Posted at 01.10.2018
Having developed a few of the world's most unthinkable sights, like a skiing hotel amidst a desert and an archipelago resembling the map of the earth, Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, has surfaced as a unique tourism destination before two decades (Henderson, 2006). Dubai is a coastal city, which offers sand, sea, and sun, with conventional Islamic and Arab traditions. Despite the fact that the rapid go up in the tourism sector has led to rapid development of the market, this expansion is combined with various environmental as well as communal and cultural impacts. The following essay discusses these impacts and what the real reason for these effects is. Later, the notion of sustainable tourism is discussed and exactly how Dubai can maintain sustainability of travel and leisure as well as social, ethnic, and environmental ideals.
A major element in Dubai's tourism expansion has been the development of its major air travel, Emirates. Emirates is detailed amidst the world's most luxurious airlines (Verdonck, 2007). All flights are via Dubai, which means one travelling by Emirates must stay in Dubai first. Every unit of currency put in in Dubai benefits its economy. Although beneficial to the economy and tourism industry, flights is a leading factor of polluting of the environment.
Dubai, because the mid 1990's, has been rehearsing "rapid tourism centered development" (Rockwell, 2006). This isn't only the building of hotels, but also of state-of-the artwork malls and properties, which are designed to attract travellers and international investment. The building in Dubai boosts by 34% per annum (Heyer, 2008), and it is by using a third of the world's cranes to create a huge selection of skyscrapers (Clarke, 2004), almost all of which can be related to the city's willingness to increase tourism. Development again has adverse environmental impacts. A lot of this structure for example that of the palm shaped island called The Palm Jumeirah takes a approach to dredging and re-depositing where stones are gathered from underneath of the sea and transferred where desired. This sadly has lead to the once crystal clear waters to be filled with silt. Resultantly, given the self-destructive nature of travel and leisure, diving lovers have started out looking for the areas with greater presence in drinking water (Butler, 2005).
The previously listed method of engineering has also ruined marine life. For example, the Arabian Gulf's second most bio-diverse marine system was paid to the building company Nakheel to make another palm molded island on. Consequently because of such acts, the coral reefs and sea lawn have been buried and killed under rock deposits. The oyster bedrooms are recognized to have been buried two in. deep. Building companies mention that they can build artificial set ups under drinking water, but ecologists dispute that these new artificial set ups will not support the original native types of the area, but they may attract international, destructive species (Butler, 2005).
The tourism business lead construction in the ocean has lead to numerous disruptions in the wave currents. The beaches of Dubai have thus began to erode away. Travel and leisure, even though indirectly, has began to gradually reduce one of the reasons that it prevails (Butler, 2005).
Other examples of tourism destinations in Dubai include a Tiger Wood's golf course, which imported 30, 000 older trees and shrubs, an 820 square metre refrigerated pool and an artificially chilled beach to keep carefully the sand cool (Hickman, 2008). Not forgetting, Dubai, as stated by the United Nations, is the world's most "water-imperilled" area. Substantial levels of Energy and desalinated drinking water, which ultimately requires even more energy, need to be used to keep up such attractions. Most of Dubai's buildings, such as hotels and shopping malls, are air-conditioned meaning more electricity is necessary and the emission of greenhouse gases surpasses that of the globe average greatly. Dubai's emission of greenhouse gases is 33. 6 metric plenty per capita, whereas the world average is at only 3. 7 metric plenty per capita (Saadeh, 2007). This not only adversely influences Dubai itself, but also impacts all of those other world. A hotel in Dubai produces about double the carbon emissions as compared to a European hotel (eTurboNews, 2009). Many environmentalists worldwide can possibly argue why the other countries of the world must put up with because of what's taking place in Dubai. In a United Nations climate converse, UAE's minister for Environment and Normal water spoke of nuclear capacity to desalinate water which would have even worse impacts on the surroundings (Hickman, 2008). Therefore one can easily interpret that Dubai's travel and leisure does not just have negative impacts on its own environment but possibly that of the world.
Tourism's effects in Dubai are not restricted to the surroundings. The residents, only of which a very few are local citizens, have also possessed to undergo some major changes in an exceedingly short period of energy. As mentioned before, Dubai has one the most successful airlines in the world, and the Dubai Airport terminal is evidently quite busy. The international airport is located in the main city as seen from the map below:
Source: Google Maps
The airport functions 24 hours and so it is easily assumable that the noises pollution reaches advanced. This impacts all the residents in the encompassing areas.
There is a major clash between western culture and the Islamic culture that prevails in Dubai and its surroundings. To a westerner the idea of heading to a beach fully clothed may seem to be quite pointless and therefore tourists wear going swimming apparel at beaches. Dubai has experienced some major problems in this regard. The common labour working course of Dubai is mainly of men from the Indian subcontinent where it is quite uncommon to see women on beaches wearing bikinis. For all these reasons, men of the working course had began to collect at beaches to stare at women and photo them. There would be periodic instances when they would forcefully feel ladies in normal water. The Dubai police force have approximately arrested 500 men due to this (Fattah, 2006).
