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Project Management Body Of Knowledge


In this short article, we will be discussing PMBoK of the Job Management Institute (PMI, USA) and APM (Connection of Project Professionals) (UK). Furthermore, we will also check out PRINCE2, that is more of your software product for task management, but versatile enough to squeeze in between, a body of knowledge and a full range SW product. While both APM and Prince2 have their origins in UK, PMBoK is from PMI of USA. APM presents the BoK from France, Germany, UK, and Switzerland. PMBoK and APM are body of knowledge while PRINC2 is a PM software product and hence brand as prescriptive (described for an individual with limited versatility within the overall framework), while the BoK is merely a body of knowledge, that need to be placed to make use of by defining the operational elements.

Benefits of task management

Structured approaches just as PMBOK and products such as Prince2, enable capture all components of the project upfront; educate project team on the many elements and their connections /dependencies, to create a workable and accountable team environment. Tasks as different from non task (operational) environments are really time, resource, dependencies and outcome sensitive, and are not eternal. To put into practice a task, a team is constructed to perform the job as different from an operational period where employees focus on a consistent / homogeneous environment for long time, and there's a natural learning process of the job and combination dependencies. Projects cannot afford the luxury of natural learning. PM methodologies thus give attention to the conscious deliberate method of build capacity in the project team for execution through training, clear definition of the job, roles and responsibilities, resources, progress explanation and ways of tracking progress, communication, risk management and middle course correction, and so forth. They are achieved through defined processes and description of useful areas and their romantic relationships. A project organization framework will deliver the output good processes defined in the PM methodologies. Thus a set up way greatly helps in avoiding costly and frustrating discoveries through the project period, and implementing a learning from your errors method. It is basically an effort to define and clarify in advance, and put in place processes to put into action duties that are clarified and described. PM methodologies also ensure through IT technology that drives them, consistency and integrity of project information and the data it depends on, for subsequent activities by various task team actors. Data reliability and timely availableness is one of the most critical impediments to any task. Technology induction in PM helps in having one single page view of most facets of the job at any time, for all those stakeholders, over a need to know basis, within as well as outside the project. As set up approaches eliminates this shortcoming by taking data from the business processes itself, there is no need for or time lost in databases updating. The updating is thus compulsive, mistake free and automated.

Structured strategies also helps define criticality and computerized generation of notifications on defined project events for well-timed intervention as well as monitoring performance. This helps avoid costly activities that otherwise would have been taken predicated on hunch, without access to current data.

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

PMBOK was initiated by the PMI in 1987 to standardize generally accepted project management techniques. The concentrate is on process influenced management to ensure standardization of good techniques on the lines of ISO 9000 and the Software Executive Institute's CMMI. PMBOK is organised as five process groupings and nine knowledge areas which is compliant with IEEE Std 1490-2003. The five procedures are: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing. PMBoK techniques are project period driven in conditions of Inputs (documents, strategies, designs, etc. ), Tools and Techniques (mechanisms put on inputs) and Outputs (documents, products, etc. ). The nine knowledge areas solve Project Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resources, Communications, Risk and Procurement.

Each knowledge area is conceived to include all or a few of the functions. The philosophy of any PM methodology is breaking down the works in a structured manner (WBS), sequencing them, establish their associations, dependencies, start and end dates, resources needed, costs, dangers, and follow principles of critical paths, resource leveling etc.

PM methodologies explicitly identify all above materials of a project that are generally inside to the project. Furthermore, there are several factors regarded as exogenous to the job itself, which thinking is changing now. These exogenous factors will be the human resources, finance, environmental management, stakeholder management, restrictions, relationships, risks, job outcomes in conditions of quantifiable benefits and the time when they are to occur, Thus job management has prolonged its boundary by internalizing their forth and backward linkages with the job itself. PM is no longer a pure executive function, but a critical alternative techno, commercial - managerial task.

Why PMBoK?

The task management body of knowledge is a generalized body of knowledge on the self-discipline, developed to create basic competence and knowledge, in project management personnel, to handle complex jobs in a structured manner. This is important because the people working and controlling projects (needing to manage projects) in the IT industry, was young and inexperienced, and IT task management itself was an emerging area. Therefore it was felt that a described body of knowledge is essential to build the idea of PM.


PRINCE2 project management strategy is a world-class standard for managing assignments to a successful conclusion. Apparently Prince is vulnerable on the product quality management in jobs and strong on Risk Management. PRINCE2 is the UK de-facto standard for task management produced by any office of Government Business (OGC), UK Government, and used in both the open public and private areas, deployed extensively by the UK government.

