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Tqm Implementation Framework For Indian Companies

  1. "An organization can't buy its way into quality - it must be led into quality by top management".
  2. 8. 2 The goal of the Proposed Model
  3. 8. 3 Proposal for integration of Management systems
  4. Figure 8. 1 The IMS concept
  1. Table 8. 1 Great things about integration of management systems
  2. 8. 4 A Model for Implementing TQM
  3. The biggest challenge for an Indian business today is usually to be competitive, not only in the country but globally also. Competitiveness, being truly a multi-dimensional idea, can be improved through many ways. An effective and proven way is through the product quality way, which really is a major source for creating lasting competitive gain for organizations. There are prominent illustrations among countries and their organizations that contain become competitive through the quality way (Dutta-2007).
  4. Figure 8. 2 Steps of the purposed model
  5. First Step
  6. Creating Quality Climate
  7. [. . . ] people in the business must make quality a culture in their daily lives. Furthermore, additionally it is important to understand that TQM is a long-term perpetual improvement process necessitating significant resources, both financial and human being. It is a powerful process - not really a static one. It really is a continuous effort without deadlines or concentrate on dates. The procedure can never be looked at complete since there is absolutely no goal or vacation spot; hence, TQM becomes a way of life (Mehra et al. , 2001, p. 856).
  8. Effective Communication
  9. Employee Empowment
  10. Table 8. 2 Results of step 1
  11. Step 2 Recognition and Preparation
  12. Figure 8. 4 Step 2 2 requirements.
  13. Creating Quality Awareness
  14. Fig 8. 5 Degrees of Knowledge
  15. Appointing Quality Manager
  16. Training
  17. Figure 8. 6 Systems approach to TQM training
  18. Forming TQM Steering Committee
  19. Facilitators and Improvement Teams
  20. Review Organization's Status
  21. Top Management Commitment
  22. Table 8. 3 Results of step 2
  23. Implementation Process
  24. Figure 8. 7 Implementation step
  25. Figure 8. 8 Quality Methods to be implemented
  26. Focusing on Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
  27. Figure 8. 9 Implementation of the critical success factor of TQM
  28. Table 8. 4 Process improvement tools
  29. Step four: Maintaining TQM and monitoring its progress
  30. Performance measurement
  31. Figure 8. 9 Step 4 requirements
  32. Rewarding System

In order to put into action total quality management, Hales and Chakravorty (2006) discovered that after identifying the tools for improvement to be utilized, the next thing is to understand the overall operations, and to set priorities for the job. The rationale for developing a framework is the fact that it offers the composition for introducing quality management in a planned manner and proposes step-by-step assistance on how to carry on if a set of goals is usually to be achieved.

One way to comprehend overall operations is by developing a process map. Corresponding to Pyzdek (2003)

"An activity map is visual representation of an activity, showing the series of tasks utilizing a improved version of standard move charting icons. The map of an work process is an image of how people do their work. Work procedures maps act like road maps in that there are a variety of routes that will attain the objective. In virtually any given situation, one option may be much better than others. By creating a process map, the various alternatives are displayed and effective planning [to enhance the process] is facilitated".

Frameworks relating to Boaden & Dale (1994) help as

" a way of presenting ideas, concepts, ideas, and plans in a non-prescriptive manner. They allow the user to choose their own starting place, specific plan of action, and priorities, and also to develop the average person components of TQM at a pace that suits their business situation and available resources. "

Failure to TQM implementation is not due to flaws in TQM guidelines but insufficient systems for executing TQM properly. Regarding to Samson et al(1998) the explanation for failing in implementing TQM are mainly due to how it is applied i. e the implementation stage. One problem is that the objective, the strategy and the needed prices aren't interfaced with TQM approach. Many organizations appear caught with the opinion that TQM is something that is added on to their existing system. TQM should be observed as a new way of controlling the business. Implementation of TQM is a complex process since all employees you start with top management need to simply accept important change. Management commitment is crucial in TQM execution and this determination must be permeated to the employees. However striving to change from a culture where firefighting prevails to a fresh culture where constant plans are created, improvement is a norm and attitude is proactive alternatively than looking forward to problems that occurs, is quite a formidable task. It'll definitely require a new thinking style, the thinking for quality.

Some of the reasons why a framework is needed are

To illustrate an overview of TQM so as to communicate new perspective of the organization.

To push the management to handle a substantial list of key issues which otherwise may not be addressed.

To give understanding in to the weaknesses and strengths of the organization.

