Posted at 04.10.2018
Questions of art work are always of a great interest and ambiguity of interpretation. Fine art is something, which calls for not only the data of the tendencies and styles, but the accurate interpretation and conception of them at heart.
In the given newspaper we'd touch upon principles of two famous movements in modern artwork: cubism and dada. We would as well look at the common technique of the two styles - the technique of the collage in artwork. The collage of dada and the collage of cubism have different functions and our task today is to consider the difference and be sure conclusions, which will be based upon the analyses of the works of the representatives of the tendencies.
One of the most interesting and incredible movements in art work is Dada, also known as Dadaism. From the very hearing of this word it could seem that this is somewhat childish, unimportant, and not deep. However in fact, Dadaism means a movements, reflecting beliefs of several displeased people. "A wave of irrational and concern for wholeness acquired swept Europe in a reaction to ninetieth-century scientism and materialism and was intensified by the globe War I" (Hugo Ball). Later, the group of European intellectuals invented their own vision of skill and attempted to take it into public. The dada motion first made an appearance in 1916 and its own ideas continued growing up to 1923.
The basis because of this creative and literary motion was the horror of the battle actions of these times. People possessed to hightail it of their homes and cover, to escape somewhere to those places, to find shelter and to become refugees anywhere (mostly in the cities of NY, Barcelona and Zurich), where they might feel themselves comfortable and expect surviving and time for their homeland. These people, especially the ones from Germany and France, were so angry with the government, they cannot understand how it was possible to let the war happen and to eliminate so many lives of innocent people. They became so indignant so when a protest to all this, they created the small band of like-minded persons and developed their ideas through the imaginative and literary activity. Some of the most famous founders of Dadaism were: Jean Arp, Richard Hulsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, and Emmy Hennings. People - supporters of dada possessed one and really the only rule: never follow any rules. They did not miss any open public opportunity to show their protest to nationalism, materialism or any other characteristics, which may lead to the war. They didn't think a lot about the name of their movement, they needed the first expression they saw in a German - French dictionary and were glad that this meant "baby have a discussion" from French, because their literary and creative activity reminded of the clumsy, strange things, small children usually do. "Dada" does mean "yes-yes" from Russian and "there-there" from German. The multiple-meaning and such a nonsense word especially depicted diversity of Dada ideas.
People, who founded Dadaism, weren't real masters of art work and literature. They were laymen, believing that if there can be chaos in the machine of government, there can be chaos in fine art too. So, dada associates can be hardly called people of art, and their artwork, in truth, can be called non-art, created by non-artists. These were of strong opinion, that if the world does not have any sense, the fine art must not likewise have any meaning. These were all laughing at bourgeois contemporary society and looking to get free from bourgeois way of life and behaviors.
The members said: "Dads is irony", "Dada is politics", "Dada will kick you in the at the rear of" (Sarah Ganz Blythe). Hugo Ball, one of the market leaders of such a activity, even composed the "Dada Manifesto", where he carefully talks about the meaning of the term alongside the movement's common features. He says, that the most effective and the quickest way to be famous is to state "dada" (this means to check out Dada tendencies). One needs nothing to execute his creative work: neither the expertise, nor the knowledge. So, later
Dadaists even began to add nonsense to famous fine art masterpieces, probably as a result of insufficient personal ideas. As an example, one of the dada "artists" Marcel Duchamp introduced his work: he painted a moustache on a duplicate of Mona Lisa, great deal of thought to be perfect. Another "dada professional" in a sphere of sculpture, performed his famous masterpiece "The Fountain", which appeared to be a copy of ugly urinal. Along with the alike works were presented frequently, one much better than another.
Of course the general public could not react calmly on this "expression of ability" plus they were really irritated. But Dada enthusiasts were not unhappy about this, on the other hand, they found it very motivating and even inspiring. To cause outrage and disgust of folks was one of the aims of Dada works.
