacation spot for leisure.
Integrating different activities
Due to its complicated design and anatomist, this work required incorporation on the list of Durban federal government (as customer), consultants (as engineer), companies and suppliers. It had been assumed that the achievement of this project mainly originated from cooperation from African and German consultants, and almost 60 contractors.
Moreover, this also demonstrated a good management and communication between different team. For example, there is a good coordination between African and German developer who were responsible for foundations and major arch, respectively to ensure that the progress would be completed as expectation.
Risk and Uncertainty
According to taking long period to construct, this work acquired problem about growing in material price anticipated to high inflation leading to the project cost was over than budget. This issue was one of uncertainty challenging project administrator to resolve.
Changing organisation or people being sent to
This creativity diversely benefits people in Durban looking at with other stadiums; for case, it's the first sport city intricate facilitating visitors to spend their leisure time through many kinds of activity such as participating sporting event together with shopping with their family while other areas, people can spend their time only for sports program.
By Harrison (1992), the best way to describe list of activities that have to be performed for every project might be known as as "work break down structure (WBS)". This method may assist to divide a sizable work into sub-functions that might be assigned to one person or team being accountable for and then categorise such sub-units into a group of main activities for job. Caused by well defining WBS, it creates reliable budget and clear duties including effective source of information allocation to accomplish the project effortlessly. According to the type of WBS, it might prepare WBS by grouping predicated on activities, functions or feature such as hardware or software (Maylor, 2005). For Moses Monbhida stadium task, its WBS could be broken down predicated on activities, as details in physique 1, since this kind of WBS would help gain more understandable about the engineering process of the task.
Figure 1: Work break down composition (WBS) of Moses Manbhida Stadium
Though WBS has valuable advantages, it does not put each activity to be able based on happening time (xxx). As the effect, WBS might not clarify enough for activity sequence and does not identify critical course of the task as well. This weakness could be fixed by"Gantt chart". Gantt chart could be defined as an instrument linking between time and activities to describe process in collection of the time and determining critical route. This graph is accepted as how to prepare and understand guiding the project overview (Maylor, 2005). To be able to gain more understandable about relationship between tasks and time including frustrating for each activity, the progress of Moses Manbhida stadium can be illustrated by using Gantt chart as depth in figure 2.
Figure 2: The Moses Manbhida Stadium project Gantt chart
Resulting from having appropriate features being a project, the next section then discuss whether this project success or inability. According to the Uk Standard for task management (1996), the achievements of job is evaluated by committing its constraints that happen to be time, cost and quality (TCQ) known as "the Flat iron Triangle" theory. This view was recognized by Oisen (1950) confirming that the Iron Triangle is played out as significant role to assess project success and this traditional measurement is being used regularly today ( as cited in Atkinson, 1999). According to Maylor (2005), the Flat iron Triangle might be defined as just how prioritising time, cost and quality to be able to create as desired goal to attain. This trade-off among three elements will be mixed matching to particular need from stakeholders.
TimeFigure 3: The Flat iron Triangle
To discuss about accomplishment of Moses Manbhida stadium task, it could be analysed independently into three elements. The first part is time that generally options by considering that project could be completed within allocated time (Albert, 2002). This job seems to accomplish according to its program, on November 2009. This could value as crucial success for the management team because during the construction process, this task had confronted with hit by its worker for more than two weeks. Furthermore, this project was interrupted by weather and wind flow condition triggering some business days would be inevitably erased from timetable but this problem did not influenced importantly to hold off. Even this problems are not unique situation to this project and can occur to other project, it represented a good cooperation in general management team, finding the proper solution to turn the normal operation to be performed at the earliest opportunity and lastly the team could deliver this job to client promptly. This was one of an example contributing out of this project to demonstrate the responsibilities that should be performed by job management to solve the immediate problems and bargain and the issue between two people facilitating project sustained easily (Maylor, 2005).
However, this project did not achieve obviously in term of cost as its budget was forecasted at R1. 6billion but eventually actual spending climbed to be R3. 1billion, accounting mainly 93% increasing (www. TheTime, 2010). Among the known reasons for over budget was handling the strike problem by increasing their staff wages and bonus offer over as requesting by the protesters. Another major reason was significant rise in material price purchase throughout that time. Many specialists might believe that the construction job always stresses by situation being over budget. However, it could be argued that the team should mitigate this problem by taking into consideration the risk management process during the planning phase to recognize and reduce possible problem. This is supported by Holt (2004) that risk management is normally thought as control process focusing to reduce uncertainty operation and prevent over budget problem.
In term of quality of product, Hatush (1997) stated that "quality might be assessed by technical standards, function, and appearance. . . required by service or product to satisfy a given need (as cited in Albert, 2002, p125). Because of this, it could determine that this task conformed to its required function and appearance containing almost 80, 000 available car seats with excellent facilities to support the se-mi circular of the tournament and being impressive landmark of the city.
According to trade-off theory, this job might be well balanced to concentrate on time and quality achievement to support the planet Cup tournament so when providing in past paragraphs, it could conclude that project succeeded imperfectly corresponding to over budgeting.