More importantly to aid implementation and improve the likelihood of TQM success

So producing TQM execution model (flowchart) or construction is crucial and really should be one of the first things to be done before embarking on TQM. The framework will make the business more alert to TQM itself and also present its elements and features in a far more comprehensive, managed and timely manner.

A comprehensive execution of TQM will involve improvements in all departments of the organization through standardization and management of variant in the procedures. Despite implementation troubles, TQM has had and is expected to have further positive benefits and advantages of the workforce and the business overall. TQM must be accepted as a thorough and long-term management strategy. With a long-term perspective, it's important to allocate sufficient resources and keep maintaining a clearly visible determination to such allocation of financial, individuals and technological resources, in first and on-going stages of applying TQM; this is an essential although complex task as any constraints must be looked at. To be able to successfully put into action TQM, a organized approach is needed to develop a framework or a model (Dale et al. , 2001; Yusof and Aspinwall, 2000). The construction should be simple, reasonable and yet extensive enough for TQM execution. The development of the product quality model because of this research was based on the Comprehensive literature review and comparability of best practices frameworks which were successfully applied in other organizations. It is also based on the research studies from the questionnaire survey conducted one of the Indian companies. A blending of the salient feature of the frameworks supplies the best strategy for the introduction of a best practice construction for utilizing TQM in Indian companies. The results from quantitative analysis and connection with the organizations analyzed indicated that there are some obstructions in the implementation of TQM and because of this it is not successfully implemented in some of the Indian organizations. These obstacles are mainly because management understanding and commitment to the product quality strategy has been inadequate no indicator of employee engagement in a few of the conditions. This indicated a traditional, bureaucratic management style. To change this situation, Indian companies should choose a way of expanding best practice methods to support the transformation to raised performance. This cannot happen by chance; it should be planned. A lot of the quality experts and practitioners concur that leadership can be an important factor influencing the successful program of quality management concepts, as stated by Deming (1986).

"An organization can't buy its way into quality - it must be led into quality by top management".

TQM implementation models developed from American society may well not suit other societies due to the differences in communal structure, economy, and life-style, specifically cultural beliefs. Individuals from different countries have different prices, beliefs, and behaviour that are affected by their cultural background. There is absolutely no "right method" for employing quality management, but the local framework will have a major effect on its execution. The proposed model, provides users with a number of practices, attracted mainly from the study findings and from practical experience of companies in developing countries that have implemented TQM and been successful. The analysis of the previous encounters with TQM provided proposals for growing an effective strategic framework for the execution of TQM.

8. 2 The goal of the Proposed Model

At present some Indian establishments are also seeking to achieve making superiority and are fighting on the globe market without proper rules and path (Sharma et al-2008). The frameworks that are purposed by consultants and assessors and they are typically used in other countries to offer an approach for the execution of TQM in local companies. Further, significant dissimilarities exist between each model plus some models dwelling address only an extremely few issues. Which means suggested model will focus on addressing all issues and attempt to develop a extensive platform for TQM which will be suitable for domestic industries. The necessity for a fresh platform is also thought for establishing a process which will regulate how much management emphasize and resources should be placed on programs or the main element initiatives that making can use in order for the organization to be always a quality corporation.

As understood so far it could be seen that quality management is an imperative for competing in the global market and Indian business have been found seeking in their efforts to endure the changed situation. There is a requirement for a proper platform or model for providing direction and instruction to organizations in reaching manufacturing excellence in today's Indian market scenario - a platform that will suit the Indian milieu and provide strategic guidelines for Indian industry. The purpose of this TQM model (flowchart), as offered in this section, is to bring an attitudinal change to Indian companies and set the route for the implementation of quality initiatives in all spheres of business activities. The procedure of implementation of this model is likely to work faster and much more efficiently when there is strong commitment from both top management and employees. The easier the procedure used the better it works.

8. 3 Proposal for integration of Management systems

An designed management system that is capable of integrating quality in to the complete production infrastructure of the organizations will ensure that the system complies with the needs of both organizations and the stakeholders. There should be only one management systems standard rather than developing a bundle of these. The requirements of the standards are simply are basic elements that can be integrated into the existing organizational system of the business enterprise. EMS, QMS, OHSAS, Friendly Accountability Criteria and other such criteria, are now more frequently regarded as base of system elements that package with a particular part of any organization's structure and dynamics. Once integrated, these elements become the different parts of the overall system, undifferentiated and totally congruent with the primary principles of employee involvement, management authority, process consistency, protection, and continual improvement. These systems are also expected to include common organizational elements for training, corrective and precautionary actions. The Indian organizations should put into practice IMS to promote synergies among different systems also to avoid duplication of steps. IMS theory is shown in body 8. 1.

