Keywords: cultural exchange theory analysis
Social Exchange Theory is a point of view of the field of social psychology and sociology to describe sociable change and stableness, representing them as a process of negotiated exchanges between people. Friendly exchange theory can be described as the theory, relating to which, individuals interaction is a unique transaction, which seeks to increase the "rewards" and to reduce the "costs".
The cultural exchange theory advocates that human human relationships are made by using a cost-benefit research and contrast with alternatives. For instance, whenever a person perceives the costs of a relationship over the profits made, the individual, according to this theory, leaves the partnership. This theory has its origins in economics, psychology and sociology. The social exchange theory is linked to the logical choice theory and structuralism, its major features.
Exchange theory arose as a a reaction to functionalism, which focused on the impact of an phenomenon on the machine. This isn't a single theory, but instead the strap theory, explaining the public world as a system of exchanges of goods (tangible and intangible) between individuals and communal groups. Social exchange theorists see every interaction as a exchange - "something for something. " It is like a "theory of individual self-interest. " When a person calls for any action, it can so with the prospect of great benefit for himself. Often it's the intangible benefit, such as value from others, obedience, satisfaction, etc.
Social exchange theory is a theory in cultural science which declares that there are elements in cultural relations without self-discipline, sacrifice, and benefits that influence each other. This theory clarifies how humans view their human relationships with others relative to the assumption of real human home is to: the balance between what's given to the partnership and what is excluded from that relationship.
There is not any unified sociology of exchange, but one can separate three main theoretical things of ideas. Taking the exemplory case of the shared exchange of between your groom and bride, which means this could be either a civil contract between two different-actors to the common exclusive use with their body, or a mutually donated sacrament, by which Christianity continues, or view as an institutional and thus pacification a driver or will form.
Exchange of individuals. Sociological theorists think consider the assumption that individuals always action when exchanged (individualistic, paired, antagonistic perspective). No matter what they talk about in a specific circumstance, there are always sociological "social sanctions". As "positive" sanctions, for example, congratulations or goods, but as "negative" there are insults or risks. Often in the exchange theory only positive or ambivalent sanctions are cured, but include more general techniques and negative sanctions. Inside the distribution of discord the "actors" face each other with conflicting passions. The one advantage is the other downside: anybody attempted if it goes to positive sanctions, and spend less than possible from the opposition to gain whenever you can. In economics, this plan, which it called limited to positive sanctions (such as goods for money in markets), is the "minimax principle". And also, if people have antagonistic relationships and negative communal sanctions (for example works of assault against violence, such as in war) taken into account, the exchange ends here striving to reduce its deficits and increase the opponent. Taking into consideration the criticism, critical is remarked that this is based on Homans and Blau, Exchange Theory as a variant or mutation of the behaviorism. It experienced become a rational choice model, which methodological simplification was achieved at a price, as compared to traditional and other solutions in sociology would be neglected by extra-economic motivations, norms and institutions and their history generally.
Durkheim or Mauss likely to behave in exchange for all public collectives (community, systemic view). Handled by the exchange, the account to the group received the celebrities (typically positive) from one another sanction. The players reveal a common interest in the welfare of the collective, which is the individual's self-interest. Each exchange includes the end and always a bargain in favor of the collective, even while a loyal person in a community and even with respect to his own benefits. The Collective is usually with a person, which is shown in valid rituals (including the handshake) or norms (such as the Commercial Law) that exhibit stability. Because of that, all exchange tendencies is also spoken of as "amphibole" exchange. The theorist Clausen considers one of some types of exchange that, as well as the aspect of man consists of him into it with acting. Here, the parties perform an exchange so the survival of the individual varieties will be motivated to aspect and other types. So it isn't only a sociological but also the anthropological institution. This refers in particular to reproduction, child treatment and preventing prowess. The most frequent example is the dyad between newborn and caregiver time (usually, however, not necessarily the mother), is expected to direct result that in the both the exchange is biologically recognized and the more happy they can be, the better it is ideal for others.