Although delivering by the right time, quality and price is traditional analysis for project success (Albert, 2002), maybe it's argued by Maylor (2005) that the Iron triangle might not be completed for dimension since TCQ theory tends to evaluate during the development process, whereas there are diversified requirements from stakeholders beyond the delivery stage. Similar with Atkinson (1999), it could concur that the Iron Triangle is not appropriate enough to guage for success. This is because such measurement lack to consider the power to organisation and stakeholders adding by project through the post deliver period. A good illustration from Moses Manbhida stadium project is that this task might be measured being success at delivery stage in term of quality and time but this project has been criticised that it could not fulfill users and generate revenue to the company as expectation. As the effect, many research workers have launched new success requirements to mitigate such weakness from TCQ. For example, Atkinson (1999) advised to evaluate by the Square-Rout method integrating the Flat iron Triangle with post-delivery stage criteria.
One of the success criteria, that developed by Shenhar et al (2001), is a multidimensional framework, focusing to measure project in different cycles and perspectives of men and women related to the project. This technique separates standards into four main dimensions distinguishing requirements corresponding to different stakeholders in several stages, as details in desk 2. To be able to improve success on the dimension of Moses Manbhida stdium project, four-success dimensions will be talked about the following;
Table 2: Four Success Dimensions
-Meeting plan goal
-Meeting budget goal
During a project's execution and soon after its completion
Impact on the customer
-Meeting efficient performance
-Meeting complex specification
-Fulfilling customer needs
-Solving a customer's problem
-The customer is using the product
Short-time after delivery
-Creating a large market share
1-2 years after completion
Preparing for the future
-Creating a new market
-Creating a new product line
-Developing a fresh technology
2-5 years after conclusion or longer
As stated by Shenhar et al (2001), this dimensions is made to assess whether project meet with its constraints which, for occasion, are time and budget through the execution. However, it will probably be worth to remember that the success out of this part might not guarantee to attain for long-term aim and be valuable to the company as expectation.
By the first sizing, it could analyse that the stadium may achieve in term of their time but it fails according to cost managing as discussed in previous paragraph. The further exploration could be performed analyzing the key reason of over budgeting and may realise that it mainly originated from inefficiency during planning phase that the team didn't consider the chance of price fluctuation on materials. Consequently, there is no intend to mitigate this problem causing the price tag on project double increase undoubtedly (African business, 2010).
This dimension focuses on whether anticipations including technical specs and efficient requirements from customer could be performed by project. Within the view of Shenhar et a (2001), this factor immediately relates with customer's satisfaction. It is therefore one of the main parts measuring the achievement. Corresponding to assessing this project, it could be noticed that although there was no complaint relating with specialized problem through the World Cup event, this project could not be appreciated as successful job appointment required performance. This is because this stadium initially expected to use as the new sport complex arranging the national sporting events, especially rugby and cricket which are the most favourite athletics among African people, but its construction could not meet with user's requirements. This stadium was created being a basketball stadium without considering specs required by rugby and cricket team who mainly symbolized as long-term users to generate income to the job. As stated by Brain, rugby representative, he criticised that "this project could be appreciated as useless job and waste money donating by Durban people greatly" (as cited in timeonline). As the effect, this could be significant evidence to confirm that this task failed in term of conference objective.
This dimension tends to assess positive impact on the company as the resulting of job implementation. The benefits to the organisation contributing by project might be thought as, for example, increase income and market share or improvement on product quality. In this case, maybe it's measured that this project obviously failed to generate profits to the organisation as expectation. This failure is a rsulting consequence inconsistency with user's requirements, triggering the municipality, representing as an organisation, could not generate income covering the maintenance cost. As the effect, the organisation has endured from negative performance.
This part might be thought as the longest-term to evaluate how the organisation prepares themselves to response the future opportunities. Relating to the main goal of Moses Mabhida stadium, it was planed creating new opportunity for Durban being leisure destination for residents and vacationers. However, maybe it's argued that expectation might be difficult to accomplish. The main reason is the failing from the second and third measurements from this measurement causing the organisation could not fund in order to increase the capability being a sport organic with world-classed facilities as expectation or even maintain being the stunning stadium. These problems might be the key barrier for creating improvements to compete with rivals throughout the world being the remarkable stadium.
From the analysis, it could be seen that the Moses Mabhida stadium task delivered inefficient performance, low customer satisfaction, not success in term of creating profit to the company and lack of preparation for future years. It, therefore, might be figured this job was a failure based on the four-success sizing theory.
Apart from evaluation of job success, the well known aspects affecting to the task end result in negative way will be mentioned in this section. There are a few factors contributing negative impact on the task performance the following.
One of factor was lack of considering requirements from customers and participation of main users to make decision about task specifications. In the view of Maylor (2003), it's important for the task team to understand and integrate different requirements from stakeholders and execute their work by focusing on customer joy, whereas, the Moses Mabhida team didn't mainly perform to meet with their main users. This could be backed by Hoskins, chief executive of Rugby Union, confirming that there is no discussion between your project team and main customers such as rugby and cricket team (nationalsport, 2010). As the effect, such practice added unfavourable outcome leading to the project suffered as failure job.
Moreover, another factor that should be mentioned is inefficiency of supply chain management resulting the project stepped on its budget. The issue that needs to be highlighted is contract with suppliers. It could suppose that the management agreed to be quoted by cost-plus contract from contractors. Matching to floating price deal, the company might be more risky because contractors could copy their uncertainty about material and labour cost to be in charge by the job. As the result, the job might be incurred by unreasonable time and cost, causing to are unsuccessful in term of cost controlling (Maylor, 2003).