Figure 8. 1 The IMS concept

The benefits of such integration will be as shown in pursuing table 8. 1


Reduction in duplication of procedures, techniques and work instructions


Reduced costs


Synergy between MSS


Saving of time


Simple documentation


Less types of procedures and less paperwork


Multi-functional audits


Improved decision making process


Higher transparency


Clearer responsibility


Better set up processes


Enhanced effectiveness


Higher consciousness and acceptance


Improved communication


Improved image with customers


Competitive advantage

Table 8. 1 Great things about integration of management systems

8. 4 A Model for Implementing TQM

The model offered in this platform was created to help organizations begin and continue with the transition to full TQM. It functions as a guide for execution of TQM in the Indian environment which is unique with the united states having been a safe economy for a large time frame. Because of this Indian companies have suffered with a lack of vision, poor command, misuse of expensive resources, have ignored the potential of human resources as an important agent for change, dismissed customers, and insisted on preventing modern approaches to management. One Indian researcher has recently stated

The biggest challenge for an Indian business today is usually to be competitive, not only in the country but globally also. Competitiveness, being truly a multi-dimensional idea, can be improved through many ways. An effective and proven way is through the product quality way, which really is a major source for creating lasting competitive gain for organizations. There are prominent illustrations among countries and their organizations that contain become competitive through the quality way (Dutta-2007).

Managing quality in the organizations yields better quality, higher output, more careers and potential to survive the competition. Nowadays after the country has opened up its doorways to the open market system and has joined WTO, Indian companies have found themselves to maintain a crucial position due to international competition. Some of the Indian companies urgently desire a large-scale radical change and transformation in the manner business is performed, especially in the areas of standardization and quality management. It has become evident to many of the companies affected that they have soon to move towards quality improvement. Adopting the quality proposed model takes a significant change in organizational culture and management philosophy. Moving in one stage to the other is dependent upon the harnessing of knowledge and know-how gained through the previous phase and satisfying each phase assessment criteria.

The proposed framework contains four stages and is designed to help Indian companies get started and move detail by detail towards TQM culture. Number 8. 2 and 8. 3 show steps of the suggested model.

Figure 8. 2 Steps of the purposed model

First Step

Creating Quality Climate

The quality environment has profound affect on all other practical aspects of implementation of TQM. A successful implementation builds upon an excellent management prerequisite such as an existing quality culture. The reported failures in books have been related to inadequate execution of TQM mainly caused by a missing leadership strategy or the willingness and ability to improve the culture. In this particular climate individuals take up the behaviors of TQM over time as new behaviors and ways of working replace old styles. TQM itself is to be grasped as unfolding two slightly different but related notions. The first is a idea of constant improvement. The next related so this means uses TQM to spell it out the various tools and techniques, such as brainstorming and force-field analysis, which are being used to put quality improvement into action. The organizational culture comes with an effect on the conception, planning, implementation and success of quality initiatives. By mixing the quality requirements into the aspects of organizational life lived by the organizational customers, organizational culture facilitates and enhances quality (Mathew-2007).

At this step the business may has been traditionally managed and does not have any skill at TQM or how to boost its procedures and systems. It offers significant problems such as insufficient managerial skill, weak administrative systems or low worker morale, operations are poorly controlled and the ultimate success depends upon the dedicated effort of all the employees of the business. This period is characterized by an excellent control. If this is the case in a organization, TQM would not be the best choice of organizational change to get started on with. It is better to start a thorough programme of management and command development. A management audit is an excellent assessment tool to recognize current degrees of organizational functioning and areas in need of change. A business should be quite simply healthy in its daily management routines before beginning TQM (Deming, 1986).

