Occlusion and Occlusal Indicating Materials


In dentistry it is important for us to understand occlusion and mistakes produced during recording it. Over the years many occlusion screening materials have been used. The correct occlusion posses as much difficult for tooth doctor and specialist. High spots calculating just a few microns can cause dysfunctions like temporo-mandibular pain. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various occlusal indication materials and make us well aware of different advantages and disadvantages of each that will help us to find the occlusal indicating material.

Key words: occlusion, occlusal signal material, occlusal interference, occlusal contact


The positioning and occlusion of the dentition are extremely very important to mastication. according to JPO occlusion is the static relationship of the teeth and is basic to all or any aspects of dentistry. The actions of gnawing, swallowing and speaking greatly depend not only on their intra arch position but also on the inter arch teeth position. 1 FIG-1

Occlusal connections are put through constant change. teeth restoration, extraction and prosthetic health care always change the occlusal proportions.

An occlusal interference of only few microns can bring about severe dysfunction. In order to avoid any unpleasant feeling, resulting in temporomandibular joint pain and myalgia various materials and methods have been used to find occlusal interferences. Getting occlusal markings over some restorations such as silver, metallic alloys and ceramics and on moist occlusal surfaces has been a trial. 2

Classification of tooth-contact patterns

The tooth contact habits were classified into four

groups the following:2

  1. Cuspid secured occlusion. 3

Canine instruction can be used efficiently in complete denture treatment as it offers better mandibular denture retention, esthetic appearance, and chewing ability.

  1. Group function occlusion:4

Group function as multiple contact relations between maxillary and mandibular teeth in lateral moves on the working side whereby simultaneous contact of several teeth acts as a group to disperse occlusal causes. The group function of one's teeth on working side distributes the occlusal fill. The obvious benefit is maintenance of the occlusion. The group function viewpoint appears to be one of the physiologic wear. Several authors have suggested that occlusal wear is a natural, beneficial and unavoidable in a well˜developed occlusion. Group function of working side is suggested whenever the arch relationship does not allow the anterior advice to do its job of disoccluding the nonfunctioning area.

3. Full balanced occlusion:5

balanced occlusion includes realization of tooth connections at theworking part as well as at the balancing side, at the same time. The aim of this analysis was to examine the effect of healthy occlusal design of artificial teeth on the decrease in re-duction of edentulous alveolar ridge. Well balanced occlusion is a preferred occlusal design in environment of artificial pearly whites in standard complete dentureswhich preserves edentulous ridge and effect the balance of dentures. Effect of balanced occlusion in complete dentures on the decrease in the reduced amount of an edentulous ridge. 5

There are 138 possible connections in the dentitionwith normal occlusion. 90% of the full total units actually make exact contact in dentitions with normal occlusion. 2

Methods of evaluationg occlusal relationship2

Methods of evaluationg occlusal marriage can be of two types:-

1) Qualitative methods

2) Quantitative methods

Both qualitative and quantitative methods are being used for the analysis of occlusion. Inside the qualitative method, only the localization of the occlusal contact points can be established; the series or thickness of the associates cannot be assessed. Together with the quantitative method of evaluating occlusal connections, the collection and denseness of the connections can be differentiated.

Materials used as occlusal indication:

Various materials used as an occlusal indicator are as follows:2 FIG- 2

T-Scan, Pressure Private Videos, Alginate Impression Material

Transparent acetate sheets, Black Silicone, Mylar newspaper strip, c

Polyether rubber impression bites, Wax Articulation Paper, Occlusal Sprays

Photo occlusion, Foils, Occlusal Sonography

Mylar Newspaper / Shimstock films6, 7

The shim stock was positioned over the tooth evaluated. Once the individuals close in Intercuspal Position, pearly whites positioning the shimstock were thought to have occlusal connection with their antagonists. Anderson et al. 6reported on the consistency of dental practitioners' ability to evaluate occlusal connections in the intercuspal position. Shim stock and an articulating film were compared in the evaluation of occlusal associates of 337 antagonist occlusal pairs in 24 adults by two examiners. Shim stock shown better trustworthiness than articulating film and made an appearance suitable for medical dimension of occlusal associates in intercuspal position. 6, 7.

Polyether occlusal indicator 8

Durbin and Sadowsky explained a silicon impression material way for analyzing occlusal contact habits. The locations of the contacts were then used in study models

Alginate Impression Material 9

Number and location of perforations were documented as occlusal teeth contacts for each subject. The detected perforations were examined according to the frequency of occlusal contacts. Most subjects acquired asymmetric distribution in number and location of occlusal contacts

Transparent Acetate Sheet10

It is dependant on occlusal sketch technique that aimed to provide a simple and reliable means of recording and transferring information about the positioning of marked occlusal associates. The authors proclaimed static occlusal associates of 20 pieces of models were saved in a pseudo-clinical situation, by three dental practitioners and likewise by one dental practitioner on two situations utilizing a schematic representation of the dental arch - the 'occlusal sketch'. According to Daves et al the occlusal sketch is a simple, inexpensive and easy way of saving the results of an occlusal exam using marking documents.

