The Customer Behaviour Is Highly Unpredictable Marketing Essay


In today's active business environment, the client behavior is highly unpredictable. They have lots of alternatives to choose from. It makes the importance of customer loyalty schemes improved. Companies need to know customer's needs and wants properly to react according to their needs. A 'mass customization' is essential especially for highly competitive sectors like retail industry. There have been lots of studies on the hyperlink between the long-term performance of a business economically and customer devotion (Jones and Sasser, 1995; Reichheld 1993, 2001; Heskett et al. , 1994). Even they didn't agree on the motorists or the determinants of customer commitment. They assumed the perception of customer changes towards loyalty for the company through different determinants. Heskett et al. (1994) assumed that the main driver of customer devotion is client satisfaction. At the same time Jones and Sasser (1995) did not agree that customer satisfaction is the primary drivers of customer loyalty and they believe that more significant individuals of customer commitment are brand image and quality of the products. These dissimilarities in the studies can be discussed partly by diverse meanings of commitment of customer (Baumann et al. , 2005; De Ruyter et al. , 1998). From these studies, we can understand that how important is the concept of customer loyalty for the long term success of the business.

This research would analyse the importance of perception of loyalty techniques by the organizations in the retail industry giving focus on the client loyalty plans of Tesco. The client loyalty schemes of Tesco are example to every firm which is eager to win success in the market. With the customer loyalty techniques like Club greeting card, Tesco have the opportunity to interact with its customers as individuals. Club card allowed Tesco to recognize the needs and wants of the customer through which Tesco could in a position to implement a mass customization. Mass customization allowed Tesco to create products in millions according to the demand of customers. This research explores on the client behaviour matching to different customer loyalty strategies of Tesco. This review investigates different subsidiary goals also with the aforementioned said main aim. These are studies on different conceptual models and theoretical structure work on the techniques of devotion of customers, different techniques and methodologies used to put into action different schemes of devotion in Tesco. It also analyses the execution of Cub cards scheme by Tesco and its assessment with such other plans by others. This research attempts to identify tips for Tesco for improving its loyalty strategies for increasing the purchasing consistency of its customers. This research would analyse the above said objectives at length to provide a methodical outputs on the importance of the commitment techniques by Tesco and the connection of the behavior of consumer corresponding to those schemes.

The loyalty plans' main aim is to retain the customers in the business and to make a committed action and devotion in them towards the organization. Various analysts says that a company should concentrate more on keeping its customers alternatively than attracting new customers (Smith & Right, 2004). Getting a new customer is relatively easier job in comparison with retaining a person in an extremely competitive industry like the retail industry in UK. An unnoticed function of this loyalty schemes will be the mouth promotion by the clients. Hee-Su and Yoon (2004) says that "word of mouth publicity can't be beaten by other modes of adverts". It allows a corporation to hold on to its appreciated customers with the firm and it allows the business to attract new customers towards the business. The study would analyse many unnoticed areas with this research.

Tesco- An Overview

Jack Cohen proven the first Tesco store in 1919 in East London. From there the operations of Tesco Plc started. In 1924, the first product of Tesco came up into the market. After purchasing a tea delivery from T E Stockwell, Cohen mixed first three words of the name of this delivery company and coined the name TESCO. After that Tesco grows as a retail string of consumer goods, groceries, financial services, telecommunications and gadgets, etc. Tesco is the third largest retail chain all around the globe. Both companies in advance Tesco are retail giants Wal Mart and Carrefour. Tesco employs about 440000 people in more than 3750 stores. In 2008, Tesco triumphed in the Shop of the Year award.

Tesco grew organically through various ways such as acquisitions in 1950s and 1960s. Tesco managed more than 800 stores then. The recent background of Tesco is the rea tale of the retailers' successful development and diversification in to new business and especially to overtake days gone by number one position owned or operated retail large, Sainsbury's in UK (Humby et al. , 2003). Tesco was focused and customized in drink and food only before. It acquired further varied its business in to different areas such as clothing, financial services, car insurance, consumer electronics, telecom, home, health, dental plans, rentals of Dvd disks and CDs, retailing, music downloads, software, internet services etc.

In 1995 Tesco presented a loyalty scheme named 'Club Card'. It allowed Tesco to catalyse the transformation of the perception in the clients from 'pile it high, sell it cheap', market investor was stuck in the past to a store who's progressive which provides on the guarantees that 'every little helps' (Humby et al. , 2003). Soon after Tesco launched onine shopping website and in line with the statistics of November, 2006, Tesco was the only store of food who made the web shopping profitable.