SWOT analysis may be undertaken. The top management must be aware of its talents, weaknesses, opportunities and dangers. It must have the ability to control the weaknesses. The managers must be focused on learning and offer a role model in seeking knowledge and be alert to the complicated realities where they and their organizations operate. The very best management should show up at awareness courses, training seminars, workshops and conferences, until they have a certain degree of knowledge which permits them to judge the improvement initiatives coming from their employees and consultants, have the ability to make the right strategic decisions, and develop solutions and innovative approaches within their organizations. Managers should know how to benefit from the experience of other people who have already efficiently shifted their organizations to an improved competitive position by adopting TQM. To maintain quality and become competitive, market leaders should generate a learning business. Before committing themselves top management must completely understand the concepts of TQM or any other quality management system they want to implement. TQM is both a mind-set and a couple of sensible activities, an frame of mind of mind as well as a method of promoting continuous improvement. The management and employees have to totally understand and become convinced why the organization should achieve total quality, which is to guarantee the organization's sustainability within the climate of competition. Each and every member in the organization must have the same comprehension of terms used for TQM such as quality, defect, good services, bad services, customer etc. TQM cannot exist without this complete popularity and once it is in place then different systems and tools can be initiated to propagate and help a culture based on such a philosophy. Which means this step is seen as a following accomplishment

(1) Top management commitment for quality

(2) Perspective and Mission

(3) Middleground Culture change

(4) Long-term commitment

(5) Unity of purpose

Some creators also stated need for culture and stated

[. . . ] people in the business must make quality a culture in their daily lives. Furthermore, additionally it is important to understand that TQM is a long-term perpetual improvement process necessitating significant resources, both financial and human being. It is a powerful process - not really a static one. It really is a continuous effort without deadlines or concentrate on dates. The procedure can never be looked at complete since there is absolutely no goal or vacation spot; hence, TQM becomes a way of life (Mehra et al. , 2001, p. 856).

Before putting into action TQM management will need to determine whether a change in culture or a big change in the behaviour of the organization's employees is necessary. For many organizations a big change in behavior may be looked at sufficient. However, suffered commitment is much more likely if employees share the same mental types of quality in the organization. A cultural audit can permit senior management control to identify belongings as well as liabilities in their culture. This is done by carefully reviewing the results and identifying which aspects are property of the existing culture and are adding to the TQM mission and goals of the organization. Simultaneously, the organizational leadership can identify those areas of culture, which are impeding organizational performance. Many authors suggest that TQM must be instituted as a radical change in organizational culture. Often, however, this shift creates amount of resistance because the essential assumptions with which customers are aligned are challenged. Rather than a total change, middle floor change operations should be used through incremental change, inertia is beat and level of resistance is avoided. Teamwork seems to have a specific pivotal role in terms of bringing about change. Some of the organizations have produced lots of advantages from the utilization of groups, including increased specific performance, less absenteeism, reduced staff turnover, advancements in production routine time, and better quality.

Effective Communication

Resistance to improve could possibly be the major obstacle for TQM execution in an group. In early implementation, the top executives of the firms donot concentrate on formal composition and system, but create process-management teams to resolve real business or organizational problems. The main element to success in this area is to align the employees of the business enterprise. Total quality management will significantly change the way many organizations operate and 'do business. This change will require direct and clear communication from the top management to call staff and employees, to clarify the need to focus on functions. Everyone will need to know their assignments in understanding operations and enhancing performance. Employees' attitude and behaviour evidently can be influenced by communication. The substance of changing attitudes to total quality management is to get acceptance for the necessity to change, and because of this to happen it is essential to provide relevant information, communicate good practices, and generate interest, ideas and understanding through excellent communication procedures. The systems for disseminating the announcements vary from one company to some other.

Employee Empowment

Employee empowerment is to make a labor force that is energized by an improved ability to produce products that meet customer requirements. It can also mean an activity of strengthening employees' feeling and confidence in accomplishing aims by creating opportunities for employees to participate in decision-making and giving employees' autonomy from bureaucratic constraints. In TQM organizations, worker empowerment is operationalized by stimulating employees to react to quality-related problems and providing them with resources and authority to do so. Empowerment could be performed through worker selection and training programs designed to provide required specialized skills together with culture that induces self willpower and collaboration.

The results of the step is as follows

-Top management becomes aware of quality and will take some tentative steps

-Managers ask: What are requirements to build a TQM culture in the organization?, Just how do we begin?

-Are we willing to improve our style of management if that is required to make TQM work?

Table 8. 2 Results of step 1

Step 2 Recognition and Preparation

Step two is awakening to the potential of TQM. The objective at this stage is for top level management to develop and report a eyesight of improved upon quality, plus a tactical quality plan. This symbolizes the most critical phase of the model and requires the implementation of the critical factors for TQM implementation that are essential in Indian framework. The purpose of this is shown in body 8. 4.

Figure 8. 4 Step 2 2 requirements.