Dada is the groundwork to abstract art work and acoustics poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an affect on pop art work, a special event of anti-art to be later embraced for anarchy-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the building blocks for Surrealism. And indeed, if to remember the main top features of postmodernism, surrealism and even futurism, you can definitely find common attributes with dada. At those times it was regarded as outrageous, uncommon and breaking the existing means of expressing art, but now it generally does not cause rude and disgusting emotions, because we already received used to this kind of fine art, which is now better to call it "art" than it was before. The only real word for dada at those times was "anti-art", because this is of art had not been so wide. It had been not so easy to bring in something new and expect it to be treated like s artwork, comparing with today: painting with the spray on the walls is art, which has a modern name - graffiti.
Almost all what looks and comes to the people's life spontaneously, disappears just as. Dada is not an exception. In 1923, after several years of scandalous life, Dadaism tired itself. "Today, over ninety years later it is known as one of the twentieth-century's most important avant-garde moves" (Anne Umland). Obviously, as it was said before, a few of its features could not but stay and revive later, but dada as an anti-art activity dissolved itself permanently.
Another design of art we will speak about is cubism. At first it appeared as a concept, and later developed into the separate design of art, seen as a three main features: geometricity, simultaneity and passage (the overlapping and interpenetration of planes). The ideas of cubism came out in 1907 and the traits of it we might still see in the present day art. This is a style, which one of the amounts of styles were able to remain and develop through the flow of their time and perform even now, it were able to save its personality on the background of a large number of other different styles and genres.
The thing is the fact that cubists` artists tried to depict things not as we see them, but as they are really. Gleam view, which says that cubism in a few of its works depicts things in several dimensions.
The first works in the style of cubism are considered to be found in Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), where he continues to the three main top features of this wonderful style. However in fact, it is difficult to say these very works were the initial ones of cubism style, because they were not shown to the general public from the very starting. Other scientists believe, that the first Cubist paintings were created by Georges Braque's in his series of L'Estaque landscapes executed in 1908.
Nevertheless, out of this very time the activity of Cubism began to build up very swiftly and it was fulfilled by the promotion with great interest and great pleasure. As Cubism is not really a quickly forgotten activity and it is still appreciated by the modern artists, it's important to state that Cubism has undergone some changes through its development. It offers four main periods: Early Cubism or Czannisme (1908-1910), Analytic Cubism (1910-12), Synthetic Cubism (1912-1914) and Later Cubism (1915-present).
Analytic Cubism is seen as a the careful development of Cubism as a style and formation of the exact top features of it. Both main painters, representing this era are Picasso and Braque. They work hard by inventing different forms and designs and the way of depicting them on the canvas. Artificial cubism grew out of analytic cubism. Picasso together with Braque known that using analytical designs, symbols and varieties their works became more generalized and simplified. They did not stop inventing other means of expressing real things and came up to a wonderful discovery. Now they used fragments of every day things: newspapers, handmade cards, sheets of paper and so on etc to depict the relationship of present life and fine art. Picasso had not been afraid of tests; he wanted to discover the completely new style of art, which would depict the new perspective of the people of those times. Which later helped those to make one and great imaginative technique: collage. This is of collage is quite simple and may seem to be abstract. Collage is pasting little pieces of different materials onto newspaper or canvas. These may be sheets of newspaper, cloths, photos, lender notes, wool, slim wood particles, ribbons or any other activities. It is all done to feel the image better as well as for better perception from it. Picasso`s suggestions to show the image in a number of dimensions almost came up true: he managed to create pictures in two- and even three-dimensions. Picasso, as well as Braque just a little later, tried out to take items as these were, without any deviations, and exactly this desire pushed them to the invention of the new imaginative technique. Together with the flow of the time these two great designers were totally sure, that some of the materials own a completely unique expressiveness. Pablo Picasso wanted to stop the visual perception of art work and to start the period of the new one - tactile sensing notion. This is actually the important philosophical inclination, aiming at the distortion of the habitual forms and creating of the new thought process and new actuality, which is, in its switch, not a fairly easy task.