Importance of Research

The commitment of the customers is highly significant in the current competitive business environment. When the client becomes loyal, he would be retained as a respected customer of the company. The retention of customer is more significant than attracting clients to a company. In today's rough inexpensive conditions, only a company with dedicated customers can survive in the market. So the organizations are utilizing various customer commitment schemes to make their customers devoted towards the organization.

These loyalty schemes are applied by companies to be able to recognize the customers' needs and wants. With the identification of this likes and dislikes, the company provides the products relative to the needs and demand of the customers. This allows the company to make the customers determined and faithful towards the organization. A valued devoted and loyal customer is usually an asset for the business. These customers will help a company to survive in any difficult circumstances.

Tesco is an example for companies who wish to implement such plans of customer loyalty with a essential implementation of techniques of customer loyalty such as Team Card. This is the era of romantic relationship management and Marketing (RM). Various techniques of loyalty are ways to entice and maintain customers through this relationship marketing and improve the relation with the customer of an organization. These are the main need for this research. The concentrate has been directed at the loyalty plans of Tesco as it is the world's third best shop and Tesco has implemented schemes of commitment successfully and became an example to organizations who are enthusiastic about implementing various devotion schemes for success in their business.

Research objective

This can be an explanatory study of the commitment schemes in the UK retail supermarket sector. Therefore the general target of the study will be to explore the commitment strategies and their effects on the client behaviour. However the specific objectives are the following but are not limited to it.

To review the conceptual models and theoretical structure works related to customer devotion scheme.

To check out the techniques of customer loyalty schemes currently being used in Tesco.

To find out the amount of success of 'Club Card' loyalty plan in comparison to the loyalty strategies of other organizations.

By considering wider research and come to the advice on how TESCO can enhance their customer loyalty plans in order to increase the consistency of purchasing

By the analyses of the above listed objectives, the research would reach in its directed destination.

Research Questions

According the main objectives of the research, the below enlisted are the significant questions that ought to be analysed as a part of this research

Why should an industry practice customer loyalty schemes?

What will be the issues experienced by customers in lack of customer loyalty scheme?

How local population is damaged by customer devotion scheme?

In what ways supermarket loyalty schemes affect customers buying decisions?

What will be the factors that require to be looked at in the execution of customer commitment?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the devotion scheme?

How does it increase the consistency of purchases?

Firstly this analysis enquires about the practise of customer commitment strategies by different organizations and its own value in the success of group. Even if the client loyalty strategies of Tesco are concentrated for this research, with this, evaluations of the customer loyalty plans of others would also be analysed. Various literatures on the routines of the customer loyalty strategies by different firms would be assessed in the literature review. These tactics and their value would be analysed in comparison with Tesco's strategies of customer loyalty and an acceptable methods would be used to gather various major data. These major and secondary data would be analysed to attain in the primary objectives of this study.

Secondly, this research analyses the problems the customers may have been experienced in the lack of the various strategies of customer commitment. The customer devotion schemes allowed Tesco to identify the likes and dislikes of the customer properly and to respond in accordance with the client demand and needs. Inside the absence of this the customer will be required to choose the available goods on the market. This is a straightforward after impact of insufficient customer loyalty schemes. The study would analyse these things in detail.

The aftereffect of customer loyalty plans on the neighborhood modern culture would be analysed in the research further. The research then would analyse the affect of the customer loyalty techniques on the buying decisions of customers. The buying decisions of the clients will be damaged greatly by the client loyalty strategies and customer could be more committed towards the merchandise of the firm which supply the customer loyalty schemes and she or he may ignore a better product from other firm due to loyalty plan by one company. These changes in decision making by the clients would be analyzed as part of this research.

The factors or determinants which can be significant for the implementation of customer loyalty would be analysed further. Product quality, service quality, client satisfaction, brand image, etc. are various factors that ought to be looked at while implementing the client loyalty schemes in an organization. Only with the customer loyalty schemes, an organization cannot become successful in its business. All of the above discussed factors should be considered before applying various customer loyalty schemes in an organization.

There are various benefits and drawbacks for the client loyalty schemes. The research would analyse these advantages and disadvantages in relation with the shows of Tesco and its various customer devotion schemes. The research would try to provide recommendations to prevent the disadvantages experienced by Tesco with its customer devotion schemes. Finally this research would analyse how the frequency of purchases increases with these customer devotion schemes. These schemes make a committed action in the thoughts of the clients and this dedication forces them to acquire frequently because of the benefits of the client loyalty strategies.