Creating Quality Awareness

The quality understanding has to be created at top management, midsection management and employees level. To start this new direction, the organizations begin by examining the type and degree of knowledge people possess. This is illustrated in Physique 8. 5. The greater older a person the higher is his assumed knowledge of business strategy; particularly where the company is heading. A lot more "hands-on" a person is, the greater the assumed understanding of the day-to-day work techniques. Senior managers have a tendency to know less about the technicians of the business but more about corporate objectives. For standard personnel it is vice versa. As it might be expected, middle professionals fit between the two extremes, at the break-even point. Organizations must strive to improve the break-even point. The target is to encourage senior management to understand more about day-to-day procedures while encouraging basic staff to gain higher business acumen. The break-even point, at the center management level, is midway between strategy and work procedures and corresponds to business processes. Business strategy materializes as business procedures which in turn are linked to the way work is conducted. Simple careers require simple business procedures. Complex jobs require procedures with multiple decisions and courses of action. In regards to to TQM, the break-even point should be the link between what should have finished and exactly what does get done, that is between the TQM vision and its own reality. Regrettably it is too often the idea of detachment between what senior management want to occur under TQM and exactly what does happen.

Fig 8. 5 Degrees of Knowledge

This step is absolutely necessary and to start a formal quality campaign and no-one can escape this step. It was always the truth through the quality management introduction in the Indian companies that top management didn't attend the training periods. The CEO and top management in this stage should in person follow the progress of the recognition period including recognition training. A lot more the CEO and top management become educated of TQM principles, techniques and tools (going to conferences, short workshops, workout sessions) a lot more the quality effort progresses through the implementation phase. The success stories may be of great help at this step. Top management should involve lower level managers, supervisors and employees in the training activities.

Appointing Quality Manager

The quality manager should be appointed. Quality director must be seen to support directly the primary goals of the business. Which means that they can't impose changed strategies on the business, but rather he has to persuade and assist in change. The quality manager's role can vary from one organization to another. He should works meticulously with senior professionals and serves as a vocal supporter for quality. He should not action a 'czar'. He should be a key player in the organization's tactical planning by championing the product quality process. The quality manager does not write the average person guidelines and protocols for quality initiative implementation but rather is associated with the overall management team in the introduction of a quality insurance plan and the accompanying quality manual in cooperation with a steering committee, departmental heads and managers. The quality manager provides instruction and advice and it is the focus for everyone issues associated with quality within the business. The quality administrator must be enthusiastic and amply trained with all departments of the organization. He must have relevant knowledge on quality management systems, methods and tools. He must be happy to study from others. He must have excellent skills in dealing with people and facilitating meetings. He should be able to choose the subunits for initiation of TQM implementation program.


A systems approach to TQM training is shown in figure 8. 6. Once top management acquired decided to start the quality trip, the fastest moving activity would be the provision of training. That is especially highly relevant to large organizations where different teams could start their training programs in parallel. With regards to the variety and amount of training required, the price could be very high and this could impede or delay the quality journey. This training should maintain applying useful skills, methods and techniques (such as problem solving techniques, quality control tools, 5S concepts and implementation, the use of the new or modified work instructions, confirming techniques and conference management) in their job related areas. The move from tolerance of inability to universally productive engagement in its reduction is a significant step of progress, but it can need a significant investment in training. The quality regulations in laboratories and the conformity requirements of quality, environment and protection management criteria should be contained in the training programs. Regular safeness workshops may be established to fortify the team customers' knowledge and skills on managing quality and security problems. Identify all computer ideas that are interesting for quality management including the related methods and tools. Furthermore to in-house training, team leaders plus some supervisory staff may be sent for outdoor assessor and management training in order to create experience and gain experience in the self-assessment process. The organization should shoot for most of the training to be completed by its personnel, so the step is to train the trainers. Working out should be over the hierarchy and cross-functional. The procedure should focus on top management, cascading to the front-line professionals/skilled staff. The role of training and development specialists in TQM execution is high plus they should be

Familiar with TQM and why it is necessary;

Assist with arranging training, e. g. needs analysis;

In some cases conduct training;

In other cases train the instructors (e. g. TQM facilitators);

Be an associate of the quality steering committee;

Act as a big change agent;

Develop proper training programmes (not only in TQM) to check the TQM process

Above all, trainers must practice TQM themselves.

Figure 8. 6 Systems approach to TQM training

Top managers and shop floor personnel receive more training in the areas of ``smooth'' quality tools, quality consciousness and customer concentrate than in statistical approaches. Middle managers and quality specialists get most quality-related training.