Dubai's european views aren't normally accepted by the conservatives of the city. Irrespective of that, the rulers have made a move forward. Dubai has tried out to accommodate western culture which in the long-run could possibly end in the increased loss of Dubai's own culture. In the past few years, late night gatherings as well as alcoholic refreshments have become extremely popular and common, something is not loved in the Arab culture. Dubai has numerous different types of nightclubs and pubs to provide to its tourist population (Expat Community, 2009), which could possibly change Dubai's own populace, and would be most influential on the children. A New Year's Eve get together held in the Palm island possessed closely intoxicated people dancing on the beaches in the nude (www. EscapeArtisit. com). Perhaps one can say that the people of Dubai have already started to lose their cultural, spiritual, and social duties as the result of tourism.
Sex tourism in addition has immensely afflicted Dubai. The Dubai WEBSITE documentary obviously shows with a concealed camera that prostitution is only illegal in some recoverable format and generally is supervised by law enforcing regulators and also suggests that the government and secret companies know about it (www. Dubai-Information-Site. com). One possible reason thinkable is the fact Dubai actually desires to attract gender vacationers so that money helps to keep pouring into the overall economy, but this theory is not evidenced. Occasionally Dubai has been compared with Morocco and the Philippines at sex tourism level (www. Dubai-information-site. com). Roads of Dubai are filled up with easily identifiable prostitutes, perhaps almost all of these women are there to catch the attention of local clients but many also conclude attracting holidaymakers. The more expensive prostitutes work at 5 legend hotels where clearly travelers also stay, making the life of sex tourism even more stable and believable. In an interview with a prostitute, she said "The majority of my clients are Australian, Canadian, and local men" (Robson, 2009). An enormous increase in prostitution, particularly when a large amount are tourists are the clients, sets residents of Dubai vulnerable to sexually sent diseases such as Syphilis and HIV.
What one must consider is, is Dubai still a place where one can raise children with pre-existent interpersonal and cultural prices?
What has been the primary reason for all these socio-cultural and environmental changes? As stated earlier, the government, or rulers, because Dubai is not really a democracy, want to help the economy by introducing travellers. Dubai got a political position in the mid 1990's that because the oil was going to get exhausted they should switch their focus towards tourism. Investment funds in Dubai are generally international and almost all of the flats in the residential skyscrapers built were sold to very wealthy foreigners. The prince of Monaco also bought an island in the archipelago 'The World' (Clarke, 2006). Therefore the 'second home' phenomena is also one that helps increase travel and leisure in Dubai, and therefore tourism effects on Dubai even more greatly, as travellers will visit over and over. It had been in this position that Dubai's rulers also made a decision to make many places of interest including the various hotels and pubs. The CEO of Dubailand, the world's largest theme park, is known to have said that "we want to make Dubai Venice of the Middle East" with flowing water canals (Heyer, 2008), which again is high use of normal water in an area where water is a important resource. It was investments in such schemes that were accompanied by devastating environmental impacts. Not only is the working and preserving of such destinations unhealthy for the environment, but additionally it is the development which greatly impacts it. The government of Dubai has been quite relentless in the building of these sights, a great deal that the already few environmentalist communities and NGOs in Dubai had to be made silent and weren't allowed to interfere by any means (Hickman, 2008). It would not have been difficult silencing these groupings as Dubai is not really a democracy system. NGOs' and environmentalists' only job is to educate college students about recycling (Hickman, 2008). The engineering company Nakheel, in charge of the engineering of the infamous Palm Islands, the land reclaimed 'The World' and a great many other environmentally harmful tasks is possessed by the ruler of Dubai himself, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Makhtoum (Clarke, 2006). Therefore we can simply say that the reason behind the impacts is perhaps stringent adherence to politics and economic insurance policy. Quite recently, given the 2008 monetary slump, Dubai has began facing financial problems as well. Within the recession, there was a significant drop in tourism in Dubai (Walid, 2009). Regrettably, the whole purpose for which Dubai were required to endure socio-cultural and environmental influences may be too volatile. Any country shouldn't be too reliant on any one sector of the current economic climate, especially a self-destructive one like travel and leisure.
Sustainable travel and leisure as defined by the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is 'Tourism that can take full consideration of its current and future economical, public and environmental influences, dealing with the needs of visitors, the industry, the surroundings and host neighborhoods. ' (Bartlett, 2007)
Firstly, the undesireable effects of tourism are lessened if the expansion in tourist populace is relatively gradual (Cooper et al, 2008). This is not the case for Dubai. Dubai has seen a massive expansion in its tourism over the past 15 years. Thus the effects on the environment and the people have been greater than they could have been. The residents of Dubai did not have enough time to grow familiar with the ways of the holidaymakers. Like London and NY, where residents are already accustomed to an urban style of coping with the presence of travellers (Cooper et al, 2008), Dubai's residents aren't.
