Posted at 01.10.2018
The profession of nursing can be an action or obligation to give others, based on the technology of caring. Through the entire years, many medical leaders have developed ideas and principles about the medical profession. There have been attempts to determine the vocation and identify just what it is that motivates nurses to provide compassionate care with their patients. As a result, nursing ideas have been developed to aid in understanding the art of caring. Nursing theories are concepts and ideas that are grouped together for the purpose of describing, describing, predicting, or prescribing medical treatment (George, 2002, p. 5).
The purpose of this newspaper is to compare and contrast the culture good care variety and intercultural nursing theory of Madeleine Leininger with the humanistic nursing theory of Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad. There will be identification of the main element concepts of every theory, presentation of similarities and differences of the theories, and connection of the theories with other related ideas.
Nursing is the take action of looking after others, which requires the utilization of knowledge and doing activities to provide health services for other people. Relating to Dr. Gail Mitchell (George, 2002), "Nursing science signifies clusters of exactly selected values and principles that are crafted into specific theoretical buildings" (p. 2). Nursing theories have been present for quite some time, dating back to the ideas of Florence Nightingale, to the current ideas of medical leaders of modern day. Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture health care variety and universality was developed in 1976. The formulation of the theory was due to Leininger's experiences working in a child information home through the 1950's. She realized that repeated behavioral habits in the children appeared to have a social basis. This encouraged Leininger to discover unknown understanding of cultures and their core values, values, and needs, to be able to provide culturally congruent and experienced care for all patients (Parker, 2006). This theory became known as the transcultural nursing theory. It addresses the ethnical dynamics that contain an impact on the nurse-patient relationship.
Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad are credited with the formation of the humanistic nursing theory, that was first posted in 1976. Paterson and Zderad at first developed the ideas from the humanistic nursing theory as a way to define the medical profession. It was a way to illustrate the beliefs and meanings central to medical experience. The nurse-patient romance is formed when there's a call from a person, a family, a community, or from humanity for improve some health-related issue (Parker, 2006). The response between the two get-togethers, nurse and patient, is the work of nursing.
The culture care theory is very proven in the modern setting and used by various nursing institutions globally. It really is in fact regarded as the most noteworthy medical breakthrough in medical sector within the last century. The culture is renowned for its extensive, holistic but culturally-specific attentiveness in discovering resourceful medical care to different world cultures. The theory offers a hypothetical analysis information for the ever widening faculty of transcultural medical. It avails new educational materials on ways of looking after immigrants of varied ignored cultures.
The theory remains one of the oldest in nursing having been initiated 1950s and has unique features separating it from the other theories. It's the sole nursing theory overtly devoted to cross-cultural interactions of medical complications. It is also the lone theory that tries to dissect culture care and attention. It is very holistic in comparison with the other nursing theories and reaches cover multi-dimensional aspects of culture based health care. Its research methodologies increase across global cultures, examining the differences or diversities and commonalities of health problems and associated good care across cultures. It runs on the research method-ethnonursing, an attribute that distinctively separates it from humanistic nursing theory. It employs theoretical and useful concepts (Parker, 2006).
The hypothetical tenets of the theory are pulled from Leininger's broad and diverse experiences in medical, anthropological approaches, experience of life, individuals values and clever thoughts. The primary point of the theory is determine and elucidate different and global ethnically established attention aspects that impact health, disorder and individual or mass deaths. The research results of the idea are designed to offer alternatives that are safe, resourceful and most essentially congruent with specific ethnic identities. The means for safe, resourceful and congruent decisions and actions are the explained in the theory's proposals, hook deviation from this means would imply condition or death of the patients.