Forming TQM Steering Committee

In order to go successfully the product quality improvement projects, it's important they are set on the right groundwork. The Steering Group acts as that foundation, where mature management from different commercial functions, senior job managers and system end users ensure their energetic involvement; this is critical for the success of the job. The impact of such an organization is highest possible at the initiation, adoption and acceptances phases of the job life cycle and its role is to market, improve and lead improvement projects. The Steering Committee will

Provide path to organization departments regarding areas for product improvement;

Ensure Quality Improvement activities meet standard criteria and advise personnel on the QI pattern;

Allocate resources to enhance and support improvement initiatives;

Review current practices to identify, manage preventing deficiencies in service or product delivery;

Ensure the participation of most relevant stakeholders in service improvement activities;

Develop and execute a coordinated and organized approach to monitoring and the identification incentive of success

Facilitators and Improvement Teams

Appointed quality facilitators and coordinators will often have full-time jobs besides from interacting with quality which invariably means that quality is marginalized scheduled to business stresses. Likewise, quality meetings and problem resolving tend to be suspended due to a immediate increase or seasonal maximum in business. If quality is to avoid becoming yet another "flavour-of-the-month" it must not be held hostage to market forces or short-term business imperatives. Quality needs to be "costed" for, and allocated staff and business time, which are not swallowed up once work stresses mount. Facilitators, market leaders and team members must be properly been trained in team skills and problem-solving tools and techniques. Head is person who issues guidelines and has a managerial move in the business. The facilitator on the other hands could be someone from the a managerial position or anyone who has authority to impact both higher and lower levels in the organization. In so doing, a facilitator can put into action the desired decisions. The role of facilitator should portray includes: focus on the process; stay neutral; show support; control turmoil; know when to intervene; also to make available the necessary resources. Team training is undoubtedly the most important step and the most necessary aspect of team success and success (Thiagarajan et al. , 1998). Team building skills are needed to develop the necessary weather and culture that principles shared decision making. In training, midsection management comes with an important role to learn. One of the most effective ways to get the support of managers is to first evaluate their gathered experience, train them in quality principles and techniques, and then teach them as instructors (training the trainer programs). This will likely let them discover their own ability and the value of their experience. The researcher's practical experience suggests that when someone trains other workers they are more prepared with up-to-date knowledge. In consequence they become self-assured about training the individuals for whom they can be responsible and making certain their own commitment is communicated.

Review Organization's Status

Before beginning to present any improvement scheme the most notable management should ask 'Where are we now?' weighed against the desired criteria Also they must at a certain level, benchmark their business against their rivals. The focus of this exercise is to look at the various internal and exterior factors which threaten the effective execution of quality management initiatives such as politics, monetary, cultures and change level of resistance.

Top Management Commitment

Top management dedication does not just happen; it is hard to generate and sustain. It really is a combination of honest participatory leadership, eye-sight, enthusiasm, continued training and teamwork recognized by the introduction of a identification and praise system. A top management belief to TQM is usually positive however, not supportive in the long-run. It embraces TQM without understanding its impact on the long-term or management tactics of their company and this can cause inability to effectively add a quality initiative. If there have been only verbal support from older managements, staff soon follow with lip service to its ideas alternatively than effective action. (Deming, 1986). The TQM journey should start with a firm notion and determination to the philosophy of TQM by the very best management. It requires significant changes in general management philosophy and behaviours; it requires new priorities, additional resources, energy, time and regular support. Senior managers will not provide such support until they think that the improvement programme is practical. Quality improvement is a continuing process and should not be thought of as something with a newbie and a finish. Without a strong commitment from the most notable to develop a healthy culture, predicated on fairness, respect, trust, open communication, distributed information and teamwork, most organizations won't get very way in TQM. Table 8. 3 shows the productivity expected out of this phase. After the commitment to employing TQM has been proven, it is advisable to start to produce a corporate TQM eye-sight, review the motivations for such something, formulate TQM objectives, strategies and to launch an excellent campaign. In parallel with the primary quality implementation plan, companies could focus on small improvement tasks showing results and confirm the advantages of the new improvement design, so employees and decision manufacturers start believing in the advancements and study from them.

-Top management realizes need for quality management, allocate resources for this and show urgency

-Deployment of eye-sight and strategies.

- Employees at all levels notice TQM tools and strategies.

- Aims and goals of the quality program are documented

- The most notable management and employees works towards same goal i. e. quality improvement.