These areas could be the crux of this research. Various prior literatures would be analysed to determine the viewpoints of different scholars on these fields of customer devotion and the customer loyalty schemes in organizations. Different ways of main data collection would help me to look at the current issues in the client loyalty schemes encountered by both the customers and firms. The data would be analysed to attain in a pertinent outcome of the research. Further, appropriate recommendations would be provided to increase the functionality of the client loyalty strategies in the organizations especially in Tesco.

Method of Analysis

A phenomenological paradigm is the idea of this research design. According to the research technique, the qualitative research is given more importance than the quantitative research for the study of this research because the qualitative research technique looks beyond categorization and efforts to identify the irregularities in the data by proper understanding of the meaning of the action or test (Saunders et al, 2003).

The Researcher would try to use appropriate research strategy in accordance with the problem even if the importance will be given to the qualitative technique. This would help the research to attain its real vacation spots.

Structures of the Research

'Introduction', the chapter one reveals the intellectual to focus this research particular to the importance of the client loyalty plans in retail very marketplaces specifically in Tesco. Secondly the significance of the study is defined. Finally in this 'release', the overall structure of this study is offered.

The second chapter is 'Books Review' and it explores the previous literatures on the devotion schemes by organizations. it begins with the inception of customer devotion techniques to its levels of development. The main interest of the literature review is to provide an summary of the vital areas of research which creates the crux of the challenge of research.

The third section is 'Research Strategy' which talks about the different methodologies used because of this research purpose. It offers different methods of data collection, variety of interviews conducted because of this data collection because of this research and the types of questions requested these interviews. Within this chapter, a variety of related documents are analysed such as various books and articles which says about the questions of research.

In the section four, 'Conclusions and Analyses', the discussions on the studies of the study would be analysed in a systematic and medical manner. The info from the gathered data from the examination of documents and interviews are construed by the researcher to offer an explanation about any emergent and significant information which can recognize or reject the intent of this research.

In section five 'the finish and advice', the research concludes with various advice for the improvement of customer commitment strategies for the retail industry especially for Tesco Plc. In the conclusion, a final discussion would get on the research beginning with its preliminary levels to the research conclusions and analyses.

Chapter Two

Literature Review


The literature Overview of this research covers the concept of customer commitment and the importance of the customer review strategies. This section analyses different literatures on the concept of customer devotion and it compares the views of the various scholars on this concept. The development of the plans of customer loyalty is also concentrated by a sizable range of scholars and their literatures are analysed as part of this research. The purpose of the customer loyalty strategies is the devoted customers. Practical means are manufactured by the marketers to be able to improve the loyalty of customers, it is necessary to discuss the elements which constitute loyalty (Arantola, 2001). Which means this chapter commences with the research on the literatures on customer commitment. It can help us to comprehend the concept in detail and it will allow us to comprehend why the marketers choose different schemes to enhance the loyalty of their customers.

Customer Loyalty


The idea of customer loyalty has been analysed because the introduction of the concept in 1920s (Lichtl & Plichon 2008). Because of many prevailing descriptions, it is difficult to give a conclusive explanation for customer commitment. Matching to Litchtle and Plichon (2008), the idea of customer loyalty has widened and today's style is highly powerful, relational and situational strategy. The different definitions have many similar elements which would be mentioned for developing a good comprehension of variety of perspectives.

Uncles et al. (2003) denoted three most popular formulations of devotion that are attitudinal methodology, behavioural methodology and contingency methodology. Lichtle and Plichon (2008) and Peppers and Rogers (2004) also denoted behavioural and attitudinal solutions of commitment. Lichtle and Plichon (2008) discovered a third way named blended or composite way. These different solutions can be discussed next.

The attitudinal way says a customer who is loyal is one which includes acquired a favourable attitude for the brand (Lichtle & Plichon, 2008). At exactly the same time some scholars are in the view that there should be a strong dedication of attitudes to a brand for living of true loyalty (Uncles et al. 2003). In this manner of loyalty is called emotional commitment also as the acquisitions of customers are used through favourable attitudes and positive feelings for the brand. Peppers and Rogers (2004) clarifies that attitudinal devotion will exist when a determined customer will be inclined to acquire with a payment of prime for the name of the brand even though a competitor provides a similar, less expensive product. According to this approach, the loyalty of a customer has higher links with the satisfaction of the clients.