If to speak about the collage of cubism, it is evident that it affects the personal notion of the object, confirms the instability of the world, changeability of unchangeable things, by creating new images. The image of the collage will erase the borders of the space. Breaking up the aircraft of the picture into several smaller planes creates an incredible effect: the musician is out of the borders of the picture; he escalates the zone of its effect. The author here is a thinker, philosopher and the creator of the world of the picture. The author seems himself the get better at of the thing, he seems that he produce an chance to rule this subject and to change it. For example, let us take the picture of Picasso "Still life with the red paper" (1918). Following the first glimpse onto this picture, one may have the double thoughts: both incomprehensibility and distinct vision of what happens on the canvas. The thing is that this picture is one of those, which an individual can watch watching for hours, beginning something new for him. At first, we can clearly see the electric guitar, one playing cards, the ornament, the table, the area of the chair, notes, paper, the fifty percent of the lemon and so on. The purpose of these things on the table is unclear but this isn't the point. What is peculiar is a stunning feature of the collage - there are several edges on the picture, and every once in awhile they appear in various places. That is some sort of a mystic, because with the special approach Picasso were able to increase the notion of the picture from the aesthetic level to the abstract, imaginary one. The viewer can not but wish, fancy about the picture, watching extensively onto every details up for grabs and trying to put sense to all or any this. Here we can one additional time be persuaded that the writer of this work is a get good at of own certainty, he's a grasp of constructivism: he will try to create something new and he hasn't any borders and limitations. That is a great electricity - to build your own world with the items of the given reality, because the writer himself is God, creating his own world.
It may also seem that this picture is little or nothing more however the heap of unproductive things, but if we think a little, we will recognize that this still life is a full reflection of our world: unstable, diverse, complicated and unclear. And it needs some changes and improvements, which the publisher tries to fulfill by using his paintings. So, the collage in cubism is mostly just how of constructing the new style of our world and the best way to reflect the personal view onto the prevailing reality.
Dadaists provide new view on the collage technique. Their collage was the incarnation of unclearness, absurdity and chaos. Why don't we take including the famous work of Max Ernst - The Hat Makes THE PERSON. If we understand this collage, we will understand that there is little or nothing more but the mockery of individuals: there is not a single person on the canvas. Only remotely it could remind us of men and women in hats, if to start to see the picture from the length. The truth is, Ernst cut out pictures of hats from different catalogues and glued them to the canvas, previously connected them with each other and created "people" by drawing cylinders of different colors, joined up with with the other person as well. Seemingly, the main thing in the collage is not the amount of hats or cylinders, but the anonymous emptiness, which is depicted through bright colors. Since shiny colors weren't previously considered to depict miserable things, in this case they act flawlessly: incompatible is compatible. Since it was stated before, dada artists weren't artists themselves, they were protagonists, rebels, people who wished to change the prevailing life-style also to show their protest to everyone on the globe. Consequently, their artwork targeted at shocking people, wanting to cause different, chaotic and awful emotions. Moreover we can not but say about the personality of the writer of such a collage. The author is individuality, and the way he influences the audience is also individual. The way each individual from the audience percepts the picture within an individual way. But still, the effect is actually almost the same: surprise and zero understanding. And, it must be said that they were able to undertake it. Maybe, the wish to the unknown is known as to be blessed exactly in this period of time. All the Dada works signify the complete nihilism; they target at the total distortion of humans` brains, at the rejection of any hint of logic.
As a final result we can say, that collage in dada activity and in cubism perform different functions. Dada collage presents the ideas of chaos and the absence of logic, whereas in the motion of cubism collage is the method of creating new, individual reality on the basis of the subjective point of view of the author. Nevertheless, collage is an excellent form of expressing emotions and inner thoughts, never brain that in various areas this means various things.