Table 8. 3 Results of step 2

Implementation Process

The execution process is shown in number 8. 7. Process measurements and advancements begin. Root-cause research, corrective action and quality Improvement groups are first trained in statistical process control, problem fixing and teamwork. These groups are then placed to work to attain the vision and tactical quality plan. This phase represents the true test of other phases and the effort to be carried out in the quality journey. It requires the implementation of quality techniques and execution of critical factors of the proposed platform for TQM implementation in the Indian context given in figures 8. 7; 8. 8 and 8. 9.

Figure 8. 7 Implementation step

Figure 8. 8 Quality Methods to be implemented

Focusing on Critical Success Factors (CSFs)

The organizations must measure the circumstances they are really facing, and make a decision on how to achieve the targets through TQM. However there are a few factors which companies can put more focus on ensure the success of TQM execution at least in the first stage of implementation. Although the top management by any means three companies indicated different views as to what they believed to be the critical success factors (CSFs) of TQM implementation that contributes to high performance, a closer assessment may imply management commitment could possibly be the most significant factors for developing organizations in India. The implication also aligns with the comment given by the TQM experts and are further improved by the quantitative final result. These Critical Success Factors are shown in body 8. 9.

Figure 8. 9 Implementation of the critical success factor of TQM

Various systems manage the techniques, and the tools are used to go ahead the improvement cycle. Information will form the basis for understanding, decisions and activities. The effective use of tools requires their software by the folks who actually work on the processes. Their commitment to the will be possible only if they are assured that management cares about bettering quality. Managers must show that they are serious by building a systematic strategy and providing the training and implementation support required. The conclusions claim that most companies use the easy tools and techniques at the early stage with their TQM adoption, but only put into action the more technical tools and techniques after getting more connection with TQM. When the goal is to improve process performance, training should be provided on tools needed to get involved effectively in the continuous improvement work. Understanding processes so that they can be improved by means of a systematic strategy requires the data of a straightforward package of tools or techniques. The various tools and techniques are shown in Stand 8. 4.

Statistical process control(SPC)

Cause and effect Diagram(CAED)

Control charts(CC)


Flow charts(FC)

Check bed linens(CS)


Pareto evaluation(PA)

Internal Audit(IA)

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis(FMEA)

Scatter Diagram(SD)

Poka Yoke(PY)

Design of Experiments(DOE)

Quality Function Deployment(QFD)


Process mapping(PM)

Gantt Graphs(GC)

Cost advantage analysis(CBA)

Fault Tree Examination(FTA)

Value-Stream Mapping(VSM)

Affinity Diagrams(AFD)

Arrow diagrams(ARD)

Matrix diagrams(MAD)

Force Field Analysis(FFA)


Andon Equipment and lighting(AN)

Hoshin Kanri

Table 8. 4 Process improvement tools

Step four: Maintaining TQM and monitoring its progress

Failure in preserving TQM occurs because TQM is often regarded as a fad and not adopted with deep commitment towards ongoing improvement and because senior management will motivate change through top-down activities without building a reasonable total quality basis. According to the findings, continuous improvement can be done through the process of self-assessment or follow-up activity. Self-assessment suggests the executing of several activities in a defined time sequence, and takes its cyclical process exactly like Deming's PDCA pattern. This quality allows companies to consistently measure and improve their position with respect to the earlier performance levels. Alongside the development of dedication, self-assessment, and bottom-up strategy via training, a facilitator or coordinator either from inside or outside should be used to maintain the follow-up process:

Once the method has been integrated, it is important to sustain, solution and screen its improvement. Since the primary objective is to boost quality and ultimately client satisfaction, organizations ought to know how well and how effectively the effort is fulfilling its goal. With appropriate dimension of improvement, the great things about any method will become evident and people will be prompted to use them frequently. Successful organizations constantly innovate and change, centered after customer needs and reviews. Understanding customer satisfaction and the capability to meet customer objectives has a direct effect on the company's financial performance. It is useful to carry out customer surveys routinely to measure a big change in the level of client satisfaction. One way of calculating client satisfaction is to acquire customer source from various programs, such as research, focus organizations, or customer complaints, and combine these details so that they can get an accurate measure of client satisfaction. Customer feedback is a very important tool for the success of a company. Once the customer feedback is retrieved, the insight provided by the customers should be carefully examined and used to improve the overall satisfaction degree of all customers.