PRINCE2 is a common, tailor-able, simple to follow job management method. It covers how to arrange, deal with and control work. As a Project manager, the concepts of PRINCE2 and the associated training can be employed to any type of project to control risk, control quality and change effectively, as well as make the the majority of challenging situations and opportunities, that occur within a project.

PRINCE2 does not cover all areas of task management. Areas such as leadership and people management skills, detailed coverage of project management tools and techniques included in other existing and proven methods are excluded from PRINCE2.

IT Job Governance and PRINCE2 Task Management

IT task governance has surfaced as one of the most vital commercial obligations. With technology at the heart of most businesses, the ability to maintain tight professional and mother board control over major IT jobs throughout their lifecycle, has become a deciding element in deciding which businesses prosper and which creator. (5)

PRINCE 2 is a process-based approach to project management. It provides an activity model (of 8 techniques) that is intended to be applied, as a couple of steps in a rational sequence by a project supervisor in planning and managing a project. The application of the process model is versatile to many types of assignments and a variety of complexity. In addition the PRINCE2 manual (Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2) includes a range of 'Components' that are direction for a task manager in making use of the procedure model. These Components have similarity to the PMBOK Knowledge Areas.

The PMBOK details a set of processes that are categorized as nine Knowledge Areas and can be associated in five groupings if the job manager decides. The underlying difference between your PMBOK and PRINCE 2 is that the PMBOK offers the project manager a significant selection of information about proven routines in this field and invites the job manager to apply these where they consider appropriate, whereas PRINCE2 provides a more prescriptive (although versatile) set of steps for the project manager and teams to check out.

Knowledge regions of the PMBOK and the operations and the different parts of PRINCE2 and APM cover many common issues. Apart from a number of terminology differences, it is clear that all three represent 'best practice' with their variance being in the implementation as a technique. The PRINCE 2 way has the advantage that (because it is relatively prescriptive) it causes a degree of standardization in an organization. Whilst allowing for tailoring to a range of jobs, it generally requires all jobs to attempt the same steps (functions) and use the same terminology. This has apparent benefits in corporate program management, job personnel training programs, and project performance and traffic monitoring systems. The drawback may be which it potentially constrains creativity in the variety of methods put on managing a job.

Several organizations have regarded that there are benefits in allowing both PMBOK and PRINCE2 to co-exist. PMBOK provides the academic knowledge source of information that pays to in enhancing the profession of job management, and by not prescribing allows versatility in its adoption and execution that shall be context motivated. Though there are several commonalities across jobs of all types; no two jobs are the same that's the reason they are projects. Therefore, by not being prescriptive it offers scope for ingenuity, but for someone to exploit the flexibleness, one will need organizational competency. PRINCE2 offers a useable process model that may be applied straight by project professionals and clubs from a diverse selection of backgrounds to produce consistent task management and project outcomes. In short PRINCE2 is a prepared to consume food, while PMBoK and APM are things that need to be cooked the way one would like, but one need to know how to do it (6).

The PRINCE2 process model

PRINCE2 is a organised approach to project management, released in 1996 as a general project management method. It put together the original Fast methodology (which progressed into the PRINCE technique) with IBM's MITP (managing the implementation of the total project) strategy. PRINCE2 offers a method for controlling projects inside a clearly defined construction. PRINCE2 describes procedures to organize people and activities in a task, how to design and supervise the job, and what to do if the project must be adjusted, if it generally does not develop as prepared.

In this method, each process is specified using its key inputs and outputs and with specific goals and activities to be carried out. This allows for programmed control of any deviations from the program. Divided into controllable stages, the technique enables an efficient control of resources. Based on close monitoring, the project can be carried out in a manipulated and arranged way. PRINCE2 provides a common language for those participants in the job. The many management functions and responsibilities involved with a task are fully explained and are versatile to match the complexity of the job and skills of the business.

Community edition (CE) of PRINCE2 (7)

Community Edition is widely accepted as the best product to aid PRINCE2 learning and can be used extensively by people trained in PRINCE2 and to support the delivery of personal PRINCE2 jobs.

Community Edition provides users with a complete set of the official PRINCE2 templates. They are provided in a structured framework so you are shown the documents relevant to what your location is along the way. Community Edition manages the configuration of the templates and another documents you add with checkout, and in ability keeping a definite audit path of changes. Hints and tips are also provided to keep your functions authentic. Community Model also provides this for PRINCE2 2005 as well as 2009.

CE also offers a multi-language capability which means you can create a translation data file and operate in your terminology of choice. CE can be upgraded into Personal Release easily.