The theory has assumptive theories. First, health care of patient is the fact of the practice of medical and a discrete, overriding, essential and uniting focus. Second, care predicated on cultural profiling is vital for health, development, continued existence and in facing impairment or death. Third, care predicated on culture is the broadest, alternative and definitive means of knowing, elucidating, interpreting, and forecasting assistive congruent medical care practices. Fourth, good care predicated on culture is crucial in tries to remedy and mend, because there may be no therapeutic without specific health care. Lastly, concepts, habits, implications, expressions and procedures differ across cultures, with manifestation of dissimilarities and similarities.
Basically, the idea proposes the application of a culture's usually used therapeutic methods, then use of worldwide routines. For instance, regarding a bee sting in a sensible example, a mom of any Hispanic men used garlic to try and slow down the bloating from the sting. The use of the garlic to help resistant to the bee sting is the fact culture's unique healing and therapeutic methods (generic).
The humanistic medical theory postulates that professional nurses have a obligation to knowingly and deliberately address the practice of nursing as a continuing experience. After an experience, nurses have a responsibility to reveal and sketch their phone calls and response from lessons learnt. Collection and equivalent syntheses of experienced nursing phenomena over a period of time will produce explicit information of methodical tenets to be observed in nursing. Humanistic theory views nursing as an event assembled over time among humans. Every medical circumstance evokes reactions, and influences the manifestation and materialization of humans' capacity to endure particular existent conditions (Parker, 2006). A nurse has a responsibility to control these circumstances and associated conditions of being or herself.
Humanistic nursing takes into account more than caring, theoretically capable nurse-patient relationship. Rather, it requires that medical is a liable information, transactional connection whose resourcefulness calls for abstraction rooted on a professional nurse's experiential consciousness of self yet others. Existential experience supposes individual awareness of home and more, and recognition of most individuals' singularity presence and their own uniqueness in situations. Only a person might know his or her situation and for that reason understand what is necessary in his or her situation. The uniqueness of humans presents both fear and hope. However, while every man is exclusive in his / her own way, he or she is like other fellow human beings. Man's uniqueness makes him similar to all or any others, since all are unique.
Existential awareness necessitates one self's authenticity. This authenticity is more than intellectual, academics or scholarly awareness. Issues included are "auditory, olfactory, oral, visual, tactile, kinesthetic, and visceral responses" (Peterson & Zderad, 2008). Each one of these can transmit distinctive connotation a human being being's consciousness. When one is touching these issues, they might form responses about quality of life and extent of his or her presence with the others. When human beings stop hiding more of themselves, the more they open up to others. Self-awareness, being in touch with self, approval of the home and materialization of potential allows one to enter into a sharing romantic relationship with others. From existential romance, a nurse confronts a guy as one and uniquely peculiar, with his or her own lived existence. The interaction of an nurse and her patient will determine her activities, since she depends on insight from the patient for diagnosis. This theory greatly uses phenomenological bill of individual medical conditions from the nurse's point of view, the response from the patient and interaction. The main beneficial feature of the idea is its infusion of art and technology in nursing. Caring is emphasized as an integral ingredient of medical.
The transcultural theory as hypothesized by Leininger is a middle-range theory because it is resourceful in ambiguous circumstances. The humanistic theory is a grand theory because it does not have a holistic strategy and is only theoretical. Grand theories have less all natural approaches as compared to the middle-range ideas, and are inferior in their practical effectiveness. Factual work gained from phenomenological and existential observations provide a powerful platform for the transcultural medical theory.
An exemplory case of a related nursing theory is Kathryn Barnard's Parent-Child relationship Theory that premiered in 1979. It pulls from the reality that the introduction of a healthy child after conception is intensely dependent on the infant's parent of guardian. Such a mother or father has a duty to raise the kid in a caring and loving way (Wacharasin, Barnard & Spieker, 2003). Kathryn has created, published, and applied child analysis protocols that are based on evidence. In the idea, issues like maternal aspects, progress and development knowledge, major depression and stress seriously affect the grade of interaction of child and its mom.
These nursing ideas have been produced with the key component being the care and attention of the individual. All the theories respect the grade of life and provide the best course for patient and nurse connections.