Exchange theory by Homans. According to George Homans, the communal behavior is an exchange of material goods, which is also intangible, such as the symbols of authorization and prestige. Homans, George attempted to make clear the behavior identified in the broadest sense consequently of interaction where individuals acquire, sell, or show resources. He tried out to explain public behavior using important concepts of behavior, produced by behavioral psychologists, and neoclassical economists. Behavioral style of operant conditioning is based on the utilitarian theory that folks will seek to maximize enjoying and avoid or minimize the pain. The assumption is that individuals will respond as expected to compensate and punishment. Any conversation provides an chance to share resources, in which each party attempts to get resources, with a higher value in comparison to that which she or he provides or which refuses. "All social organizations were created on the basis of the network exchanges. The organization needs the unit to be satisfied by other physiques belonging to this firm. " Homans has developed five general procedures relating to interpersonal behavior and reference sharing. Three of them reproduce the style of behavioral psychologists. The first affirmation directly practices from the model of operant conditioning, and says: "In respect of any acts performed by people, the more often one is rewarded for a particular action, the more that person will perform this action. The next situation is linked to recognition of the role of previous experience: "Before, the introduction of a specific stimulus or set of incentives has generated a situation in which individuals action is rewarded, a lot more the present-day incentives act like those past stimuli, the greater see your face will perform the same or much like his action in today's. " However, the third provision areas that "for their actions when a person will not have the expected rewards or receive sudden penalty, he goes berserk and can act aggressively. "He created some allegations, included in this are the state of success, the assertion of deprivation and that there is saturation of hostility. These statements are an integral part of seven and, relating to crowning this list is the assertion of rationality, which says that the body of the two alternative options will choose the one which gives the most likely results to achieve better benefits. The essential proposition is:
- success: the greater action the average person is rewarded with, the more likely it is to take this action.
- the stimulus: if days gone by occurrence of a particular stimulus or combination of stimuli was a circumstances, in which specific action has been rewarded, the more likely it is the fact that the machine would take this or a similar effect.
- value: a lot more the action is perfect for the individual securities, the more likely that it will be demonstrated this action.
-saturation of deprivation: the more frequently recently, the unit received a specific reward, the less valuable it becomes for each and every additional unit of the prize.
- frustration-aggression: If the unit does not bring action to obtain a reward or abuse received by the entity, which they did not expect, it'll react with anger, and anger aggressive habit results will have a reward value.
Exchange Theory by Peter Blau. Peter Blau presented the evaluation of exchange, which steps the word "marginal power", which says that "a lot more the expected rewards entity obtains from a particular act, the less valuable this action is, and the less likely it will be". The theory is the fact that if in due to the exercise we get some action on the prizes, you should have less value, that may be considered a new circular of the award. Another concept presented by Blau is the idea of "standards for fair exchange", which reveals what should be the percentage of rewards to costs in the exchange relationship. If these specifications are shaken, then your injured get together may disclose to extreme behavior. Blau principle differs from the concept of Homans that delivers discord situations. Balance in one relationship, which is impaired by homeostasis seen in another. Blau has another strategy, which is "public attraction" that is the perception of opportunities for praise. This is regarding to sociologist factor, essential for the existence of the exchange percentage, which is based on the belief that folks who "give honors, in turn, you will receive the award as repayment for the products delivered". There are four types (classes): the award money, social popularity, value (deference) and submission. Of these, the greatest value is the distribution, then the respect, acceptance, and the least appropriate prize in the relationships of communal exchange is money.
Submission is the most valuable award because for Blau it is inherent in the relationship of power, and this in turn provides opportunity of denying rewards to the people who do not need to adhere to the standards. Electricity is born when the worthiness of services exceeds the worthiness of services received in exchange. If people have to choose only 1 or a few choice sources of honours, then it also involves forcing submission. That is further facilitated if people aren't giving to the probability to work with the coercion and opposition to a person providing services. Failure to work around without data awards also affects positively the possibility to force the submission by the individual in possession of these awards.
Exchange in public psychology. Social psychology also speaks about human relationships as relations of exchange. These systems derive from the so-called rule of reciprocity, under which "we live committed to the near future for favors, gift ideas, invitations and the goods that we have received. " Relating to interpersonal psychologists one of the top principles is governing the human investigation. This dedication to the rematch probably prevails in all individuals societies. Researchers say that this rule has developed in order to encourage visitors to contact, predicated on shared exchange of services - without concern with giving something to another, and we lose it forever. Another form of the rule is named reciprocal concessions, particularly: if someone goes to hand us, we do it to him, too. Thus we can properly take the first step to someone, as he will need to give us a similar sacrifice. This guideline is valid regarding to sociable psychologists and it is an effective regulator of communal relations.