Articulating newspaper:11

Articulating papers are being used to identify high places, the width, thickness and dye type of the articulating newspaper helps it to leave a tag. The color coating of several articulating papers contains waxes, natural oils and pigments, a hydrophobic blend which repels saliva. High locations can be found easily as dark grades and connections as light marks. The cons of articulating documents have been they can be afflicted by saliva, are thick and have a relatively inflexible base material; many of these factors contribute to greater range of pseudo contact markings. Inside the in vitro area of the study, a test model (installed in an articulator and in a common evaluation machine) was founded with the use of maxillary and mandibular dentate casts. Articulating documents, foils, silk whitening strips, and the T-Scan system were used to examine the loss of awareness of the recording materials after 3 consecutive strokes. The dissimilarities in the contact things of the test model determined by each one of the tracking materials were assessed both in the articulator and in a widespread testing machine. Authors figured multiple use of the taking materials tested may lead to inaccurate occlusal evaluation results. It is recommended that the taking materials be used only once and that one's teeth be dried out during occlusal research.


Foils will be the thinnest signal materials. Their marking capacity is less evident under reduced pressure and on polished surfaces, Thus increased pressure must be employed for request of foils. Authors studied the tracking patterns of four foils, six paper materials, and four silk attributes at different stresses and surface morphologies. They figured Foils will be the thinnest sign materials and give more exact readings than paper and silk. However, under smaller loads their marking capacity is worse. This means that higher stresses must be applied for the clinical use of foils. The drawbacks of the more intensively marking paperwork and silk are their higher thickness and less adaptable base material. This leads to a greater number of pseudo contact markings. 12


As per writers articulating papers, particularly plastic pieces and waxes, will be the mostly used materials. Occlusal connections can be recorded by inserting the wax on the occlusal floors of the maxillary posterior pearly whites and patient shutting into maximum intercuspation. The wax occlusal files was examined before a light display. drawbacks are inaccuracy and problems of manipulation

Occlusal Sprays2

It can be challenging to mark an occlusal contact on glazed ceramic restorations. Unattended articulating paper will not leave a draw, necessitating the necessity for an alternate technique. Articulating printer ink ribbons leave smudge markings and inaccurate readings. Articulating sprays are easier alternate in such cases.

They are easy to administer (Arti-Spray, Bausch articulating paper Inc, Nashua, NH, USA) and leaves a thin coloured film which can easily be removed with drinking water, giving no residues. These are applied at a distance of 3-5 cm onto the occlusal surface. When screening occlusion all contact tips will be immediately obvious. These are available in colors: red, blue, inexperienced and white.


In this system, a skinny photoplastic film layer is applied on the occlusal surface of one's teeth; the patient then is asked to occlude on the film layer. The film coating is removed from the mouthand inspected under a polariscope light. . The results were used in a visual occlusal plan.

Authors designed the analysis to check clinically the reproducibility of techniques by looking at two consecutive occlusal details and details made at 1-month intervals and to test the reproducibility of an color-marking approach under the same conditions, also to compare the location of occlusal contacts as signed up by these two techniques.

Occlusion Sonography15

It detects tooth contact by the sounds generated during mouth area closure.

The romance between graphic details of noises of occlusion and the types of tooth contact which produced them was looked into by the writers by filming various types of occlusal connections with a Fastax spinning prism camera at about 1, 000 fps. the sliging of the teeth over each other was seen on the flims as low amplitude vibrations and the tooth impacts as high amplitude one.


The T-Scan device was designed to examine and track record occlusal contacts by computer evaluation of information from a pressuresensitive film. The T-Scan system digitally track record both location and timing of teeth contacts. The tooth contact information is offered by demonstrating moments of amount of time in the sagittal axis and transverse axis of the occlusal plane.

Electrical resistance grows with the applied drive. When the patient occludes on the sensor, the contaminants get together in the drive applied areas, diminishing the electro-mechanical resistance.

T Scan system demonstrates sufficient level of sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool and consistency in intra oral conditions with presence of saliva.

It provides subscription of powerful occlusal information. 16

Pressure Sensitive Films:17

This device files the location and make of occlusal contacts with the drive hypersensitive film.

An occlusal diagnostic system oral prescale system, Fuji photography film, Tokyo has recently been developed in japan. This technique uses improved upon pressure sensitive mattress sheets and some type of computer for analysis to make simple measurements of occlusal contact areas and occlusal pressures

Occlusion and periodontal health:

Occlusion has a major regards to the periodontal health of one's teeth in oral cavity. A distressing occlusion on a healthy periodontium causes increased mobility of the tooth, occurrence of gingival recession, in implants you can find breakdown of osseointegration. If a teeth do not its antagonist then there is functional atrophy of periodontal ligament.


Every occlusal sign material has its advantages and disadvantages. The decision about the utilization of all the materials depends upon the specialized medical situation, affordability, dependability and thorough knowledge about materials by the clinician

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