Dubai has already started to put into action sustainable tourism (Mustafa, 2007). A recent initiative by the earlier mentioned Nakheel is named Blue Areas (www. BlueCommunities. org). For instance, at the Hand Island they have introduced a fresh air conditioning system which reduces energy use by 35%. Such issues should not only be tackled by one building company, but all development companies. Dubai's authorities is strong enough to execute such regulations that will lessen the harm to the environment. Some hotels in Dubai also have began to take environmentally friendly issues and hence their carbon emissions significantly. They have taken steps towards decreasing their environmental costs and realize the financial benefits that might be received by going 'green' (eTurboNews, 2005). Such initiatives can be very expensive to
Dubai can use the exemplory case of Egypt, which has similar public and cultural values and even perhaps related environmental issues. Once the Red Sea began to develop as a vacationer destination, the federal government took an identical approach to that of Dubai's, based on building of hotels. Later, they applied management ideas and presented a "Sensitivity Map which rates resources in terms of these resilience to the effects of use" (Bartlett, 2007). Additionally, Egyptian specialists have started providing incentives to become more lasting (Bartlett, 2007). Dubai could have a similar way.
After an instance of two English nationals having sexual intercourse on a family beach, specialists have unveiled some new guidelines for residents and vacationers alike. Now, loud music, swearing, kissing, using skirts of incorrect period, and even possessing hands and hugging in public has been suspended (www. News. com. au, 2009). Rather than being on the extreme end and banning the activities mentioned previously, which are very common in the travellers' own countries, Dubai can take a similar "encourage, not discourage" approach (Bartlett, 2007). Dubai can point out the Arab and Muslim culture in any brochures and advertisements of the vacation spot; otherwise, if visitors notice about such bans and limitation, they might want to visit an alternate destination. The same encouraging procedure as that of Egypt can be taken towards development companies, in which financial property could be provided. In the same way, Emirates Flight could continue to purchase the new A-380 aircrafts because they are more environmentally friendly. Research demonstrates 45% British travellers are prepared to spend more on holiday if environmental damages can be reversed, 67% People in america believe that it is important that they don't damage the spots they visit, and 69% Danish visitors are willing to pay more for eco-labelled hotels (Bartlett, 2007). All three countries above generate high amounts of tourists. Thus government officers in Dubai can presume that if they want to invest in in green activities, this will potentially attract more visitors.
Dubai's government may take another step towards sustainability. Random residents could be drafted, at their will, in large categories to be always a part of any panel, similar to a marketing firm's consumer -panel, where they could be asked to comment on any new improvements that have been considered. In this manner the commonly kept views of the community will be known and because a random drafting system is employed many participants of the community will feel more important and thus less resistant to changes. The implementation of such something will be hard and tedious. It may also quite costly for the federal government.
Eco-tourism can be applied although in a very unique way. Eco-tourism normally deals with by natural means beautiful areas, but could also possibly involve the unique culture and practices of an area (Bartlett, 2007). Dubai can advertise the abundant Arabic traditions that prevail in the region and show how cultural and environmental ideals are in the city's key. Eco-tourism would be difficult because of the notorious influences on the local and global environment and the changes that have already happened in its residents. Still, it is a very remote opportunity in the long-run. If achieved, Dubai may be considered a possible eco-tourism vacation spot which would ironically appeal to masses.
To achieve lasting tourism, the differences between the residents and visitors must be reduced (Cooper et al, 2008). If Dubai's individuals were to change and become like westerners, this would again wrap up in loss of personality and changes in culture. Instead, skilfully designed programs for schools and similarly designed advertisements targeted at Dubai's adult society could train them about the positive effects of tourism and adaptability. Alternatively, advertisements targeted at tourists from different countries could be made aware of Dubai's ethnic and religious principles.
In the situation of Dubai specifically, there should be seeks made at reducing prostitution to make the cultural situation better. By making police authorities better and taking a stance to avoid real human trafficking at the air port, so no prostitutes type in.
For Dubai's tourism to develop sustainably some of the mentioned methods must be used so that the interests of the folks, visitors, and environment are satisfied, all the while the tourism industry thrives and grows. Although this is difficult as there's a clear trade-off between certain factors, for example building of attractions causes an increase in travel and leisure but harms the environment. Therefore Dubai's tourism sector requires a skilfully devised plan to practice sustainable travel and leisure. It also needs the knowing that environmental and interpersonal systems aren't two specific theoretical simple systems, but are one intricate real system which humans are also a part of the environment. This technique is therefore always evolving and changing with uncertainties and remains stable only for a short time frame (Fyall et al, 2005). As the system evolves, Dubai's strategies of sustainable travel and leisure will also need to change, because the pursuits of all stakeholders will vary all the time.
Dubai must require and change the behavior of all stakeholders included such as travellers, residents, environmentalists, and authorities officers. Only then can lasting travel and leisure and development be achieved and the negative impacts of travel and leisure reduced.