Regular purchase of a similar brand is considered as the behavioural loyalty. This approach of commitment can be evaluated by the behavior of genuine purchase like retention rate or series of purchase (Lichtle & Plichon, 2008). According to the definition of Peppers and Rogers (2004), this process the activity of repurchases which do not respect any choices of the brand or inner behaviour. Uncles et al. (2003) is of the opinion that very few customers are dedicated to only 1 brand and he says they can be polygamous. Lichtle says they show the commitment to more than one brand. So Uncles et al. (2003) identify the customer devotion in accordance with the behavioural way as "an ongoing propensity to choose the brand, usually as you of several". So it is to be appreciated that the disloyalty is differed from having more than one devotion (Lichtle & Plichon, 2008). Corresponding to Uncles et al (2003), behavioural strategy of loyalty causes only a commitment which is very weak in characteristics because the loyalty of a customer towards a brand is resulted only because of repeated satisfaction of the customer. A consumer buys a product of a brand which provided the most satisfaction to her or him. The identification of an alternate product of another brand is time consuming and difficult and because of this truth, the same brand is bought again and again without any determination or commitment to the brand.

Arantola (2003) identifies the devotion of the client with the behavioural methodology. She is in the point of view that the loyalty can be an amount of repeat obtain the similar supplier under a particular time period. Corresponding to her, however, this is is wider and duplicate purchases are combined with positive attitudes in relation to the way of attitudinal loyalty (Arantola, 2000).

In compliance with the blend of the re buying behavior and positive attitude, the eye-sight of the devotion can be said as two dimensional. This above meaning of Arantola leads to a mixed way provided by the Lichtle and Plichon (2008).

Huddleston et al. (2004) offers a classification which denotes loyalty as the partnership between patronage behavior and relative attitude. This model was proposed at first by Dick and Basu in 1994 itself. They discovered the precise antecedents which impact the relative attitude for a brandname which include conative, affective and cognitive antecedents. The commitment marriage is also affected by situational impact and different cultural norms accoding to this definition.

In addition to the blended procedure, Lichtle and Plichon (2008) was included with the ideas of stability as time passes (persistence) and amount of resistance to the stresses of switching. Matching to this, a faithful customer is discovered as you, who remains truly dedicated to the brand and its own products despite the affect of the rivals who persuade the buyer to switch from the brand. Devotion can be denoted as biased, coherent, consistent and continuous response which dissent the rivals initiatives (Lichtle & Plichon, 2008)

In this is of Dick and Basu (1994), situational factors and the norms of contemporary society have emerged to be afflicted with the relationship between your patronage behaviour and relative attitude. Uncles et al, (2003) says about the 3rd model in the three conceptualizations of loyalty, contingency way, which says that the partnership between behavior and attitude is moderated the circumstances of the individual like ramifications of budget pressure of the time or situation of purchase e. g. option of products and special offers. This approach says that although a there is a strong attitude for the brand, these elements determine if the brand has been seen suitable whenever a demand or need for such something forms. Checking to the way of behavioural loyalty where satisfaction is the determinant to repurchase, within this approach, a much more complex consideration for the prediction of the next buy.

This discussion denotes that the devotion of customers has a variety of definitions so when one discusses the commitment of the customer, it is necessary to comprehend that the type of devotion he meant. The concept of loyalty does not mean only re purchase of same brand. The factors like attitudes of the customers, persuasion of rivals to change from the brand etc. should be considered whenever we consider the concept of devotion. Uncles et al gives a much more extensive definition for loyalty which was compiled by Oliver (1997), "A deeply organised commitment to re buy or patronize a preferred product/service constantly in the future, thereby causing recurring same-brand or same brand arranged purchasing despite situational affects and marketing work getting the potential to cause switching behaviour. "

True Loyalty

Bloomer and Kasper (1995) have investigated on the relationship between brand devotion and the satisfaction of the customer. In their classification of commitment also the duplicate buying is differentiated from the commitment towards a brandname. In repeat purchases, the degree of determination of the customer is not taken in to consideration just as the customer commitment. The idea of devotion is further divided in to spurious loyalty and true devotion. In true commitment, the idea of the determination of the clients for the brand is taken in to account and with this true commitment, a person makes repurchases and he cannot be persuaded by the competitors easily. At exactly the same time in spurious loyalty, the buyer may not have attachment into the brand and they can be easily persuaded by the competition of the brand.