With Community Release you may take your projects along with you as the program is a. NET portable application. This means that you can fill it to a USB keep and move around between computers taking assembling your project environment to you. All that the host PC needs is the. NET construction and you won't even need to have admin rights on the Laptop or computer, which is a great help if you are a advisor or working away on the customer's site.

If you should do a conventional install to program data on your PC or laptop you are able to do that as well. If you're a Mac customer all is not lost since you can run Community Release on Parallels. Community Model is also provided on Compact disc to training delegates

Community Edition is free rather than a trial version so people can make use of it on their projects. It also provides a full group of PRINCE2 templates, advice, process diagrams and organized configuration capability.

Processes and sub procedures of PMBOK and Prince 2

PRINCE2 has nine techniques and 45 sub functions. The operations are: setting up a job (6), initiating a task (6), planning (7), directing a project (5), controlling a stage (9), controlling product delivery (3), taking care of stage restrictions (6), and concluding a project (3). Results in brackets suggest no. of sub processes under each process.

PMBoK has six techniques and 40 sub techniques. These are: initiating (1), planning (11), facilitating operations (9), execution (9), handling (8) and concluding (2). Results in mounting brackets are sub processes under each process.

APM Body of Knowledge

The APM Body of Knowledge is a well-established assortment of task management knowledgeit provides introductions and common manuals to people areas considered necessary to the self-discipline of managing projects, which is clearly structured with explanations, explanations and recommended further reading materials. These details will point and assist those enthusiastic about job management in their work, studies and learning for known qualifications.

APM Body of Knowledge and PRINCE2 Compared

There are many similarities that can be found when comparing the APM Body of Knowledge with PRINCE2. For instance, they both:

Describe generic approaches to project management that may be applied regardless of the kind of project

Can be applied across geographical and cultural limitations, even though they both originate within the United Kingdom

Recognize that they cannot provide a 'one-size-fits-all' method to task success

Cover the topics of Business Case, Organizational Functions, Quality Management, Risk Management, Change Control, Concern Management, Settings Management, and aspects of Planning and of Progress Control.

The key difference between APM Body of Knowledge and PRINCE2

PRINCE 2 is a set up project management method and APM BoK a body of project management knowledge

APM BoK provides descriptions and explanations of a broad range of task management matters and requires a discipline-based approach to project management, where PRINCE 2 Provides detailed information of specific solutions that PRINCE2 has for a fairly narrow range of project management topics and requires a process-based method of project management.

While a framework has been provided to handle the BoK, it will not be construed as you aspect of the framework, being independent of the other. In fact they are all interdependent and the composition is only for the purpose of logical company and clarity. They may be treated separately due to their significance and also to aid in simpleness of their demonstration. The truth is, many matters may fit into several section - as they might be applicable to several phase of the project. For instance, task risk management and task quality management aren't to be treated as issues in isolation. These seven elements are further

A brief comparability of PMBOK and APM depicts pursuing salient features

In addition to commonalities, PMBOK explicitly addresses socio economics, quality management, risk management, communication, stakeholders and organizational affects, while APM addresses success / failing criteria, post task appraisal, project environment such as legislation, mobilization, delegation, leadership communication, issue, negotiation, and professional relationships, marketing skills.

Comparison with Traditional or "Waterfall" Project Management

Waterfall, as a Task Management technique, has been criticized for not being able to cope with frequent changes in software assignments. The iterative aspect of Agile helps it be an excellent choice when it comes to taking care of software projects. Agile, however, has its negatives. Many believe it doesn't scale well, hence large software jobs remain being conducted in Waterfall. On top of that, since the durability and effectiveness of Agile are both exhibited in assignments with frequent changes, it does not offer any benefit over Waterfall, when it comes to classical tasks where requirements are practically always frequent and unknowns are exceptional, such as engineering jobs. PMBOK now also includes agile methods. A summary and comparison of these and other varieties of Project Management is seen in reference (8).

Concluding observations

While there are just a few initiatives on your body of Knowledge in Task Management such as PmBok and APM, there are several Software products that help execute a professional and structured task management practice. These products vary from stand alone packages that are implementable on one systems to the most sophisticated ones that are even implementable as a web based system, A number of the products also incorporate with the other organizational systems such ERP and useful software packages that help combine the whole functions of running a business whether in the excusive business of taking care of projects or assignments are only one of the actions of the organization.

While the BoK helps those in task management to understand task management as a organized disciple the merchandise helps in putting into action structured project management practice.

Project management as any other self-control is still rising and it should not be amazing if the willpower undergoes an entire transformation as the self-control matures and branches out into further job specific specialties as has happened in the case of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP). Project management specialists should consider such evolving opportunities with an open innovative brain.

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