The emergence of communal exchange theory. In general, the social exchange theory includes social relations somewhat than open public. The societies have looked at the behavior effect of each other in the partnership; there's also elements of discipline, of sacrifice and gain that reflect social exchange. The compensation is all that through the sacrifice, when the sacrifice can be prevented, and the benefit is reduced by the rewards of sacrifice. Therefore the social action of the exchange at least between two people is based on the cost-benefit calculations. For example, habits of behavior in the workplace, romance, relationship and camaraderie. Analogy from the truth, at some point people can feel in any of the friends, who, usually, are always trying to get something from you. In those days you always give just what a good friend needs from you, but the opposite is actually happening if you want something from your friends. Every individual course has a goal to be friends with one another. These individuals would be likely to take action for others, help the other person if needed, and offer shared support. However, retaining friendly relationships also requires the costs, like the lost time and energy and alternative activities. Although these costs are not seen as something that is expensive or burdensome when seen from the point of reward obtained from these friendships. However, these costs is highly recommended if we are to objectively assess the relationships which exist in an agreeable transaction. If the price seems not relative to the compensation, what goes on is the uneasy feeling of someone who feels that the benefits received were too low set alongside the cost or sacrifice that is given.
An research of the social relationships that happen in line with the cost and compensation is one feature of the exchange theory. This exchange theory has centered on micro-level analysis, specifically at the interpersonal level of communal reality. In this particular discussion the emphasis will be on the notion of exchange theory by Homans and Blau. Homans in his evaluation insisted on the necessity to work with the ideas of individual psychology to explain cultural behavior somewhat than merely explaining it. But Blau, on the other hands, was trying to move from the amount of social exchanges at the micro level to the macro level of social composition. He attempted to show how greater are the public structures that surfaced from the essential exchange operations.
Unlike the evaluation described by the idea of symbolic connections, exchange theory was mainly seen as the real patterns, not the functions that are purely subjective. This is also used by Homans and Blau, who weren't centered on the subjective degree of awareness or reciprocal associations between the levels of dynamic discussion of subjective. Homans further argued that technological explanations should be centered on real action and then can be viewed and measured empirically. The procedure of sociable exchange has also been indicated by the classical sociologists. As indicated in the traditional economic theory of the 18th and 19th century, the economists like Adam Smith have analyzed the financial market therefore of a comprehensive collection from lots of individual monetary trades. He assumes that trades will happen only when both gatherings can gain from these exchanges, and welfare of the community in general can be quite well guaranteed when the folks are left to pursue personal interests through negotiated exchanges in private.
Conflicts of individualistic and sociable exchange in collectivism. Turmoil that occurs is because the growing contradiction between the individualistic orientation and collectivism. Homans is most likely a person who was very stressed with an individualistic method of the development of social theory. This is certainly different from the explanation that the Levi-Strauss, a collectivist, in issues especially regarding to marriage and kinship habits. Levi-Strauss can be an anthropologist who comes from France. He developed a theoretical point of view of social exchange on the practice of relationship and kinship system of primitive societies. An over-all pattern of analysis is when a man marries his mother's child. A pattern that occurs is that individuals almost never marry the daughter of his father's brother. This latter structure was examined further by Bronislaw Malinowski, who advanced by the exchange of nonmaterial. In detailing this, Levi-Strauss distinguishes two exchange systems, which include limited and generalized exchange. In restricted exchange, participants of the dyad teams are directly mixed up in exchange exchange, each person in the couple give one another an individual basis. And in the generalized exchange, associates of several triads or even greater accept something apart from a dyad who provides something helpful. In these exchanges the impact is on the integration and solidarity groupings are in a more effective manner. The main reason for this exchange process is never to allow couples who get excited about an exchange to meet up with the needs of individualization. An examination of marriage and kinship action is a criticism of Sir James Frazer's description of a English expert who studies the financial anthropology on patterns of exchange that occurs between mating pairs in primitive population.
The theory of exchange today does not represent a single school of thought. Totally speaking, there are several theories that share a common position that human interaction is an activity of exchange. In addition, all of them has their own views on human nature, culture and social science. Theories of exchange have been and still tend to be criticized for the lack of freshness, the data of certain statements, ignoring the living of a forced situation. Most can be found with the view that perspective narrows the public life and relations between people only to the physical belongings. As an undeniable fact, social forms of exchange are recognized differently and communicated, as a sociological and anthropological research would be likely to. As the question of justice, including equivalence of your exchange is directed according to dominating beliefs, or it is judged differently from the associates of warring beliefs.