The authors say that a direct effect is there between the inspiration of the client to judge their selections of brand and the true commitment of the brand. However when the customer has more capacity to evaluate his / her selection of brand, the effect on the true loyalty of the brand becomes negative. This denotes the fact that when a person is included highly with the decision of purchase, he or she could be more devoted to the brand. When a customer has multiple options on the market as well as in his mind, loyalty may well not develop highly in such case (Lichtle & Plichon, 2008).

The Degree of Loyalty

The amount of the devotion can be tracked from the development of relationship in several levels. Arantola (2001) and Payne (2009) discovered different periods of commitment of customers. Payne makes his classifications of different stages with the name 'loyalty ladder' where in fact the relationship emerges from the prospect to partner. Out of this prospect, the buyer becomes a buyer after a purchase from the firm once. The client is a repeated buyer without any special feelings for the company. The customer enjoys the company and advocates and advertised word of mouth about the company. Payne (2009) says that moving a customer from one step of the ladder to some other is not really a difficult thing but definitely with the interest of the organization. These customers act as the advocates of the firm and these advocates are most significant marketers of the organization they become referees to some other clients and referrals are believed as the utmost believable and effective sources of information.

Arantola (2001)'s classification is based of continuous dedication where we can identify various stereotypes of commitment of customer. Alternatively, the consumers are considered logical and looking at, who can't ever be loyal as they change the provider whenever it becomes logical. The next kind of customer is a consumer who thinks on learned behavior and behaviors, so repeat purchases from similar provider. The third type of loyalty is considered as the better one in comparison to other types. The type of the clients with this loyalty approach can be described as decision making based mostly mainly on emotions. In this case, the product of the brand performs an ideological and incredibly strong role in the life of the consumer and a profound commitment from the client towards this brand.

Deep Commitment in the partnership with customer

Loyalty towards good brands

Repeat purchase from the similar supplier

Customers aren't loyal

Different types of loyalty of customer

(Arantola, 2001)

Advantages of Loyal Customers

It is vital to discuss about the benefits of having dedicated customers for a brand. Especially in case there is super market segments, it is through the devoted the dedicated customers, they forecast their sales. It has been suggested by Huddleston et al. (2004) as the clients spend 78 percent of the cover food in one principal store and devoted customers spend 32 percent more in comparison with some other clients.

Permanent customers are extremely beneficial for the business. Acquiring new customers is a task which costs five times more than keeping one. A dedicated permanent customer brings cash flows which are constant in nature. Which may be increased further as the buyer gets familiar with different products of the company. It really is called as mix advertising or additional offering. Dedicated customers can also afford cost of procedure advantage in fewer markdown varieties and forecasting of simplified capacity. Level of sensitivity of price may be increased or lowered relative to the customer (Aranola, 2003; Huddleston et al. 2004)

A growing customer base can be made by making use of faithful customers are they are anticipated to spread the term of mouth area for the brand. Devoted customers help the business to boost its services with their complaints and the business would take care of those complaints with due esteem. Loyal customers are considered to ignore the marketing and sales communications by the rival businesses (Arantola, 2003).

Criticisms towards the advantages of dedicated custmer

Every business strives to make gains. It is considered to be ways to cost advantages and for many non measurable advantages to have a loyal customer. But Reinartz and Kumar (2002) claim that the relationship between the profitability and the loyalty of a person is much weaker and very complicated than the organizations may be dared to think.

It is recognized as loyal customers are less expensive than a typical customer. But research workers suggest that they are simply more expensive than ordinary customers. They are anticipated to be achieved some rewards like discounts in expense of products or in terms of better service for his or her loyalty. Another criticism is a devoted customer is ready to pay top quality because changing the distributor may become more expensive for the client due to costs of turning and this is basically because they are faithful to the business.

Reinartz and Kumar (2002) suggest further that organizations must section their customers on the basis on the potential and success because sometimes even a long-term customer will not be profitable always. Id and focusing of the very most profitable customers is the basic idea in customer romantic relationship management.

Customer Loyalty Schemes

The development and needs of the client loyalty strategies are reviewed in this part of studies. Customer romantic relationship management is also reviewed in this part as customer commitment schemes are usually used as an instrument of CRM (Customer Relationship Management).

Customer Relationship Management

Customer loyalty plans can be viewed as as an instrument for organizations to distributed customer romance management (Uncles et al. 2003). While analyzing loyalty schemes, it might be appropriate to get started with customer marriage management and the predecessor of CRM, the partnership marketing (RM).