Performance measurement

The main reason for any way of measuring system is to provide opinions, relative to the business goals, that enhances its chances of obtaining these goals proficiently and effectively. Good performance dimension is essential for performance improvement: what you solution is what you get. If the business can get its performance way of measuring right, the data that the machine generates will help to tell where in fact the company is located, how it does relative to its goals, and where in fact the company is going. Performance procedures should be identified to monitor progress against the strategic plan. Overall business performance contains customer satisfaction (inner and exterior), employee satisfaction, product quality, and strategic business performance. The organization should use the latest information on overall business performance to compare its procedures with the best practice companies in the same industry. In this phase, the whole organization (production, sales, administration, shipping, real estate agents) is moving down the product quality road with clear programs and performance indicators; management continues a close watch and provides support, supporting in solving problems.

The company should ensure that all associates of staff have contact with customers (in person, by phone, by written correspondence) and receive trained in handling customer issues including telephone operators and receptionists. The ability to react to shortcomings and customer claims will lead to higher customer retention and follow-on sales, as well as increased customer loyalty. The company should invite reviews from customers on how their complaint was treated and keep an archive of customer complaints.

Poor Handling of Customer Claims:

There is not a system in the company for customers to make their grievances.

There is not any something to track record complaints

Failure of company employees to acknowledge there is a problem and offering no solution

Transferring the customer claims to other personnel.

Blaming the customer for the challenge.

Taking too much time to respond

Promising to contact the customer and not doing this.

The aim of an excellent management effort is to convert the culture of the organization to one that emphasizes a commitment to brilliance, a give attention to customers by everyone, ongoing improvement in procedures, products, and reliance on the talents of most employees. A clear indication that an corporation is making the change is the integration of quality management practices into the day to day activities of the business. Physique 8. 9 shows the reason and dependence on step four.

Figure 8. 9 Step 4 requirements

In step 4 4 because of this of the implementation phases, the TQM company must have achieved increased product and service, a reduction in wastage of resources, suffered competitive advantage, a motivated labor force and increased staff involvement.

Rewarding System

An appropriate compensation system is an important management tool to impact organizational participants' behaviour toward employee engagement. The advantages of employee participation should be combined with performance steps and rewards that strengthen the desired management style. It includes ceremonial activities organized to publicly acknowledge employee performance. The primary focus is on improvement activities. It is customary for senior professionals to preside over ceremonies in which either certificates or plaques are given to individuals who have finished classes. Sometimes Top Management take part in dinner meetings specifically organized to recognize a team that has achieved its quality goal. If these ceremonies can not be put in place, a simple "well done" notice from senior professionals would suffice. Essentially, the idea is to encourage people to apply the method in question within their day to day activities.

This chapter launched the framework proposed by the researcher as a highway map for TQM implementation in Indian production companies. The platform involves four steps. The emphasis of step one 1 was to encourage the most notable management to know what they may be doing and where they would like to go, before they embark on their quality journey, by educating themselves and discovering their understanding of quality management systems and how they can reap the benefits of adopting TQM or any other quality strategy. Step two 2 of the road map emphasized the need for top level management to plan well for the trip and make whatever is required to make the quality journey successful. An excellent supervisor should be appointed to organize and report these activities and awareness should be increased and top and middle management levels and among technical staff. A plan of intensive training should be started to train facilitators, departmental quality coordinators and group market leaders. Following this consciousness training, top management should form a TQM steering committee to manage the whole of the activities of the TQM project and provide support to quality management clubs. Before moving to the next step, employees should be well determined and involved to make sure their support through the implementation step. After the top management has shown their dedication to the product quality journey, step 3 3 can be started to apply the other critical success factors, review performance steps and design and redesign all techniques including suppliers and customer relationships. Fourth step of the suggested framework should concentrate on monitoring the progress and gratifying customer needs and constantly bettering the TQM platform at all organizational levels to be able to effect the necessary cultural change. Clearly, in an existing company it needs leadership, hard work, devotion and a refusal to carefully turn back. Many time of talk and planning are essential, and hearts and intellects by any means levels have to be won over. It has been described as trying to drive a trolley up a hill with, originally, few forcing up, many relaxing on top and some pushing downhill. The objective, definitely is to get almost all pressing uphill - some having without doubt dropped by the wayside. Although researcher presented these steps of TQM implementation as if these were linear and rational, he recognizes that in practice activities may emerge simultaneously and in non-linear fashion. The next section will summarize the complete thesis and produce recommendations, limitations and Future work.

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