For the maximization of earnings, the marketing thinkers have been centered on singular exchanges and creating purchases since 1980s (Gronroos, 2008). This technique of marketing way is known as transaction marketing and it is relied mainly on marketing combination. But in compliance with the severe changes in the markets, there was greater need for progressive marketing approaches. It had been difficult for companies to acquire clients in mature markets and companies became pressurised on their profitability. At exactly the same time, the organizations became globalized and the needs of customer became highly challenging. This made changes in the solutions of marketing as well. The target of marketing was transformed from simple customer acquisition to retention of customers also (Payne, 2009)

The competing hobbies of various stakeholders of an organization like share holders, customers, and employees are centered by marriage marketing (RM). Matching to Payne (2009), romantic relationship marketing can be differentiated by three rules. They are emphasis on retention of customers, emphasis on multiple market segments and marketing's combination functional nature. The main aim of romance marketing is maximization of life time value of customers. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to identify profitable customers and develop pertinent strategies. Subsequently, for achieving permanent success in the industry environment, a romantic relationship should be developed between companies and multiple stakeholders. Taking care of such multiple human relationships is handled by the third characteristic of marriage marketing. Marketing is highly recommended as everyone's business somewhat than of simply marketing departments and organizational culture should have to understand this simple fact.

The next technology of relationship marketing is CRM (Customer Relationship Management). In this approach, advanced technologies allow the organizations to accumulate the customer data and these data allows a business to provide one to one marketing. Payne (2009) phone calls customer relationship management as romance marketing empowered with information. Multiple benefits of CRM are brought up by this publisher. The customers have emerged as the assets of a business & most profitable customers are discovered by using these details by CRM. The organization is allowed to maintain resilient relationship with these customers.

Customer romantic relationship management specializes in the life circuit of customers because long term relationships and give attention to these profitable customers are greatly related to raised success through more mix buying and greater orders. Organizations use different ways of influence these customers throughout their life pattern by developing the relationship with them for duplicate purchase behaviour and then for stimulating the merchandise usage. These strategies are called customer commitment programs (Meyer-Waarden, 2008).

Customer Loyalty Schemes and Development

The romantic relationship marketing made the focus on acquiring and keeps the clients with the organization in the marketing actions. It was determined that in B to B markets, suppliers which have close romance with customer also have more customers who are devoted to them which gave them a higher talk about in their business. (Dowling &Uncles, 1997). The customer cards and other techniques of loyalty came out for handling the partnership with customers and also to gain the determined advantages of loyal customers (Boedeker, 1997). In late 1980s itself, the sooner steps for the devotion schemes were emerged (Arantola, 2003). Large customer groupings made the duty of id and close romantic relationship with individual customers each an impossible one but at the same time the identification of the customers is found by the research workers (Dowling &Uncles, 1997). To improve immediate marketing, organizations assumed marketing by using databases which helped them to obtain personal knowledge about the customers. Various pay back programs for customers were invented and unveiled. The emergence of such commitment schemes was took place in such industries which have product range of low engagement, higher amount of competition inside the industry and in such sectors the permanent costs were commanded rather than varying costs (Arantola, 2003).

Customer retention and devotion of customers were focussed and it has been started spreading within the next decade. The techniques of commitment were top quality for creating a competitive advantage in the industry. But the majority of these strategies were carelessly imitated and altered slightly by the organizations. But they branded these schemes irrespective of these facts.

The capacities of the loyalty plans have mixed towards focussing on acknowledgement and rewarding. More customized marketing became possible such as one to one marketing by using analysis and development of the information from the customer data (Arantola, 2003). The expenses and investments are also getting increased by all the time for the client loyalty techniques. Meyer- Waarden (2008) says 16 top retailers in Europe paid more than $1 million because of their loyalty schemes altogether in 2000. The expenditures of present time will be multiples of the amounts for certain.

Characteristics of Devotion Programs

Loyalty schemes can be viewed as as tools for training RM (romantic relationship marketing) as mentioned above. Some writers say these strategies are simply just communication programs of marketing while others see these commitment schemes as plainly customer marriage management systems (Arantola, 2003; Meyer-Waarden, 2007).

Loyalty schemes are depicted as interactive programs which generally targets large sets of customers by making use of data basic of customers. Arantola (2003) confirms most of the explanations on the client loyalty schemes lack the idea of dedication of customers and the shoot for commitment of customers. In my opinion the following definition would become more appropriate in accordance with the research subject. Meyer- Waarden(2007) identifies the loyalty strategies as marketing activities' involved system which aims to help make the consumers more devoted with the development of personalized romantic relationship with them.

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